Orchestral Works / Chamber Music

CD I-1

The surviving orchestral works of Johann Sebastian Bach provide examples of concertos and suites, the two most important orchestral genres in the late Baroque. Bach dedicated his final versions of the six Brandenburg Concertos (BWV 1046-1051) on March 24, 1721 to Christian Ludwig, the Margrave of Brandenburg. Probably each concerto had had earlier performances (at least two - Nos. 1 and 5 - in different versions) in Weimar or Cöthen. The Brandenburg Concertos are not solo concertos in the sense in which we understand concertos today, but examples of earlier forms of concerted music. Each of the six features a different combination of solo and tutti instruments, combinations that are highly unusual for the late Baroque. In three of these concertos (Nos. 1, 3 and 6) the orchestra is divided into well-balanced instrumental groups which pass themes from one to another in a lively musical dialogue, comparable to a series of questions and answers. From time to time a solo instrument takes control of the conversation. The three other concertos (Nos. 2, 4, and 5) are typical of the concerto grosso, with three or four solo instruments (concertino) competing with an accompanying group of strings (the ripieno). However, one solo instrument in each of these concertos stands out above the others in the concertino (the trumpet, violin, and harpsichord in Nos. 2, 4, and 5, respectively), thereby creating in effect three solo concertos. Although not conceived as a group, these six works seem to be brought together to demonstrate different ways of writing `concertos for several instruments’, as the autograph title-page calls them. The first concerto, in F major, is scored for two horns, three oboes, bassoon, violin (a small violin, called violino piccolo), strings and continuo. This seems to be an unusual ensemble, but one which Vivaldi used (with two oboes instead of three) in four concertos. More unusual is the work’s structure. At first glance it might appear that Bach has merely added a French-style minuet to the usual three movement concerto. But in fact the genesis of the work is more complicated than that. An earlier version (BWV 1046a) without the violino piccolo and called `sinfonia’ has only the first two movements and the minuet (lacking the second trio, the string polonaise). Bach could have used this piece for an introduction to a longer work, to Cantata 208, as has been suggested. The new Allegro, the third movement of the concerto in its well-known version, makes the work much more of a concerto. But even the style and structure of this movement point to Bach’s secular vocal music rather than to his other orchestral works. Bach did, indeed, use it again as the opening chorus of the secular

cantata BWV 207. The music sounds more at home there, with trumpets, drums and four part chorus. The famous Bach scholar Alfred Dürr called this unbelievably skilled adaptation of a concerto movement as a da capo chorus `one of Bach’s most remarkable achievements.’ If the first concerto was designed more in the French taste, the other five are more Italianate in structure. The second concerto, in F major like the first, has a solo group consisting of trumpet, recorder, oboe and violin, a very heterogeneous collection of instruments. In its perfect proportions this concerto seems to be the very prototype of a concerto grosso. The trumpet, with its high clarino register, is treated with such virtuosity that the work gives the impression of a real solo concerto. In the melancholy middle movement the trumpet is kept silent, but in the Finale it is put to the forefront again. It announces the jolly main subject and also concludes this dashing piece. The Third Brandenburg Concerto is arranged for three groups of strings, each of which is divided in turn into three parts. The majestic first movement, with its contending melodic forces and the occasional emergence of sombre harmonies in the minor, is full of drama. Bach dispensed with the customary slow second movement. A simple cadence of only two chords provide the performers with an opportunity to improvise a cadenza. The breathtaking Finale sounds like a wild chase among the nine string parts. Clemens Romijn


but rather to infer from them in benign consideration the profound respect and the most humble obedience that I try to show Your Highness therewith. Your Royal Highness. by virtue of Your Highness’s commands. &c. begging Your Highness most humbly not to judge their imperfection with the rigor and fine and delicate taste that the whole world knows Your Highness has for musical pieces. which I have adapted to several instruments. and to be assured that nothing is so close to my heart as the wish that I may be employed on occasions more worthy of Your Royal Highness and of Your Highness’s service . &c. who without an equal in zeal am. Your Highness deigned to honor me with the command to send Your Highness some pieces of my composition: I have then in accordance with Your Highness’s most gracious orders taken the liberty of rendering my most humble duty to Your Royal Highness with the present concertos. Your Royal Highness’s most humble and obedient servant 22 . Sir. Capellmeister of His Most Serene Highness. the Reigning Prince of Anhalt-Cöthen. I beg your Royal Highness very humbly to have the goodness to continue Your Highness’s gracious favor toward me. Sire. Monsieur Christian Ludwig. by His very humble and very obedient servant Johann Sebastian Bach. and as I noticed then that Your Highness took some pleasure in the small talents that Heaven has given me for Music. and as in taking leave of Your Royal Highness.I. Margrave of Brandenburg &c.CD I-2 BRANDENBURG CONCERTOS 4-5-6 The title page of the autograph score of the Brandenburg Concertos and Bach’s dedication (according to the New Bach Reader) reads as follows: Six Concertos with several instruments dedicated to His Royal Highness. For the rest. As I had a couple of years ago the pleasure of appearing before Your Royal Highness.

1721 JEAN SEBASTIAN BACH Although Brandenburg Concertos No. The thrilling and dramatic first movement is followed by a melancholic `Affettuoso’. because this part offers virtually no technical difficulties. has an unmistakable concertante character. whose role in ensembles had mostly been that of supporting other instruments. in each of these works one instrument takes the lead as soloist. but throughout this Allegro and in the Finale too. shaking off the strong introspection of the first and second movement. violin and harpsichord. assumes the proud role of leader. Not only is there a brilliant harpsichord cadenza of no less than 65 bars towards the end of the first movement. two viole da gamba. from Bach’s treatment of the three solo instruments. Obviously this work was from the outset intended for the harpsichord and must be considered as the first original clavier concerto ever written. that he was thinking in terms of the keyboard concerto. Probably Bach. Elements of the fugue. Brandenburg Concerto No. March 24. Bach himself most likely played the first viola part. with the violin pre-eminent. an enthousiastic amateur on the instrument. written for two violas. One of the gamba parts may have been intended for Prince Leopold. It is obvious however.Coethen. Technically. the Brandenburg Concerto No. A sense of bucolic humor prevails in this lightweight gigue-like piece. The second movement.6 has the most unusual and thinnest scoring of the set. After a brilliant first movement full of polyphonic intricacies the Adagio omits the viole da gamba and gives an expressive and nostalgic melody to the violas. The humble harpsichord. Clemens Romijn 23 . gigue and da capo aria have been brought together here in a skilful combination.4 and 5 still owe a lot to the concerto grosso. was inspired to compose it by the exquisite harpsichord he had bought in 1719 for his Prince in Berlin. cello and continuo.4 a concertino of violin and two recorders is set against the strings. who played the part himself.5 is a concerto grosso with three soloists: flute. The Finale has a completely different mood. In No. the harpsichord emerges as the most prominent of the three soloists. concerto. played by the three solo instruments only. The finale has the same optimistic mood and rhythmic drive as the first movement.

like lute. never set a foot on Italian ground. courantes. Each of the Four Orchestral Suites begins with a French overture. Telemann. serious section with a dotted rhythm followed by a faster. Telemann. Bach and Handel . who. Number 2 features solo flute throughout. the most important being the Italian concerto and the French suite. like Telemann. a slow. fugal one.CD I-3 ORCHESTRAL SUITES 1&2 BWV 1066 & 1067 After the six Italianate Brandenburg Concertos this and the following compact disk offer examples of the other important musical genre in 18th century Europe: the suite. with three trumpets and timpani. These last two are more richly orchestrated and date probably from the years 1729 to 1736 in Bach’s Leipzig years. as it was called in German speaking countries. produced fine specimens of this `gemischte Geschmack’ [mixed taste]. Each of the Suites has a different instrumentation and a different combination of dances following an opening French overture. While France itself was the scene of heated debate between adherents of the French style against those of the Italian. The great composers of the 17th and 18th century like Purcell. Tragically for France. though perfectly appropriate for these pieces. The other movements are usually dance forms like sarabandes. Germany and England switched without any problem from the one style to the other and back again. harpsichord. 24 . Nos. like Bach a real cosmopolitan. was then usually applied to similar works for individual instruments. The final triumph of the Italian style over the French was later made even more complete by the musical invasion from the East led by composers such as Schobert and Mannheim’s Stamitz. following the example of François Couperin’s Goûts Réunis.were internationally oriented pioneers and very aware of the musical fashions of their day. 1 and 4) and Leipzig (Nos. `Suite’ or `Partie’ [partita]. composers in neighbouring Austria. which leads back to the first section. viola da gamba or violin. bourrées etc. or even tried to combine the two. gavottes. which strictly applies only to the first movements. The Brandenburg Concertos are brilliant examples of Italianate compositions by a German composer. 2 and 3). The Four Orchestral Suites or Overtures (BWV 1066-1069) most likely orginated in Cöthen (Nos. around 1750 the musical controversy brought on dramatic changes of direction in French art. 3 and 4 have a more festive character. Very little is known about the origin of these pieces. Bach referred to his Four Orchestral Suites as `Ouvertüren’.

