Metabolism in Cells

Chapter 4

What is metabolism
•! •!

Chemical processes that occur in all cells 2 Kinds of Metabolism
1.!

Anabolic reaction
•! A chemical reaction where energy is stored in molecules •! Example: photosynthesis

2.!

Catabolic reaction
•! •! A chemical reaction where energy is released from molecules Example: Cellular respiration

Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
•!

Processing of energy by cells which involves a transfer of energy through the flow of electrons

•!

OXIDATION
•!

The loss of electrons from a compound

•!

REDUCTION
•!

The gain of electrons by a compound

REDOX Reactions
•!

An oxidation reaction is always accompanied by a reduction reaction because there are no free electrons in living cells (all electrons are in atoms) If a substance gains an electron in a reduction reaction, that electron must come from another substance that has lost an electron

•!

KEY TERMS
•!

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
•!

A series of chemical reactions during which hydrogens or their electrons are passed from one acceptor molecule to another, with the release of energy Electron acceptor molecule – molecules that temporarily accept the molecule until they are passed on to another acceptor molecure

•!

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 2
•!

Define photosynthesis Describe how photosynthesis is important not only to plants but to the entire web of life on planet Earth

•!

KEY TERMS
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
•!

Biological process that includes capture of light energy and its transformation into chemical energy of organic molecules (such as glucose), which are manufactured from carbon dioxide and water

Photosynthetic Organisms

The Electromagnetic Spectrum
•!

The electromagnetic spectrum
•!

Continuous range of electromagnetic radiation propagated through space and matter Wavelength – distance from one wave peak to the next

•!

One wavelength

TV and radio waves Microwaves Infrared Visible UV X-rays

Longer wavelength 760 nm Red

700 nm

Orange Color spectrum of visible light 600 nm Yellow Green 500 nm Blue Violet

Gamma rays

400 nm 380 nm

Electromagnetic spectrum

Shorter wavelength

(a) Visible light is that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that consists of wavelengths from 380 to 760 nm.

Fig. 4-2a, p. 69

Sun Sunlight is a mixture of many wavelengths (b) Electromagnetic radiation from the sun includes ultraviolet radiation and visible light of varying colors and wavelengths.

Fig. 4-2b, p. 69

Light and Atoms

Light is composed of small packets of energy called photons

Photon

Photon is absorbed by an excitable electron that moves into a higher energy level.

Low energy level Electron High energy level

Either

Or

Electron acceptor molecule The electron may return to ground level by emitting a less energetic photon. The electron may be accepted by an electron acceptor molecule.

Fig. 4-3, p. 69

Light Energy
•!

Without photosynthesis, there would be no energy for plants, animals, other organisms Humans and other animals depend on plants for food (energy) and oxygen

•!

The Site of Photosynthesis

Palisade mesophyll

Vein Air space Spongy mesophyll Stoma (a) This leaf cross section reveals that the mesophyll is the photosynthetic tissue. CO2 enters the leaf through tiny pores, or stomata, and H2O is carried to the mesophyll in veins. Fig. 4-4a, p. 70

Mesophyll cells

(b) Notice the numerous chloroplasts in this LM of leaf cells. Inner Outer Stroma membrane membrane

Thylakoid membrane

Thylakoid Granum lumen (stack of thylakoids)

(c) In the chloroplast, pigments necessary for the light-capturing reactions of photosynthesis are part of thylakoid membranes, whereas the enzymes for the synthesis of carbohydrate molecules are in the stroma. Fig. 4-4bc, p. 70

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 3
•!

Write a summary reaction for photosynthesis, explaining the origin and fate of each compound involved

KEY TERMS
•!

CHLOROPHYLL
•!

One of a group of light-trapping green pigments found in most photosynthetic organisms

Chlorophyll a Molecule

Ring (absorbs light)

Side chain

Fig. 4-5, p. 71

Absorption Spectra and Action Spectrum
Chlorophyll a – initiates photosynthesis Chlorophyll b – accessory pigment that aids in photosynthesis

Photosynthesis
•!