The 25 . he was now at least presented with a new opportunity of regularly performing secular works. when he wrote relatively easy flute parts.2 is one of the most convincing arguments for dating this piece after Bach’s Cöthen period. especially in the opening movements (the actual overture). bassoon and strings. Bach’s main attentions had been directed away from the the concerts of this Collegium Musicum. In this overture. especially in the previous century. Although one can find a strong French influence in these suites. the order of the dances cannot be changed without doing damage to Bachs intentions. the Leipzig Collegium Musicum.1 is for two oboes. in becoming cantor. this preference is obvious right from the start. Four of the dances are paired with dances of the same form. If.Thomas. the suite is an entirely secular form. taking full advantage of their possibilities. Rather than being based on one original source. In contrast to the his harpsichord concertos and secular cantatas . Suite No. Clemens Romijn CD I-4 ORCHESTRAL SUITES 3&4 BWV 1068 & 1069 In 1723 Bach moved from Cöthen to Leipzig and became what he is mostly remembered for: cantor of the church of St. The virtuosity demonstrated here gives the work the allure of a solo concerto. Bach probably performed his Four Orchestral Suites . consisting usually of a number of dances with or without an introduction prelude or overture. In 1729 he also took over the university music society founded by Telemann in 1702. Bach seems to have had a preference for combining the oboes and bassoon to contrast with the tutti sections. sonatas and suites of the Cöthen period and more towards church music. Especially the last movement belongs to the best show pieces ever written for the flute. the Suites as we know them today are the result of diligent research and detective work.This is largely due to the fact that the original manuscripts have been lost and we are only left with later copies. Just as in the Brandenburg Concertos in each of the suites certain instruments come to the foreground. It is striking how often the movements are arranged in pairs. The virtuosity of the flute part in Suite No. this in contrast to the more arbitrary ordering in suites in the French style.

England the Gigue. Is is frequently expanded into a quartet by the addition of the bassoon which gives the work a witty charm. In this way. Johann Kaspar Ferdinand Fischer. who put together the dances of his `ballets’ and his ‘opéra-ballets’ to form suites. Such suites. in addition to three oboes. The two Gavottes following the Air have an earthy sense of humour and the Finale is a turbulent Gigue. briefly called Ouverture after the initial movement. the poet remarked: `There is such pomp and ceremony here that one can actually see a procession of elegantly dressed people descending a vast flight of stairs. which takes on a kind of solo function from the first movement to the last. France the great wealth of dance types (early 17th century). Clemens Romijn 26 . bourrée and many others. whose’s music was familiar to Bach. They found their counterpart in the refined art of the 17th century French lute and the harpsichord players. bassoon and timpani. Suite No. Johann Joseph Fux. Briefly stated. Courante. Georg Philipp Telemann and Bach. Italy contributed the early development (16th century). Bach’s Orchestral Suites Nos.3 takes on a festive character. v. such as rigaudon. The French titles to the Suites and their various dance movements follow examples of the French (Italian born) composer Jean Baptiste Lully. Georg Muffat. and found their way to Germany through Johann Jakob Froberger. a new form developed with a basic scheme of Allemande. A character piece with the appropriate French title Réjouissane [Rejoicing] serves as a final movement. chaconne. Sarabande and Gigue and was taken over by numerous German composers.3 and 4 are in the same key (D major) and scored for nearly the same group of instruments. In No. Suite No.3.4 also makes use of trumpets. as did Georg Böhm before him. When young Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy played the magnificent initial movement of No.2 with the words: `Then was our mouth filled with laughter and our tongue with singing.’ Perhaps the best known movement of all four suites is the beautiful Air of No.3 on the piano to Goethe in May 1830.’ Bach himself used the joyous introductory movement of this Suite for the initial chorus of his Christmas Cantata and instrumentation of these dazzling pieces for orchestra suggest that they were conceived in Cöthen and played in Leipzig in some newer version. were written by Johann Kusser. They wrote orchestral suites consisting of a French overture followed by a series of `modern’ dances. marche. Bach also transferred this type of orchestral suite to the harpsichord in his Französische Ouvertüre (French Overture) contained in his Clavierübung III. and Germany the conception of the suite as a unified and definite musical form. based on Psalm 126. Through the addition of trumpets and timpani to the basic instrumentation of two oboes and strings. The development leading to the suites of Bach presents an interesting picture of international cooperation.4 the three oboes form an independent trio.

while there exist considerably more transcriptions of such works for solo harpsichord and strings from Bach’s Leipzig years. Also the Concerto for violin and strings in D minor (BWV 1052) has been reconstructed from a version for harpsichord which Bach himself arranged from an original for violin that has not been preserved. The only concertos that have survived in their original form are the six Brandenburg Concertos and the three violin concertos. Joseph Spiess. It may seem strange that only three violin concertos from the Cöthen period are preserved. The three extant violin concertos mark the climax of Bach’s violin music. Bach composed most of his concertos for one or more solo instruments and orchestra in the congenial athmosphere of the court of the young Prince Leopold at Cöthen. an Adagio in C sharp 27 . Bach’s junior by nine years. They were presumably written for the leader of the Cöthen orchestra. also from Berlin. The Largo exists also as Sinfonia to Cantata No. possibly through the negligence of his eldest son. viola da gamba and harpsichord. between 1717 and 1723. together with the sonatas and partitas for violin solo and the sonatas for violin and cembalo obbligato. When Bach took up his position at the Cöthen Hofkapelle the orchestra comprised 18 musicians. Wilhelm Friedemann? These questions probably will never been answered. In the Concerto or two violins Spiess might have been joined by his colleague Martin Friedrich Marcus. strings and basso continuo in E major (BWV 1042) is very popular for its familiarity and technical brilliance. The Concerto for violin. most of them now lost. It was here that Bach composed much of his harpsichord and chamber music.156. a talented violinist recruted from Berlin in 1714. one in E major (BWV 1042) and one for two violins and strings in D minor (BWV 1043). In the first movement ritornello form is combined with da-capo form. one in A minor (BWV 1041).CD I-5 VIOLIN CONCERTOS Except for his fourteen concertos for one to four harpsichords. Did Bach discard some of the originals as soon as the arrangements were completed? Or were some violin concertos lost after Bach’s death. the orchestra and solo violin mix together far more than in the former concerto. The second movement. was an enthousiastic music lover and proficient player of the violin. The crisp tutti theme at the beginning prevails over the whole movement. From a structural point of view. Ich steh mit einem Fuss im Grabe. Prince Leopold. but also concertos for violin and for wind instruments. The Concerto in G minor (BWV 1056) has been reconstructed from the well known Concerto for harpsichord and strings in F minor (BWV 1056).

In the first movement. Telemann that have four movements. Clemens Romijn 28 . The ritornello form is used for the outer fast movements.g. is a tender cantilena with the same plan as the A minor concerto. in which ritornelles and episodes for the soloist alternate in a regular and symmetrical way. But. The finale. As Bach research has shown. by developing Vivaldi’s simple principle with his original ideas. Andante in C major. when writing his Concerto for three harpsichords. fast-slow-fast.minor. a simple harmonic backing that is repeated over and over again. Five identical ritornelles flank the soloist’s four episodes. The Concerto for three violins in D major (BWV 1064) is a recent arrangement of Bach’s Concerto for three harpsichords and strings in C major (BWV 1064). The fast finale. the clear contrast between solo and tutti is abandoned. Bach. The Concerto for violin. in rondo form shows passepied-like vivid rhythm. so that the whole might be flowing and more unified. is a beautiful cantilena with ostinato bass. strings and basso continuo in A minor (BWV 1041) is in the three movement Vivaldi form. It starts with a lively tempo. According to tradition Bach would have composed the Concerto for three harpsichords for his own use. the violinist’s lyrical solo line is backed by its persistent figuration. shows gigue rhythm. The orchestra intervenes only at the beginning and at the end. Allegro assai. The second movement. Bach transformed it into a richer and more diversified form. The earliest source of the harpsichord version dates from c.1740. to present himself together with his eldest sons Wilhelm Friedemann and Carl Philipp Emanuel in the meetings of the Leipzig Collegium Musicum in the early 1730s. this plan is common to all five concertos recorded here. Allegro assai. used an original version for three violins and strings now lost and probably earlier than his Brandenburg Concertos. unlike many other German concertos by e.

in D minor (BWV 1063) and C major (BWV 1064). As the canon now stands there are some seven harpsichord concertos of which the claims to originality of No.4 in A (BWV 1066) and No.3 in D (BWV 1054) is a transposition of the Violin Concerto in E. three and four harpsichords. Indeed the harpsichord concerto seems to have been Bach’s personal innovation. Needing music for the Collegium Musicum he transcribed his own and other men’s violin concertos for keyboard and thereby initiated a new form of musical art.1 in D minor (BWV 1052) are discussed below. No. At this Calvinistic court Bach was free from ecclesiastical duties and had an instrumental ensemble of about seventeen musicians to direct. His sons were growing up and he taught them to play the harpsichord. Of the three concertos for two harpsichords. Movements of No. as the organ concerto was Handel’s. There are two concertos for three harpsichords. in the `20s. the Leipzig University Collegium Musicum.7 in G minor (BWB 1058) is a transcription of the A minor Violin Concerto.1 in C minor (BWV 1060) is regarded as a transcription of a lost original for violin and oboe. were necessary to compensate the harpsichord’s lack of high e’’’ prominent in the violin version.2 in C major (BWV 1061) is an original work for two harpsichords and No. but the Harpsichord Concertos were the product of Bach’s association with the Telemann Musical Society. more likely.CD I-6 HARPSICHORD CONCERTOS BWV 1052-1055 Most of Bach’s instrumental works are usually assigned to the seven years (1717-1723) which he spent in the service of the Prince of Anhalt-Cöthen. The Violin Concertos belong to this period.5 in F minor (BWV 1056) are probably transcriptions of violin concertos. Bach was an inveterate borrower from himself and even used a number of these concerto movements in his cantatas.2 in E (BWV 1053) were used again for two church cantatas. Vivaldi and a few other Italians had been the startingpoint for the concerto grosso and the solo concerto for violin. were arranged by Bach to play with his sons at home or with his pupils at these weekly gatherings. The concertos for two. The keyboard versions are usually a tone lower than the originals. `30s and `40s of the seventeenth century. Bach took over (and as always with him. and one for four harpsichords in A 29 . It may be that the transpositions were determined by differences in Cöthen and Leipzig tunings. or. Corelli. No. transformed) the form evolved by the Italian violin school.6 (BWV 1057) is identical with the Fourth Brandenburg Concerto. No. No.3 in C minor (BWV 1060) is identical with the Double Violin Concerto in D minor (BWV 1043). and No. transcriptions some of them of Vivaldi. No.

dated c. whether Bach’s own or another’s. The demonic first movement with its vigorous unison theme was afterwards used (by Bach himself) as an organ prelude and the slow movement as the first chorus of the Church Cantata No.1720.minor (BWV 1065). which is a transcription of a concerto for four violins by Vivaldi. Apparently several other harpsichord concertos are transcriptions of violin concertos too.146. One scholar. The violin concerto from which the Harpsichord Concerto No. Also the A major Concerto (BWV 1055) may preserve a lost violin concerto or a concerto for oboe d’amore. although some scholars think that it was originally conceived for the harpsichord. The D major Concerto (BWV 1054) is Bach’s arrangement of his own Violin Concerto in E (BWV 1042). Wir müssen durch viel Trübsal. Of the lost violin concertos three have survived. The E major Concerto (BWV 1053) may preserve a lost violin in D or an oboe concerto. Clemens Romijn 30 . W. The construction of the Finale is very similar to that of the first movement. Bach’s lack of consideration for posterity in thus confronting his posthumous students with editorial tangles is comparable to that of Dvorák in the numbering of his symphonies and Moussorgsky in the confusion of his Boris Godunow. Some figurations of the soloist are sometimes cited as evidence of a violinistic origin. Mohr. which is very exceptional in Bach’s concertos and sonatas in minor modes. as said above. The solemn and spacious slow movement is also in a minor mode (G).probably a viola since the range is too low for the violin. is lost. in the form of harpsichord transcriptions. suggests that the original version was for a string instrument and not an oboe . is thought to have been derived. It is built on a ritornello of twelve bars after which the soloist has a toccatalike figure for his first main solo.1 in D minor (BWV 1052).

full of echoeffects like the first movement. is based on Bach’s own Concerto for two violins in D minor (BWV 1043).4 (BWV 1049). The slow movement.1719. The F major Concerto for harpsichord and strings (BWV 1057) is Bach’s arrangement of his Brandenburg Concerto No. It is the only harpsichord concerto to use two recorders in the accompaniment. Allegro assai.CD I-7 HARPSICHORD CONCERTOS BWV 1056-1057-1058-1060-1065 The F minor Concerto for harpsichord and strings (BWV 1056) probably originated from a Violin concerto in G that has been lost. shows gigue rhythm. but which has been reconstructed twice in the last decades. the clear contrast between solo and tutti is abandoned. It starts with a lively tempo. A second C minor Concerto (BWV 1060) is probably the transcription of a Concerto for oboe and violin. in A flat major. so that the whole might be flowing and more unified. Among the Concertos for two harpsichords and strings one. In these 31 . which within four bars gives sufficient characteristic features to supply all the material for the following development. The first movement is founded on a ritornello. in which ritornelles and episodes for the soloist alternate in a regular and symmetrical way. three and even four harpsichords accompanied by string orchestra. This is perhaps a more light-weight concerto than the majestic and even dramatic one in D minor (BWV 1052) that lasts almost twice as long. The fast finale. Bach used the Vivaldian ritornello form for the outer fast movements of this concerto. but in a more flowing triple time. Bach transformed it into a richer and more diversified form. The G minor Concerto (BWV 1058) was arranged from Bach’s Violin Concerto in A minor (BWV 1041) from about 1720. The finale is a vigorous allegro movement. In the first movement. Bach did not confine himself to writing concertos for single solo harpsichord. but also composed concertos for two. dated c. It is amazing how much wit and humour can be expressed in the somber key of F minor. But. a simple harmonic backing that is repeated over and over again. in C minor (BWV 1062). by developing Vivaldi’s simple principle with his original ideas. These works seem once again to be derived from earlier versions.156. Ich steh mit einem Fuss im Grabe. The second movement is a beautiful cantilena with ostinato bass. is a long arabesque with a light and regular accompaniment on the strings. The Largo exists also as Sinfonia to Cantata No. no longer in existence.

is based on Bach’s own Concerto for two violins in D minor (BWV 1043). The Concerto in C major (BWV 1061) appears to be an original harpsichord composition. Often one or both of them fulfil the harpsichord’s original task of serving as filling and reinforcing continuo instrument. A second C minor Concerto (BWV 1060) is probably the transcription of a Concerto for oboe and violin. Bach may have chosen this Vivaldi concerto as a model because he was challenged by the technical problem of operating with four harpsichords and presenting himself in cooperation with three of his pupils. but also composed concertos for two. Previously. Bach arranged it from Vivaldi’s Concerto in B minor for four violins and strings Op. are not preserved in Bach’s 32 . early on in his career during his Weimar period. The Concerto for four harpsichords and strings in A minor (BWV 1065) is the only work whose antecedent is clear.10. The soloists are not always given leading parts. so that the musical texture is enriched. while the string parts. The soloists are not always given leading parts. In these two concertos the orchestra fully shares in the musical elaboration. Often one or both of them fulfil the harpsichord’s original task of serving as filling and reinforcing continuo instrument. Among the Concertos for two harpsichords and strings one. which mainly provide reinforcement. Clemens Romijn CD I-8 CONCERTOS FOR 2&3 HARPSICHORDS BWV 1061-1064 Bach did not confine himself to writing concertos for single solo harpsichord. and beautiful dialogues unfold between the harpsichords and the strings.two concertos the orchestra fully shares in the musical elaboration. no longer in existence. Sometimes the left hand of one of the players is entrusted with a middle part. and beautiful dialogues unfold between the harpsichords and the strings. Its two keyboard parts exist in autograph. three and even four harpsichords accompanied by string orchestra. in C minor (BWV 1062). Sometimes the left hand of one of the players is entrusted with a middle part. These works seem once again to be derived from earlier versions. Bach had arranged several works from this collection into versions for harpsichord alone and for organ alone.3 No. so that the musical texture is enriched.

form the most important link in the development of the genre between Johann Sebastian Bach and Mozart. 33 . published in London. violin and harpsichord (BWV 1044) was written after 1730.own writing. Friedemann and Emanuel. All the concertos for three and four harpsichords and strings seem to be arrangements. The D minor Concerto (BWV 1063) might be derived from a concerto for flute.1717. Among the Concertos for two harpsichords and strings one. and in the Finale too they participate only briefly. is based on Bach’s own Concerto for two violins in D minor (BWV 1043). The first and third movements are a lengthier version of the Prelude and Fugue in A minor for solo harpsichord (BWV 894) from c. Adagio. these works deserve more attention from harpsichordists and other keyboard players than they have so far recieved. The middle movement. Perhaps they have an even stronger claim than Brandenburg Concerto No. It seems that the work was originally written for two harpsichords only and that the orchestration was a later addition. Clemens Romijn CD I-9 DOUBLE CONCERTOS BWV 1043-1044-1055-1060 According to Schmieder (BWV = Bach Werke Verzeichnis) the Triple Concerto in A minor for flute. but he undoubtedly played and imitated his elder brother’s (Emanuel’s) concertos in Berlin after 1750. too young to assist his father at his weekly meetings at the Leipzig Collegium Musicum. The Concerto in C major (BWV 1064) is probably based on a concerto for three violins and strings in D. Bach’s eldest sons. in C minor (BWV 1062). Johann Christian was. They also occupy an important position in the history of the keyboard concerto. It is even doubtful whether Bach wrote the original compositions. Bach’s authorship of the original has been questioned. took part in the performances at Leipzig. violin and oboe which was probably not Bach’s. In the slow middle movement the strings keep altogether silent. His own concertos for harpsichord or fortepiano.5 to be considered the true originators of the genre. Although not originally composed for the harpsichord. which has been reconstructed and published recently. and they went on to cultivate the genre of the harpsichord concerto as composers in Dresden and Berlin. of course.