Chlorophyll captures light energy from the sun and uses it to chemically combine hydrogen from water with CO2 from the atmosphere to produce carbohydrates Oxygen is released as a by-product

•!

Overview: Photosynthesis

Light-dependent Reaction
•! •!

Occur in the thylakoids Events:
1.! 2.!

3.!

4.!

Chlorophyll absorbs light Electrons are excited and move up to a higher energy level The displaced electron is replaced by an electron from water – water dissociates to form oxygen Product: ATP and NADPH

Light-dependent reactions (in thylakoids)

Carbon fixation reactions (in stroma) Chloroplast ATP ADP NADPH NADP+

Light reactions

Calvin cycle

H 2O

O2

CO2

Carbohydrates

Fig. 4-8, p. 73

The Light Independent Reaction
•! •! •!

Occurs in the stroma a.k.a. dark reaction Events
1.!

2.!

Uses ATP and NADPH formed from the previous reaction for fuel Carbon atoms are ”fixed” to existing skeletons of organic molecules

Summary Reaction: Photosynthesis

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 4
•!

Summarize the events of the lightdependent reactions of photosynthesis, including the role of light in the activation of chlorophyll Describe how a proton gradient allows the formation of ATP according to the chemiosmotic model

•!

Light-Dependent Reactions of Photosynthesis
•!

Chlorophyll absorbs light, becomes energized Energy is used to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and to split water Hydrogen from water is transferred to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+), forming NADPH

•!

•!

A Photosystem: the photosynthetic unit of a plant

Primary electron acceptor e Chloroplast Photon

Thylakoid membrane

Photosystem

Fig. 4-10, p. 74

KEY TERMS
•!

NONCYCLIC ELECTRON TRANSPORT
•!

In photosynthesis, the linear flow of electrons, produced by splitting water molecules, through photosystems I and II, Products: ATP, NADPH, and O2

•!

Noncyclic Electron Transport

Primary 2e electron acceptor EA Relative energy level ADP + Pi Production of ATP ATP

Electron transport chain EA EA 1/2 O2 + 2 H+

Primary electron acceptor EA Electron transport EA chain EA EA EA

H+ (from medium) NADPH NADP+

H 2O Photosystem II (P680)

Photosystem I (P700)

1 Electrons are supplied to system from the splitting of H2O by photosystem II, with release of O2 as a byproduct. When photosystem II is activated by absorbing photons, electrons are passed along electron transport chain and are eventually donated to photosystem I.

2 Electrons in photosystem I are “reenergized“ by absorption of additional light energy and are passed to NADP+, forming NADPH.

Fig. 4-11, p. 75

Cyclic Electron Transport
•!

Photosystem 2
•!
•!

ATP is formed
NADPH is not formed

•!

Water is not split

Chemiosmosis
•!

Synthesizes ATP in both noncyclic and cyclic electron transport using the energy of a proton gradient established across a membrane Protons flow through a membrane channel within the enzyme ATP synthase

•!

Stroma Thylakoid lumen

Thylakoid membrane

Protons (H+)

Proton gradient
Fig. 4-12, p. 76

KEY TERMS
•!

ATP SYNTHASE
•!

An enzyme complex that synthesizes ATP from ADP, using the energy of a proton gradient; located in thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts and in the inner mitochondrial membrane

Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis

Thylakoid membrane Thylakoid lumen

Plastocyanin Plastoquinone Photon Photosystem Thylakoid II membrane

Photon

ATP synthase

Photosystem I

Ferredoxin– NADP+ reductase

Cytochrome Complex

Ferredoxin

Stroma

Fig. 4-13, p. 77

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 5

•!

Summarize the events of the carbon fixation reactions of photosynthesis (Light Independent Reaction)

KEY TERMS
•!

CARBON FIXATION
•!

A cyclic series of reactions that fixes carbon dioxide and produces carbohydrate

Carbon Fixation
•!

Calvin cycle (C3 pathway)
•! •!