so that the work would fit the range of the harpsichords of Bach’s time. possibly. Eppstein believes that stylistic elements in the A minor Triple Concerto point to a composition date around that of Brandenburg Concerto No. the famous Concerto in D minor for two violins. But a study of Bach’s method of re-writing works where both versions have been preserved (e. Bach also makes use of unique effects. Viola. The original versions have mostly been lost. The traditional view is that this concerto was developed from these works. G(iovanni) S(ebastian) I. the Concerto in D minor for oboe and violin was offered in the Breitkopf catalogue as late as 1764: `Bach. The second the second movement of the third of six sonatas for organ (BWV 527). Yet the orchestra is not merely a contrasting partner to the soloist’ concertino. which Bach had already experimented with in some of his Brandenburg Concertos. By reworking and enlarging the original ideas he produced a staggeringly impressive conception. such as the combination of harpsichord passages with the orchestra’s pizzicato before the end of the first movement. Its original model. in a recent article by Hans Eppstein. This is the case with another Concerto in C minor for two harpsichords (BWV 1060). When arranging his earlier harpsichord Prelude and Fugue into the outer movements of the Triple Concerto Bach not only broadened but also reconstructed the general form. Basso. usually the violin.5. Adagio e dolce. However. which also has a monumental concertante part for the harpsichord. most of Bach’s fifteen concertos for the harpsichord (or for two. Perhaps it is no coincidence. As we have seen above. Concerto a Oboe concert(ato). three or four harpsichords) were produced by re-writing concertos composed originally for other instruments. 1 thl. it is suggested that the Prelude and Fuge was itself based on a lost keyboard concerto and that the Organ Sonata BWV 527 may also be an arrangement of an earlier instrumental trio. that Mozart. Violino concert(ato). c. transcribed the original organ version for a string trio.1720. Bach transposed the original key down by a second. which has been lost. The brilliant effect of inner unity in the first and last movements is achieved by the ingenious combination of concerto form and fuge. after 1723. composed after 1727 or. now lost. later arranged for two harpsichords) provides us with a reliable means of reconstructing the original versions from the later transcriptions. on the suggestion of Baron Gottfried van Swieten. it also produces a broad canvas of an obbligato accompagnato.g. dramatized further by dynamic contrasts and (in the Finale) by the confrontation of highly intense solo lines with the orchestra’s sharp impact. 2 Violini. because the sound of the harpsichord in the later version can only roughly sketch the 34 . Despite all contrapuntal strictness this music is in a more modern and galant style. contrasts strongly with the dramatic first and last movements.’ The musical content and charm of this composition is perhaps even more convincing in this version. The crowning point of the virtuoso harpsichord part is a magnificent cadence in the last movement.

Largo ma non tanto. in a sicilian rhythm. The Concerto for two violins. the tutti returning only briefly in the middle and at the end. in 1939 Donald Tovey suggested . even proved .flowing melody sung by the two melodic instruments in the slow movement. The date of composition is believed to be a little earlier than the others.that the A major Concerto for harpsichord and strings (BWV 1055) was originally written for the oboe d’amore. klingt wie Scherz Für alle Wunder des Schalles! Hat doch der Mensch nur ein einzig Herz. Clemens Romijn CD I-10/11 SONATE E PARTITE PER VIOLINO SOLO Vier arme Saiten! . Mohr. The weight of the first movement falls upon the soloists in two long episodes. und reicht doch hin für alles! 35 . From the point of view of style. Bach reduced the orchestral contribution substantially in order not to distract the listeners to much from the solo parts. The work reaches its peak in the second movement. suggests that the original version was for a stringed instrument and not an oboe . The Concerto in A major for harpsichord and strings (BWV 1055) is believed to be a transcription from an earlier version for violin or oboe d’amore.or as some say. This concerto is written with well-ordered structure in each of the three movements and with the technique of imitation skillfully employed throughout. this piece seems to be archaic in comparison with the two solo violin concertos. W. 1718. One scholar. an instrument that came into use around 1720 and remained popular until the end of the 18th century. strings and basso continuo in D minor (BWV 1043) is one of the most beautiful works among Bach’s numerous instrumental music. a sublime duet of beautifully overlapping and imitative phrases.probably a viola since the range is too low for the violin.

were intended for performance in the church. particularly those with frequent doublestopping. would have known Bach’s six works for solo violin. But beside his imposing organ solos. Many passages. cannot be performed literally. Grillparzer’s last lines refer to the great mental capacity of the human species. It is doubtful whether Grillparzer. We are accustomed to consider Bach’s six violin solos as chamber music. 1791-1872 A poem about the poverty and wealth of the violin. some strings and a bow. or perhaps even more. Violin playing was indeed a family tradition. and Bach’s appointment in 1703 at the early age of eighteen as violinist at the court of Weimar was followed by the post of violinist and harpsichordist from 1708-1717. and all that can be comprehended and achieved with just a single heart. his fifth Brandenburg concerto and The Well-Tempered Clavier. a fingering in the form of a small three.(Four poor strings! – it seems a joke – For all the wonders of sound! While mankind has just a single heart Enough for any task!) Franz Grillparzer. dating from 1720) that Bach played the violin solos himself. And the latter are so extremely 36 . Bach was also soloist in his violin concertos and unaccompanied violin solos. The poet is optimistic about our human capabilities. Just one little number. but a simply unbelievable sound. This is mentioned in 1802 by Johann Nikolaus Forkel. Just a piece of wood. declining to mention the things we do not understand. But it is almost certain that three of the six works. Bach seems to demand the very most of the violin. Bach’s first biographer. Bach the violinist has been overshadowed by our fascination with Bach the composer. a contemporary of Beethoven and Schubert. usually performed in small concert halls. Violinists and scholars have devoted numerous bottles of ink and piles of paper to this and many other aspects of the performance practice of Bach’s violin solos – much more than Bach ever needed to write down his six sonatas and partitas. music with a certain intimacy. forms the ultimate ‘proof’ in Bach’s magnificent autograph (a calligraphic work of art in itself. Austrian poet. more indeed than it can cope with. organist and harpsichordist. the three sonatas. but he has unintentionally captured them in the first two lines of this poem.

three-part siciliano. almost restless final movement follows. In their attempts to write for solo violin composers such as Reger. Sonata no. the leading German violinist of Bach’s day. The slow introductions are followed by fast fugues. The customary gigue as fourth dance is replaced here by a Bourée. In the final Presto the quasi-polyphonic style is striking. Great composers including Vivaldi. since Biber. But with the possible exception of Biber. Westhoff and Walther had already exploited this style. In Partita no. Albinoni and Telemann dedicated works to him. Perhaps Johann Georg Pisendel. The slow opening movement of Sonata no. After an Andante in the parallel key of C major an energetic. Bach fanatics like Mendelssohn and Schumann even considered that Bach’s musical torrent was more than the small violin could deal with: both composed piano accompaniments. 1 in B minor each dance is followed by a contrasting ‘double’ or variation. with Italianate echo effects. the partitas feature dance forms. Was this who Bach had in mind? Or did Bach have nobody in mind except himself? One is inclined to think so. Bach set a standard which was never equalled before and has never been surpassed since. a Chaconne: its abnormal length of 257 bars and unbridled fantasy urge the partita to a staggering climax. artistic and technical tax of these works? The question has often been raised which pieces formed Bach’s examples. and celebrated for his enormous technical command of complex double stopping and figuration. An entirely different world opens up in the succeeding fugue. slow-fast. 2 is a lengthy piece. loaded with written-out embellishments. Bach’s manuscript of the six works is arranged so that each sonata is followed by a partita. who could have faced the mental. The third movement is a rocking. concertmaster at the court chapel in Dresden at the time of August ‘the Strong’. Bach inspired them. Ysaÿe and Hindemith have felt Bach breathing down their necks. Schumann indeed for the entire set of six violin solos and six cello suites. The Partita no. slow-fast. none could stand in the shadow of Bach in terms of quality and artistic accomplishment. The sonatas comprise four movements. The 18th-century critic Johann Mattheson already noted the enormous diversity and naturalness of this fugue. Polyphonic and harmonic writing for the violin was not at all new in his time. 37 . For in Bach’s circle of players and audiences. 1 in G minor has a three-part fugue. grouped in pairs. pupil and friend of Vivaldi.difficult that they raise the question who else could possibly have played them at the time. but frustrated them too. 2 in D minor has become particularly famous for its fifth movement. In contrast to the sonatas. based on a somewhat dry two-bar theme with a striking chromatically descending countersubject. likewise grouped in pairs in the sequence slow-fast.

the Sonatas and Partitas for violin solo. One of the virtuosos employed by Prince Leopold was the celebrated viol player and cellist Christian Ferdinand Abel. however. and the listener suspects that the end is approaching. since the composer makes extre38 .The Sonata no. where Bach was chapelmaster of the court orchestra of Prince Leopold von Anhalt-Cö awe-inspiring tour de force! After a splendidly radiant Largo the work ends with an amazing perpetuum mobile. In Bach’s hands the Loure. the Well-Tempered Clavier part 1. a transparent Gigue brings the circle of this partita to a light-footed conclusion. In view of the number of arrangements of the movement by Bach himself. this Preludio must have been one of his special favourites. The power of this sonata lies largely in the perfect succession of remarkably differing movements. 3 in C major has the most extensive fugue of the three sonatas. viola da gamba or harpsichord. He subsequently moved to Leipzig with his wife and children. The Partita no. Clemens Romijn CD I-12/13 CELLO SUITES 1-2-3-4-5-6 One of the happiest periods of Johann Sebastian Bach’s life was the seven years (1717-1723) when he lived and worked in Cöthen. This is our most familiar picture of Bach. a fanatical music lover of only 23 years of age. but now in reversed order . became a slow and somewhat introvert movement. Bach is presumed to have written his six suites for solo cello for him. strongly influenced by the French suite. We would probably have forgotten the prince entirely had his court not been the setting for the composition of Bach’s Brandenburg Concertos. After the Gavotte and Rondeau and two Menuets. 3 in E major. Much of his chamber music. the Suites for cello solo and other chamber music. It is a real treasure chest of contrapuntal invention. When Bach arrives at a pedal point. The prince spent no less than a quarter of his court finances on music and often joined his virtuoso musicians on the violin. he presents all the material again. becoming cantor of the Thomaskirche and writing his now world-famous passions and hundreds of cantatas. a dance originating from Normandy. opens with a Preludio rather than an Allemande as in the other partitas. was composed in Cöthen.

are in every sense the equal of Bach’s keyboard works of the same period. In the opening of the magnificent prelude to the Third Suite in C major. followed by an allemande. strict imitative demands. They commence with a prelude. rhythmic flair and for the time unequalled virtuosity. The menuets provide a strong contrast. with two phrases of eight bars each. The small-scale sarabande is a fine example of classical structure. and a courante. highly virtuosic despite its single voice. within his oeuvre they form a group of compositions in their own right. Many passages. employing arpeggio and scale motifs. Bach’s suites present an absolute standard. in creating genuine polyphony and harmony. of both cello and cellist. He achieved the very greatest effect with the very smallest means. These Suites. the suite ends with a whirling gigue. Kódaly. in which he succeeded. Unlike the works for solo violin. Honegger and Ligeti when they composed for solo cello. The same sturdy character permeates the concluding gigue. The galant second menuet is in the sunny key of D major. if not requiring the impossible. as in the Sonatas and Partitas for solo violin. After two simple menuets. The prelude is 39 . The prelude is followed by an allemande. with their improvisational adventures. the bass note G which is repeated for no less than seven bars. culminating in the widely spread final chord with a high g’. Furthermore. Ysaÿe. all six cello suites have a similar structure. employing material reminiscent of the prelude. The exciting semiquaver movement set in motion here culminates in a long pedal point. Wonderful chords and a dark timbre lend the sarabande great profundity. cannot be executed literally. As an instrumentalist to the back-bone. Darker and more dramatic is the Second Suite in D minor. Bach pursued hitherto untrodden paths. The first is in D minor and has such robust chords that it is hardly a ‘galanterie’. pacing forward regularly. Bach pushed forward the boundaries of performance practice by exploiting to the full the specific possibilities of the cello. Bartók. courante. Bach builds the tension up until the very end. with all the means offered by the instrument but without the accompaniment of a basso continuo. The First Suite in G major begins with a genuine prelude with ‘perpetual motion’ in semiquavers. Hindemith. turning an obstacle race into a display of grandeur. The prelude and allemande offer more rhythmic variety than the corresponding movements in the First Suite. particularly the many double stoppings. a standard which had to be measured up to by composers including Reger. In the Suites for solo cello. a descending scale and broken chords are the broad brush strokes used to establish the key. two French dances (‘galanteries’) and a gigue.

Slow once more is the dignified. the gigue. noble allemande. originally French country dances. In order to accomodate double stoppings and create a particularly dark colour. larded with virtuosic effects and awkward handfuls of notes. striding sarabande with its wonderful double stoppings. Perhaps the most familiar movements are the two bourrées. improvisational section and then a fugal passage which constitutes a wonder of ‘single-part polyphony’. first a dark. The customary two menuets between the sarabande and gigue are replaced here by gavottes. followed by a fast pendant in the form of the courante. Clemens Romijn 40 . followed by a long garland of semiquavers. It is the only prelude of the six to comprise two contrasting halves. Bach requires the highest A string to be tuned down to G. More streamlined and straightforward is the transparent and single-voiced courante. the French dance which runs along so agilely but surprises us with all sorts of risky melodic leaps. above the customary high A string it has an E string. with their appealing and sweeping melodies. The Fourth Suite commences with a most spectacular prelude: 48 bars of continuosly tumbling arpeggios are brought to an end only by a pause. The suite ends with an English jumping dance. It is followed by the most richly ornamented and broadly sweeping allemande of the series of six. In the lengthy prelude the uninterrupted 12/8 movement maintains the tension from beginning to end. More pensive is the prelude to the Fifth Suite in C minor.followed by a beautifully ornamented. The recalcitrant Sixth Suite in D major was written for an instrument with five strings. after which the sarabande indulges once more in an ingenious chordal style. the viola pomposa. In size this instrument occupies a place between the cello and viola.

and is really a Baroque invention. This genre usually implies keyboard (harpsichord or pianoforte). Other fine examples of this form. The flute sonatas can be divided into pieces for flute and basso continuo. The so-called flute sonatas by Bach include such trio sonatas. The ‘Solo’ pieces include the Sonatas for flute and basso continuo in C major BWV 1033 and E minor BWV 1034.1734) and Rameau’s ‘Pièces de clavecin en concerts’ (1741). the 41 . whose task it was to support and accompany. These chamber music works from his Cöthen and Leipzig periods include the sonatas for violin and obbligato harpsichord BWV 1014-19. German-Austrian composers often added a cello part which doubles (‘colla parte’) the bass line of the harpsichord. beside the solo sonata and string quartet. are Mondonville’s sonatas for harpsichord and violin op.CD I-14/15 FLUTE SONATAS One of the most popular types of chamber music. The most important examples of this genre are by Bach. a form in which composers from Haydn. In such works the keyboard takes the leading role while the melody instruments (violin or flute) provide accompaniment and extra colour. for instance) the melody instruments are even ad libitum and may therefore be omitted. is the piano trio. and of course Mozart’s early sonatas for harpsichord or pianoforte and violin dating from around 1760. and the sonatas for flute and harpsichord BWV 1030 and 1032. and trio sonatas with two melodic lines and a bass (called ‘Trio’ in Bach’s time). but now (around 1720) it was often employed ‘obbligato’ (obligatory. violin and cello. this part was not always printed separately. the harpsichord took over the main role in the trio sonata from the two melody instruments. In some cases (Rameau. Examples of ‘Trio’ pieces are the sonatas for flute and obbligato harpsichord: the Sonata in B minor BWV 1030 (Bach’s best flute sonata!). since it originated in the mid-18th century as a combination of the Baroque sonata for two and three instruments and the keyboard sonata (usually indicated ‘Solo’ in the period). with the parts written out in full). the sonatas for viola da gamba and harpsichord BWV 1027-29. Mozart and Beethoven to Shostakovich wrote such wonderful music. Previously the harpsichord had been purely a basso continuo instrument. in other words a single melodic line and a bass (called ‘Solo’ in Bach’s time). Long before 1750.3 (ca. taking over two of the three voices which such pieces comprised. in which the balance has clearly moved in favour of the harpsichord.

certainly authentic). What Bach exactly had in mind in respect to the second version we do not know. mentioned as a trait of the trio sonata the ‘Fugenmässige’. since it is not clear whether it is supposed to be a trio sonata (for three instruments: two flutes and basso continuo) or a work for one flute and concertato harpsichord. An example is the Partita in A minor BWV 1013. sometimes in harmony and sometimes in competition. Occasionally the bass joins in the game. the Italian Corrente and the French Sarabande. the listener is treated to wonderful examples of characteristic dances such as the French Allemande. the critic Johann Adolph Scheibe. ‘Solo’ and ‘Trio’ were the most popular chamber music genres of the period. picking up the melody and copying the others. supported by the basso continuo. with all sorts of technical escapades including broken chords and brilliant passagework in the fast movements. the fugue-like. such as the continuous stream of semiquavers in the Allemande which a flautist has to interrupt in order to breath. assumed to be authentic). and agreable. second and fourth movements for organ (or harpsichord or clavichord with pedals) BWV 1027a. a work usually heard on the flauto traverso or flute. but usually it concentrates on its own role as a foundation. and a version of the first. The Trio Sonata in G major exists in three versions: one for viola da gamba and concertato harpsichord (BWV 1027. In Bach’s time sonatas and trio sonatas were also expected to offer an alternation of virtuosic and cantabile passages. Despite doubts about the correct instrumentation. easily flowing melodic lines in the slow movements. such as the Sonatas and Partitas for violin solo and the Cello Suites. The unreliable transmission and the idiom of this composition have led some scholars to doubt the authenticity of this instrumentation and to suggest performance on a string instrument. Because of these different instrumentations this poetic (Andante) and at the 42 . one of the two upper voices and the bass. conduct a musical conversation in which they are heard to agree and disagree. In the latter case the harpsichord plays two parts. The ‘Trio’ was especially loved because it offered the opportunity for musical imitation of a dialogue. one for two flauti traversi and basso continuo (BWV 1039. The most magical of all is surely the sparkling Bourrée anglaise. This makes some passages easier to play. or the so-called principle of imitation. The two independent upper parts. One of Bach’s contemporaries.Sonata in E flat major BWV 1031 and the Sonata in A major BWV 1032. Beside chamber music with an accompaniment Bach left us some dozen other works for unaccompanied melody instruments. This is recognisable in the entries of the concertato upper parts which imitate one another like two voices in a fugue.

same time happy and energetic work has enjoyed extra attention. Some of Bach’s lute works saw the light of day thanks to his friendship with these lutenists and with Ernst Gottlieb Baron. two lute-harpsichords. Later. at least two of Bach’s pupils. technical and material. Bach’s eldest son. a Bassetchen (viola pomposa). it is one of the many examples of how Bach continued to reuse his own work. a violino piccolo. According to the description of his estate his Leipzig house contained a considerable collection of musical instruments including five harpsichords. with the two famous lutenists Herr [Silvius Leopold] Weiss and Herr [Johann] Kropffgans’ from Dresden. Concerning one of these concerts we know that Wilhelm Friedemann. so that his music could not fall into oblivion so quickly. Besides being an unsurpassed organ expert he played an important role in the development and construction of new types of keyboard instrument such as the lute-harpsichord. ‘was here for four weeks and played several times in our home. for tuition and for the Collegium Musicum in the church. played and composed for the lute. two violins. Moreover. a viola da gamba and a lute. a spinet. Johann Ludwig Krebs and Rudolph Straube. Perhaps Bach was tempted to experiment with this hybrid instrument because examples had been built by Johann Nicolaus Bach. a gut-stringed variation on the traditional instrument. Clemens Romijn CD I-16/17 LUTE WORKS For much of his life Bach had a particular interest in the lute and its music. Weiss was among the well-known guest musicians invited by Bach to play with the Leipziger Collegium Musicum in the 1730’s. a pedal harpsichord. The various instrumentations enabled him to give one and the same piece different expression and colour. three violas. two cellos. His interest was both artistic. But when the opportunity arose the family gave house concerts for guests. an elder nephew from Jena. These instruments were for private use. Johann Friedrich Agricola recalled that he had ‘seen and heard a lute-harpsichord in about 1740 in Leipzig. Thanks to his many connections with instrument builders Bach was able to experiment to his heart’s content with newly-developed instruments. designed by Herr Johann Sebastian Bach and built by Herr 43 . Moreover.