•!

Most common pathway of carbon fixation Uses energy stored in ATP and NADPH during lightdependent reactions to chemically fix CO2 3 phases:
1.! Carbon dioxide uptake 2.! Carbon reduction 3.! RuBP regeneration

The Calvin Cycle: Carbon Dioxide Uptake

•!

CO2 combines with ribulose bisphosphate (a 5-carbon sugar)
•! •!

5 carbon sugar turns into a 6 carbon sugar Immediately splits in two 3-carbon molecule called phosophoglycerate

The Calvin Cycle: Carbon Reduction
•!

Phosphoglycerate is converted to phosphoglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (NADPH and ATP) 1 turn of the Calvin cycle produces two G3P
•! •!

•!

In 6 turns = 12 G3P 2 of the G3P leave the cycle to be used in carbohydrate synthesis (glucose or fructose)

The Calvin Cycle: RuBP Regeneration
•!

10 of the G3P that remain are rearranged into 6 molecules of the 5-carbon Ribulose phosphate (RP) Another batch of ATP is expended to add phosphate to RP, forming Ribulose biphosphate to be used for another round of the Calvin Cycle

•!

The Calvin Cycle
•!

Ingredients:
•! •! •!

Carbon dioxide ATP NADPH

•!

Product
•!

Carbohydrate molecule

6 molecules of CO2 6 molecules of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) P P 6 ADP 6 ATP 6 molecules of ribulose phosphate (RP) 3 RuBP P regeneration phase CALVIN CYCLE 1 CO2 uptake phase 12 molecules of phosphoglycerate (PGA) P 12 ATP 12 ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP+ 12 P P 12 molecules of glyceraldehyde-3phosphate (G3P) P 2 molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)

10 molecules of G3P Glucose and other carbohydrate synthesis

2 Carbon reduction phase

P

Fig. 4-14, p. 78

C3 and C4 Plant Structure

Upper epidermis Palisade mesophyll Bundle sheath cells of veins Mesophyll Spongy mesophyll Chloroplasts

(a) In C3 plants, the Calvin cycle takes place in the mesophyll cells, and the bundle sheath cells are nonphotosynthetic.

(b) In C4 plants, reactions that fix CO2 into four-carbon compounds take place in the mesophyll cells. The four-carbon compounds are transferred from the mesophyll cells to the photosynthetic bundle sheath cells, where the Calvin cycle takes place.

Fig. 4-15, p. 79

Summary: C4 Pathway

CO2

Mesophyll cell

(3C) Phosphoenolpyruvate ADP ATP Pyruvate

Oxaloacetate (4C)

NADPH NADP+ Malate (4C)

(3C)

(3C) Pyruvate

Malate (4C) NADP+ CO2

Bundle sheath cell

Glucose

NADPH

Vein Fig. 4-16, p. 80

CAM Pathway (Crassulacean acid metabolism)

CAM Pathway

Epidermis NIGHT
CO2

DAY Stoma closed

Stoma open

Epidermis CO2

Malate Malic
acid

Malate Malic
CO2 acid

Sugar

Mesophyll cell

Vacuole Cytoplasm (c) During the day, when stomata are closed, CO2 is removed from malate and becomes available to be fixed into sugar by the Calvin cycle in the chloroplasts (located in the cytoplasm).
Fig. 4-17bc, p. 81

(b) CAM plants open their stomata at night, and CO2 enters. In mesophyll cells, the CO2 is converted into malate, which is stored in cell vacuoles as malic acid.

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 6
•!

Write a summary reaction for aerobic respiration, giving the origin and fate of each substance involved

KEY TERMS
•!

AEROBIC RESPIRATION
•!

Process by which cells use oxygen to break down organic molecules, with the release of energy that can be used for biological work

Aerobic Respiration
•!