one of the 19th-century editors of Bach’s work. Instead of the customary suite movements allemande. courante and sarabande. Fugue and Allegro in E flat major. The Fugue in G minor BWV 1000 is an adaptation of the fugue from the Sonata in D minor for solo violin BWV 1001. which has two lute parts. Bach must have been particularly fond of the piece. and the Suite in E minor BWV 996. In view of the number of versions of the Preludio from Partita no. in the adaptation for lute it became genuine polyphony. Fugue and Allegro in E flat major. according to the autograph. including the Prelude. Bach’s oeuvre for solo lute comprises three suites. This suite. Bach wrote a loure. One such version is recorded here on the lute. a transparent gigue closes the circle of this suite on a light note. Bach employed the lute both as a solo instrument and in ensembles. Nowadays these two works are usually played on the lute. The profound and pensive prelude comprises two contrasting halves. BWV 998. it became known as a keyboard piece and was included as no. After the gavotte en rondeau and two menuets. originally a folk dance stemming from Normandy. BWV 995. thanks to Friedrich Conrad Griepenkerl. 31 in the St John Passion. Although it is indeed a very idiomatic piece for the instrument.Zacharias Hildebrandt. a reference to the above-mentioned lute-harpsichord. of smaller dimensions than a normal harpsichord’. for example in the Trauermusik BWV 198 (1727). On the manuscript of the Prelude in C minor BWV 999 Bach wrote explicitly ‘pour la lute’. and the arioso no. 3 in E major for solo violin. usually performed on the lute and sometimes 44 . Where there was the suggestion of polyphony in the cello version. first dark and improvisational and then fugal. which Bach also adapted for the organ (BWV 539). a fugue and a prelude. the above-mentioned Prelude. composed shortly after 1740 and. 3 in the series of ’12 Short Preludes’ which form the stable diet of all beginners on the keyboard. which survives in the composer’s handwriting. One of Bach’s most impressive lute works is the Suite in G minor. It is an arrangement of the Fifth Suite for solo cello BWV 1011 and was adapted and extended (several passages and bass lines) by Bach in such a manner that it sounds like an original lute work. and the Suite in E major BWV 1006a is an arrangement of the Partita in E major for solo violin BWV 1006. Bach had written several works for this instrument. In about 1800 an unknown hand wrote ‘aufs Lautenwerk’ on a manuscript of the Suite in E minor BWV 996. written ‘pour la Luth ò Cembal’.

medium and gesture of the late German Baroque. Clemens Romijn CD I-18 VIOLA DA GAMBA SONATAS It is not difficult for a music historian to discern many of the elements that render Bach’s sonatas for viola da gamba and harpsichord – like so much of his music – so remarkable: a mixing of virtually every conceivable genre. Bach may be important not so much as a supreme historical figure in western culture.on the harpsichord. before turning into a recitative and ending like a fugue. as is the date of their genesis. had already mastered the French style. theme. and polyphonic complex. it seems to work well even when its historical nature is ignored. style. one hears the extent to which Bach. sarabande. allemande. a penetrating insight into the multi-dimensional potentialities of each motive. Although there is curiously no original source that shows all three sonatas belonging together as a cycle – their present grouping is purely the conjecture of a mid-nineteen century editor – their characteristic 45 . In the succeeding dances. But what is more remarkable still is that historical study only tends to confirm what the music seems to offer in its own terms. a forging of connections that had never hitherto been made. Indeed Bach could be viewed historically as a musical cul de sac: he did little to extend the musical vocabulary of his age. his music hardly served as a basis for that of the succeeding generation. who did what he could with what he had. a complex of beliefs about how the cosmos coheres. Bach’s reasons for writing the three sonatas for gamba and harpsichord are still quite obscure. as in the way he epitomizes a particular way of thinking. in early days (before 1708). Yet what has made him a summit for many with a certain conception of musical perfection is his apparent ability to transcend historical contingency. begins in an improvisational fashion with a prelude full of virtuosic passagework. somehow to stop the clock of outward progress and rearrange and recreate the world as he knew it. bourrée and gigue. form. courante.

particularly Laurence Dreyfus. The work of contemporary scholars. Furthermore. Only the first sonata exists in a previous version. and this cannot be dated to a period much before the version preserved in BWV 1027. this hypothesis is strengthened – if with a little circularity – by the conjecture made both by Dreyfus an Lucy Robinson. The problems of establishing a plausible text today are compounded when the works preserved only in the hands of later and non-too-careful copyists. or in the case of an obbligato. BWV 1039. First. suggests that this manuscript was similar in appearance and layout. and the dating of the gamba sonatas has been a prime target for revision. Even the titles of these pieces give one pause for thought: “Sonatas for viola da gamba and obbligato harpsichord”. Despite Bach’s care in preparing his scores. so the modern performer has to make decisions regarding certain details. this is the case with the second and third sonatas. Furthermore. beautifully laid out in separate parts with convenient page-turns. not the more up-to-date sonata genre. If a solo piece were to be written. What we know about the lost autograph of the third sonata. it would have been as a servile continuo instrument. that Bach designed the sonatas for the gamba virtuoso Carl Friedrich Abel. who lived in Leipzig sometime between 1737 and 1743 and who probably studied with Bach. in pieces associated with royalty or a lamenting effect. Certainly the calligraphic score of the first sonata. Quite often. Stylistically too. the gamba is an instrument that was already somewhat archaic in Bach’s age. Indeed the view of each piece of music as a finite and perfected musical text was by no means the norm in Bach’s age. just as presumably did the players of Bach’s own age. he did not necessarily work with the same degree of consistency and precision that we may expect from a modern Urtext editor. the harpsichord 46 .texture and their combined comprehensive critique of the sonata genre suggests that they somehow belong with one another. has done much to revolutionize our conception of Bach’s career. the sources might offer contradictory or implausible readings. suggests a manuscript designed both for presentation and for actual performance. a trio sonata for two flutes and continuo. Given the detail of ornamentation and articulation which Bach specifies here (more complete than even his conscientious wont) it is not difficult to imagine the composer preparing this manuscript for one of Abel’s appearances in the Leipzig Collegium Musicum. 1717-23. the three sonatas seem to accord more with the musical processes typical of the mid-Leipzig years than with the period traditionally assigned to chamber music. it would most likely be a suite in the seventeenth-century French tradition. Moreover the autograph of the first sonata originates from around the early 1740s. if a composer used it in Germany. Bach’s years as the Köthen Kapellmeister.

Bach seems to have made a habit of this. in 47 . BWV 1044. particularly in the first movement. where the right hand plays as an equal partner with an other instrument). While the second movement of the first sonata is conventionally in fugal style. flute and harpsichord. The opening movements of the first and second sonatas pay lip-service to the expansive melodic gestures typical of the traditional trio sonata. Yet as a more “private” sonata this piece is doubly effective. particularly the Prelude. show strong traits of the Vivaldian concerto style. the ritornello structure of the Prelude qualifies it to be just as much an “Italian Concerto” as the work of that name that Bach composed for harpsichord in the 1730s. almost galant melody accompanied by a bass which is obviously of the “modern” Alberti kind. The Prelude and Fugue an A minor BWV 894 provides an interesting compliment to the gamba sonatas. this is even more noticeable in the second movement of the second sonata which is unexpectedly cast in binary form (that most appropiate to the dance) and where the fugal elements are consistently obscured by a modish. since he left multiple sonatas for violin and flute which have a similar obbligato role for harpsichord. carefree texture. yet the pastoral atmosphere of the first sonata is integrated with an often intense contrapuntal dialogue (at times between all three voices). Bach and his cousin J. yet it soon emerges that the gamba and harpsichord work together in close imitation – for a time in strict canon – musical devices far too “serious” for the subject matter the hand.was an instrument not typically associated with an obbligato role in the sonata (i. Indeed some scholars have even seen this as the transcription of an original concerto movement. presumably from the late Weimar years. which comprises three movements rather than four. Bach re-used much of the material from both movements in the triple concerto for violin. It is not surprising that he chose this earlier work: both movements. pointing to worlds and concepts outside its own confines. The second sonata opens with a short-breathed. but Bach is not content to furnish each of the four positions with a specific and consistent style. resembles the concerto idiom. Not only is this more typical of the Vivaldian concerto than the trio-sonata. Indeed. Walter developed a particular keyboard genre from around 1713. Bach gives it a galant motivic flavour. This prelude might have been part of the next stage. during the mid-Leipzig years. The first two sonatas are written in the Corellian four-movement form (slow-fast-slow-fast). but the style of the music. Although it is undoubtedly of earlier origins. transcribing Italian concertos for harpsichord and organ.e. The most striking work is the third sonata. and chromatic gestures.G.