During aerobic respiration, a fuel molecule such as glucose is oxidized, forming CO2 and water, with the release of energy stored in the bonds of ATP molecules

Overview: Aerobic Respiration

1 Glycolysis

2 Formation of acetyl coenzyme A

3 Citric acid cycle

4 Electron transport and chemiosmosis

Glucose Mitochondrion Acetyl coenzyme A Pyruvate Citric acid cycle
Electron transport and chemiosmosis

2 ATP

2 ATP

32 ATP

Fig. 4-18, p. 82

Summary Reaction: Aerobic Respiration

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 7
•!

List and give a brief overview of the four stages of aerobic respiration

4 Stages of Aerobic Respiration
1.! 2.! 3.! 4.!

Glycolysis Formation of acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Electron transport system (with associated chemiosmosis)

Glycolysis
•!

Glucose is split into two molecules of pyruvate with production of a small amount of ATP Hydrogen atoms removed from glucose are transferred to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), forming NADH

•!

Formation of Acetyl CoA
•!

Two pyruvate molecules each lose a molecule of CO2 Remaining acetyl groups combine with coenzyme A, producing acetyl coenzyme A One NADH is formed as each pyruvate is converted to acetyl CoA

•!

•!

Citric Acid Cycle 1
•!

Each acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle by combining with a 4-carbon compound to form citrate, a 6-carbon compound With two turns of the citric acid cycle, two molecules of acetyl CoA are completely degraded, four CO2 molecules are released

•!

Citric Acid Cycle 2
•!

Hydrogens are transferred to NAD+ and FAD, forming NADH and FADH2 Only one ATP is produced directly with each turn of the citric acid cycle

•!

Electron Transport
•!

Hydrogen atoms (or electrons) from fuel molecules are transferred from one electron acceptor molecule to another Final acceptor in the chain is O2, which combines with the hydrogen to form water

•!

Chemiosmotic Model
•!

Energy liberated in the electron transport chain is used to establish a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane Protons flow through a membrane channel within the enzyme ATP synthase
•!

•!

Energy released is used to synthesize ATP

KEY TERMS
•!

GLYCOLYSIS
•!

The first stage of cellular respiration, in which glucose is split into two molecules of pyruvate with the production of a small amount of ATP

KEY TERMS
•!

CITRIC ACID CYCLE (Krebs cycle)
•!

A series of aerobic chemical reactions in which fuel molecules are degraded to carbon dioxide and water, with the release of metabolic energy used to produce ATP

KEY TERMS
•!

CHEMIOSMOSIS
•!

The synthesis of ATP using the energy of a proton gradient established across a membrane; occurs during electron transport in both photosynthesis and aerobic respiration

Proton Gradient

Outer mitochondrial membrane

Cytoplasm Inner mitochondrial membrane Intermembrane space—low pH Matrix— higher pH

Fig. 4-19, p. 83

Summary: Aerobic Respiration

LEARNING OBJECTIVE 8

•!

Distinguish between alcohol fermentation and lactate fermentation

Fermentation
•!

Anaerobic pathway that degrades glucose and other organic molecules without oxygen Uses glycolysis, but final acceptor of hydrogen is an organic molecule

•!

Alcohol and Lactate
•!

Alcohol fermentation
•! •!

In yeasts, certain others Degrades glucose to pyruvate, then splits CO2 off, forming ethyl alcohol

•!

Lactate fermentation
•! •!

In certain fungi, prokaryotes Pyruvate produced during glycolysis is converted to lactate

Fermentation

Fig. 4-21a, p. 87

Glycolysis Glucose 2 NAD+ 2 NADH 2 NAD+ 2 ATP 2 Pyruvate

Glycolysis Glucose 2 NADH

2 ATP

2 Pyruvate

CO2 2 Ethyl alcohol (b) In alcohol fermentation, the twocarbon ethyl alcohol is the end product. 2 Lactate (c) In lactate fermentation, the final product is the three-carbon compound lactate.
Fig. 4-21bc, p. 87

Animation: Photosynthesis Overview

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Animation: Wavelengths of Light

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Animation: Calvin-Benson Cycle

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Animation: Overview of Aerobic Respiration

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