the flautist Quantz and the Graun brothers. Notes by John Butt CD I-19 MUSIKALISCHES OPFER One of the most memorable encounters in music history is that between Johann Sebastian Bach and Frederick the Great of Prussia in 1747. There are two Ricercares for harpsichord (fugues: one three-part and one six-part). it might even have functioned as one of the prototypes for Brandeburg Concerto V. All 48 . who gave a flute recital every day with his musicians. the Bohemian Benda brothers. but took his eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann with him. he concentrated exclusively on the techniques of imitation. three years before Bach’s death. Frederick. With its increasingly virtuosic episodes. His performance was greeted with the greatest possible admiration. the first concerto to employ a substantial keyboard solo. displacement and reconstruction in the latter. near Berlin. One can imagine the select audience: the Prussian king Frederick the Great.which Bach wrote original keyboard pieces in concerto style. Perhaps he felt he had not made the most of the given theme in his improvisation at Potsdam! The Musical Offering is a typical example of Bach’s late work. perhaps his sister Princess Amalia. Upon his return to Leipzig Bach immediately commenced work on a series of compositions on this ‘royal theme’ which he called ‘A Musical Offering’. A relation between the A minor Prelude and the opening movement of the third gamba sonata is difficult to ignore: both relate to the concerto. Bach was also invited to play the organ and to improvise on a theme presented by the king. Bach’s first biographer Johann Nicolaus Forkel (1802) tells how Bach was subsequently invited to play on some of the fifteen Silbermann fortepianos which were to be found in the various rooms. the two sons of Bach. This encounter was probably arranged through Bach’s second son Carl Philipp Emanuel. The work could be described as a series of contrapuntal variations. Bach did not travel alone. at the time harpsichordist at the court of Frederick in Potsdam. The collection also includes a Trio Sonata in four movements for flute. and ten Canons of different types. actually interrupted his performance on that memorable 17 May 1747 and cried out “Old Bach has arrived”. and the conventional ritornello principle of the earlier work is itself the object of exploration. violin and basso continuo. As in the Art of the Fugue.

In the past twenty to thirty years many new facts and insights have been revealed concerning Bach’s life and work. Bach would surely have played the harpsichord part himself. Clemens Romijn CD I-20/21 VIOLIN SONATAS Bach is most familiar to us as cantor of the Thomaskirche in Leipzig. that we have underestimated his achievement in the field of chamber music in the same period. With this group Bach gave weekly concerts on Friday evenings in Zimmermann’s coffee shop. the year which witnessed the first performance of the Passion according to St Matthew. In 1729. was of course intended as a homage to the royal flautist. a company of students and professional musicians founded by Georg Philipp Telemann in 1702. From 1723 onwards. and the six Sonatas for violin and obbligato harpsichord BWV 1014-1019. 49 . with its strict and closely-woven polyphonic technique. the Sonatas for flute and harpsichord BWV 1030 and 1032. he was responsible for the church music on Sundays and festivals in the four main churches of Leipzig. for about 26 years. According to tradition Bach improvised the three-part Ricercare on the spot for the king. We have come to realise that Bach’s life and work has always been rather schematically approached. Thus it has become clear that he was much more occupied with chamber music in Leipzig than scholars thought: it had previously been assumed that he wrote nearly all the chamber music in Cöthen (1717-1723). with its instrumentation including the flute. The ‘Thema Regium’ (royal theme) is heard in all four movements. This trio sonata forms a classic example of Bach’s late style. either as a strict cantus firmus (Allegro) or simply in the form of motifs. performing his harpsichord concertos (often with the help of his eldest sons Friedemann and Emanuel) as well as cantatas and chamber music. Such was our prepossession with his role as Cantor and Director Musices in the Leipzig years. Among the works almost certainly played are the three Sonatas for viola da gamba and harpsichord BWV 1027-1029. The Trio Sonata in C minor.these pieces employ the theme which Frederick the Great gave to Bach. Bach became director of the Leipzig Collegium Musicum.

This is illustrated in Bach’s six sonatas for violin and harpsichord. And so the violin sonatas present all sorts of situations in which the violin and harpsichord dominate in turn. for instance. while the violin adds a fourth voice. His point of departure was the traditional Italian trio sonata. This is true of the first five. At the same time he paved the way for similar works by his second son Carl Philipp Emanuel. and the suite came from France. styles and techniques which were not of German origin. Thus Bach liberated the harpsichord from its servile role as basso continuo instrument in Baroque chamber music. in the left hand. In the third movement of the last sonata (BWV 1019) Bach even creates a monologue for the harpsichord in the form of a solo without violin. While the trio sonatas by his contemporary Handel. This picture is familiar from the three-part Inventions or Sinfonias which Bach composed as didactic keyboard pieces for his two eldest sons and other pupils. differs from that found in the customary trio sonata. the fundament of the entire composition. 3rd movement). Bach’s approach to the role of the harpsichord. But exactly the opposite. In general the violin sonatas have the four-movement structure of the so-called church sonata: slow-fast-slowfast. Two of the three parts are usually given to the harpsichord: one of the two upper voices in the right hand to partner the violin part. Typically German is the integration of these ‘strange’ forms and elements. and the bass. and their subordination to a polyphonic concept and fugal and canonic techniques. Bach grants it a concertato role.As a true cosmopolitan. Strict three-part writing is mainly reserved for the fast movements. Occasionally there are just two parts. all employ the harpsichord purely as a supportive basso continuo instrument. the violin and the bass in the left hand on the harpsichord. may also occur. actually abandoning the traditional concept of the trio sonata as a strictly threepart work. the two upper parts pursuing and imitating each other as in a canon or fugue (for example the 3rd movement of the sonata BWV 1015). trio sonata and concerto were Italian inventions. a three-part invention. a genre featuring two upper parts involved in a sort of dialogue above a supporting bass line. The number of parts can indeed increase from four or five to a total of six. But Bach went even further. however. bringing it to the fore to occupy a dominant position in the composition. The most frequently performed of the 50 . Sometimes the harpsichord itself performs a sort of trio sonata. a reduction in the number of parts. Bach incorporated in his chamber music many forms. but not of the sixth sonata BWV 1019. with four in the harpsichord and double stopping in the violin part. The sonata. while the right hand plays broken chords (Sonata BWV 1017.

Anna Magdalena became Bach’s new support and refuge. she copied much of her husband’s music. She was the daughter of the court trumpeter Johann Caspar Wülcken. Wilhelm Friedemann (10). the two volumes for Anna Magdalena give some idea of domestic music-making in the Bach family. with the above-mentioned harpsichord solo and an extra (second) slow movement in the middle. such as the fifteen Inventions and Sinfonias. illustrative of his refined treatment of current styles. Most of the first Clavierbüchlein is 51 . one in 1722 in Cöthen and one in 1725 in Leipzig. In March the now world-famous Brandenburg Concertos were completed and dedicated to Christian Ludwig. But Bach also lost the person who had supported him for thirteen years and given him four children including two musical sons: his wife Maria Barbara. In December of the same year Bach married the talented. Both movements are wonderful. Together with the Clavierbüchlein commenced earlier for his eldest son Wilhelm Friedemann. despite their being something of a curiosity. Catharina Dorothea (12 years old). an ‘odd man out’ in the sonata as a whole. the Clavier-Übung part I (with the Six Partitas for harpsichord) and The Well-Tempered Clavier. with whom he had often made music. Johann Christoph. not limiting her contribution to domestic affairs: in Cöthen and Leipzig. was left alone with four children. genres and conventions in his sonatas for violin and harpsichord. To make matters worse. Margrave of Brandenburg. Some of the pieces were included later in larger volumes with a didactic purpose. Bach. Clemens Romijn CD I-22 NOTENBÜCHLEIN FÜR ANNA MAGDALENA BACH The year 1721 was an eventful one for Bach. died too. 20-year-old soprano Anna Magdalena Wülcken. But Bach deliberately followed a different path. Within their first four years together Bach twice compiled a ‘Clavierbüchlein’ for Anna Magdalena. Here education and diversion went hand in hand. Carl Philipp Emanuel (6) and Johann Gottfried Bernhard (5). The first two movements in combination with the last would have produced a classical form. now 35 years old.three known versions of the latter work has five movements. with the patience of an angel. his elder brother and former mentor in Ohrdruf.

wie sie nach langem Brauch. polonaises. Nevertheless. sie bleibt weiß. nicht als die Asche bleibt zurück. BWV 512 Gib dich zufrieden und sei stille in dem Gotte deines Lebens. In ihm ruht aller Freuden Fülle. daß ich derselben ähnlich sei. including the first five French Suites (BWV 812-816). but in the course of centuries it has become damaged and incomplete. mir oftmals in der Hand entzwei. The second Clavierbüchlein (1725) begins with the Third and Sixth Partitas for harpsichord. zufrieden. Die Pfeife stammt von Ton und Bach himself. zur Lust und Zeitvertreib ergreife. marches and a musette) which are not by Bach. ohn ihm mühst du dich vergebens. Auch ich muß einst zur Erde werden sie fällt und bricht. scheint täglich hell zu deiner Wonne. Several of them were actually composed by Carl Philipp Emanuel: two marches. Gib dich zufrieden. a Menuet possibly by Georg Böhm. ehe Ihr‘s gedacht. Wenn nur die Pfeife angezündet. and from Bach’s hand two French Suites (BWV 812 and part of BWV 813). . such as the anonymous aria ‘Erbauliche Gedanken eines Tobackrauchers’ (Uplifting thoughts of a pipe smoker) and the wonderful aria ‘Bist du bei mir’ with its somewhat wry text. mei Schicksal ist auch einerlei. auch ich bin gleichfalls draus gemacht. wie im Augenblick der Rauch in freier Luft verschwindet. Im Grabe wird der Körper auch so Schwarz. and also includes in Anna Magdalena’s handwriting some short dances (menuets. the first prelude from The Well-Tempered Clavier. mit gutem Knaster angefüllt. Er ist dein Quell und deine Sonne. BWV 515a So oft ich meine Tobackspfeife. 52 Die Pfeife pflegt man nicht zu färben. So oft ich meine Tobackspfeife. Also der Schluß. and a handful of chorales and arias. it offers a good impression of the music which Bach liked to have played at home. A number of pieces may not be by Bach. Some galant pieces were probably used for the dance lessons which the growing Bach children received according to the custom of the time. two polonaises and a solo. daß ich auch dermaleins im Sterben dem Leibe nach erblassen muß. BWV 511. These simple and galant pieces were probably intended for the small hands of the 11-year-old Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach and for the younger children. Clemens Romijn Gib dich zufrieden und sei stille. so sieht man. So wird des Menschen Ruhm verzehnt und dessen Leib in Stauh verkehrt. so gibt sie mir ein Trauerbild und füget diese Lehre bei. a Rondeau by François Couperin. The volume also includes a love song ‘Willst du dein Herz mir schenken’ by Giovannini.

Dir. Kein Argwohn mußt du geben. wenn ich mich verbrannt: O. mein abgematter Sinn? Du sorgst. daß Jesus mein und ich sein eigen möchten sein. Ich habe genug! der Neid hat viele Strikke auf unser Tun gericht. fallet sanft Du mußt die Brust verschließ. weil ein falsch das der Seelen könnte taugen (2x) Auge gewacht. zum Sterben und zu meiner Ruh. Dann denk ich. Dir.Wie oft geschieht‘ s nicht bei dem Rauchen daß. BWV 518 Willst du dein Herz mir schenken. Schlummert ein. zu dir: Begehre keine Blikke von meiner Liebe nicht. Du mußt den Spruche bedenken. mein sehr geplagter Geist. Simeon lieb innerlich und zeige dich außen unbekannt. kannst du in Ewigkeit nicht wahre Ruhe finden. es drückten deine schöne Hände mir getreuen Augen zu. Rezitativ und Arie. BWV 514 zuvor getan: Schaff‘s mit mir. halt deine und selig zu. so fang es dir sei es alle heimgestellt. Neigung ein. Die Liebe muß bei beiden allzeit verschwieIch habe genug. Behutsam sei und schweige und traue keiner Im Glauben halt ich ihn. Gott. so fang es heimlich an. kein Teil an dir. Aria di Giovannini. darauf hoffe ich. Verstellung Laßt uns mit diesem Manneziehn. ihr matten Augen. geh ich mit Freuden zum Sterben und zu meiner Ruh. die Freude jenes Leben schon. hab ich doch gebracht. will ich singen. wo ist so ein Gott wie du? 53 . da seh ich auch mit Wand. BWV 508 Bist du bei mir. Welt. Ach. und fährest über Welt und über Himmel hin. heimlich an. dir. wie vergnügt wär so mein Ende. wenn der Stopfer nicht zur Hand. Jehova. Ach wäre doch mein Abschied hier. wie will es doch noch endlich mit dir werden. dir. die wir genießen. nach deinem Willen. muß ein Schlummert ein. BWV 516 Warum betrübst du dich und beugest dich zur Erden. Herzen ein. Du wirst mein Wünschen so erfüllen. es drückten deine schöne Hände mir getreuen Augen zu. wies deiner Weisheit wohlgefällt. hat oft Gefahr Welt. geh ich mit Freuden zum Sterben und zu meiner Ruh. ich bleibe nicht mehr hier. sich ergehen. Man muß sich wohl verstehen. Ach. Aria. will ich singen. Warum betrübst du dich. schlummert ein (2x) Die Lust. du wirst mich versorgen. denn. zum Sterben und zu meiner Ruh. BWV 299 Du bist mein Vater. macht die Kohle solche Pein. fallet sanft und selig zu (2x ) Zu frei sein. zu Wasser und zu Haus mein Pfeifchen stets in Andacht aus. wie vergnügt wär so mein Ende. Geheimnis sein. Bist du bei mir. den ich Schaff‘s mit mir. man pflegt die Finger zu gebrauchen. 82 drum schließ die größten Freuden in deinem Ich habe genug! Mein Trost ist nur allein. daß du mein Leben. der Treu versichert der Herr erretten! bist. Drum schmauch ich voll Zufriedenheit zu Land. Jehova. nötig ist. mit Freuden sagt ich. Bist du bei mir. BWV gen sein. wie heiß mag erst die Hölle sein? Ich kann bei so gestalten Sachen mir bei dein Toback jederzeit erbauliche Gedanken machen. Ach! möchte mich von meines Leibes Ketten genug. Wirst du dich nicht recht fest in Gottes Willen gründen. Willst du dein Herz mir schenken. ihr matten Augen. Gott. daß unser beider Denken niemand erraten kan.

O Ewigkeit. wo ich mich hinwende.Dir will ich meine Lieder bringen. das durch die Seele bohrt. Ich steige aus der Schwermuts Höhlen da man mich wird zur Ruh begleiten. wenn mit so angenehmen Freuden die Liebe strahlt aus deiner Brust. Mein ganz erschrocknes Herze bebt. o Freund der Seelen. BWV 509 O Ewigkeit. und eile deinen Armen zu. auf daß ich klüglich sterben mag. o Anfang sonder Ende. daß ich es tu‘ im Namen Jesu Christ. nicht. daß du sterben mußt. Zeit ohne Zeit. der in dir findet Ruh und Lust. BWV 517 Gedenke doch mein Geist. BWV 513 O Ewigkeit. so wie es dir durch ihn gefällig ist. 54 . du Donnerwort. Da muß die Nacht des Trauerns erscheiden. ach! gib mir deines Geistes Kraft darzu. gedenke. wer wollte nicht vergnüget werden. o Freund der Seelen. du Donnerwort. Schreib dieses Wort in Herz und Brust. Gedenke doch. mein Geist. ich weiß vor großer Traurigkeit wenn ich in deiner Liebe ruh. Hier ist mein Himmel schon auf Erden. o Schwert. Wie wohl ist mir. zurükke ans Grab und an den Glokkenschlag. daß mir die die Zung am Gaumen klebt. Wie wohl ist mir.

though in the latter case the upper parts are thought to be by one of Bach’s sons or pupils. rather after the fashion of some of Bach’s early organ works. It is not unlikely that one of his sons or pupils wrote the piece. meine Freude’ (BWV 227). It is a remarkable fact that very few of Bach’s trio sonatas for chamber instrumentation have survived. The G major work. are an example. with a 30-bar free flourish of impassioned smiquavers over a tonic pedal. 55 . making use of an existing bass line by Bach himself. The structure of that in E minor. which came to light only in 1928. besides his epoch-making solo violin sonatas and the six sonatas for violin with obbligato harpsichord (which broke new ground texturally). is a curious mixture of sonata and suite. o Wesen’. or a suite from which some basic movements seem to be missing. The Trio Sonatas in G major BWV 1038 and 1039. the trio sonatas which do survive are known in different versions with varying instrumentations. when a manuscript copy in the hand of Anna Magdalena Bach was discovered in Eisenach. two more sonatas for violin and continuo. It is even uncertain whether the Trio Sonata BWV 1038 is actually by Bach. the ninth section of Bach’s motet ‘Jesu. each of which exhibits unusual features. both conceived as church sonatas in four contrasting movements. only four works survive. despite the fact that this was really the most popular ‘classical’ genre of the Baroque period. Furthermore. This leads to an ornate Adagio whose intensity is heightened by poignant chromaticisms.CD I-23 VIOLIN SONATAS / TRIO SONATAS At some time before 1720 Bach wrote. but immediately after this comes the concluding Gigue. It is therefore likely that most of Bach’s chamber music has been lost. The thematically related Allemande which follows is even more elaborate. which appears to be the earlier. in which syncopations like those in the finale of the Sixth Brandenburg Concerto help to swing the rhythm along. It opens. since the bass part corresponds to that of the Sonatas for violin and harpsichord BWV 1021 and 1022. Much speculation has been aroused by the entire bass-line being identical with that of the Trio Sonata BWV1038 (another version of the BWV1022 violin sonata in F major). The Adagio is strongly reminiscent of ‘Gute Nacht. is a four-movement sonata da chiesa. Points of technical interest here are the multiple-stopping in the Vivace and the suggestions of polyphonic violin writing in the fugato finale.

Moreover. thus helping to save his music from quick oblivion. In addition. second and fourth movements survive in a version for organ. the first.The Trio Sonata in G major. or for harpsichord or clavichord with pedals. Clemens Romijn 56 . one of the two upper voices and the bass. BWV 1039. The various instrumentations enabled him to give one and the same piece different expression and colour. likewise exists in different versions: one for viola da gamba and concertato harpsichord (BWV 1027. two flutes and basso continuo. BWV 1027a. What Bach exactly had in mind in respect to the second version we do not know. Because of these different instrumentations this poetic (Andante) and at the same time happy and energetic work has enjoyed special attention. since it is not clear whether it was intended as a work for three instruments. In the latter case the harpsichordist plays two parts. certainly authentic). or for just one flute and concertato harpsichord. and one for two flauto traversos (or violin and traverso) and basso continuo (BWV 1039. it is one of the many examples of Bach’s habit of borrowing from his own work. assumed to be authentic).