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Code No.410203 IV-B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2003 COMPUTER METHODS IN POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks. --1.a) How do you determine load bus voltage when reactive power status is not specified. b) Draw a flow chart for load flow solution using NR method with all types of uses in the system. 2.a) b) 3. How do you represent transformers in load flow studies? Explain. Discuss the effect of acceleration factors on the rate of convergence for load flow solutions. Compare the Gauss – seidal and Newton – Raphson methods with reference to number of iterations, memory requirements, arithmetic operations involved etc for a load flow solution. Explain in detail, how the state estimation is done in solving power flow analysis problem. Also define the state variables. Explain how a synchronous machine is represented for fault calculations. Justify the mode of representation. A 1250 KVA, 5000V, generator with Xd''=0.08p.u supplies a purely resistive load of 1000 KW at 500ν. The load is connected directly across the terminals of the generator. If all the three phases of the load are short circuited simultaneously, find the initial symmetrical RMS current in the generator. Derive an expression for the total short circuit MVA on any one section of a generating plant having N section bus bars, each rated “S” MVA with g% reactance connected on the tie-bar system through bus-bar reactance of b%. If the above section rating is 100 MVA, g=15, b=10; calculate the short circuit MVA with 3 sections. Distinguish between steady state, dynamic and transient stabilities. Explain the following terms : (i) Transfer reactance (ii) Inertia constant Draw a diagram to illustrate the application of equal area criterion to study transient stability when there is a sudden increase in the input of generator. What are the steps to be followed for determining multi machine stability? Write the state variable formulation of swing equation. @@@@@

1

4. 5.a) b)

6.a) b) 7.a) b) c) 8.a) b)

Set No.

Code No.410203 IV-B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2003 COMPUTER METHODS IN POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks. --1.a) What are acceleration factors? Explain their importance in power flow studies. b) Describe load flow solution with P-V buses. 2.a) b) 3. How do you formulate power flow problem. How do you classify system variables in terms of state, input and output variables, in power flow studies. Compare the performance of decoupled and fast – Decoupled method for load flow solution using nodal admittance approach for the formulation of load flow equations. Write a detailed note on tracking state estimation of power systems. Draw the connection of sequence networks for the following types of faults. a) Single line to ground b) Double line to ground c) Symmetrical fault LLL-G The figure represents a sample power system. T1

1 2

2

4. 5. a 6. G1

T2 G2

∆

∆

Each generator is rated 100 MVA, X1=X2=15%, X0=5%. Each transformer is rated 150 MVA, X1=X2=X0=8%. Transmission line has X1=X2=15% and X0=4% on 100 MVA base. Calculate fault currents in the line if there is L-G fault at bus. 7.a) b) c) What is power system stability? Define stability limit of the system. Why transient state stability limit is less than steady state stability limit? Explain. Draw diagrams to illustrate the application of equal area criterion to study transient stability when a fault on one of the parallel lines of a two circuit line feeding an Infinite bus. The fault is very close to the sending end bus and is subsequently cleared by the opening of faulted line. Mark the accelerating and decelerating areas in the diagram.

8.

Write the steps involved in the computational algorithm for obtaining swing curves using modified Euler’s Method. @@@@@

Set No.

Code No.410203 IV-B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2003 COMPUTER METHODS IN POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks. --Comment on the following statements: Computational procedure in load flow equations solution depends upon type of bus. The power flow equations will never permit us to solve for the individual phase angles δ1 and δ2, but only these differences, δ1-δ2. All the generation variables cannot be specified a priori. Write short notes on the following: Data for power flow studies Merits and demerits of using polar and rectangular coordinates in load flow studies. Explain with a flow chart, the computational procedure for load flow solution using fast decoupled method. Write a detailed note on static state estimation of power systems. A synchronous generator is rated 100 MVA, 11 KV, Xd=0.2 p.u. The generator is connected to a step-up transformer with ratings of 150 MVA, 12 KV(delta)/132 KV(star), X=0.09 p.u. Compute fault current in amps for three-phase fault at H.T. terminals of the transformer. Derive the algorithm for symmetrical short circuit analysis of a multi machine power system using Z Bus matrix. Give steps for implementing this algorithm. Define the following terms : (i) Steady state stability limit (ii) Dynamic stability limit (iii) Transient stability limit List the assumptions made in the transient stability solution techniques. Write short notes on any classical method of analyzing transient stability of the system. Explain with a flow chart, the solution technique for solving the swing equations of a multi machine system. @@@@@

3

1. a) b) c) 2. a) b) 3. 4. 5.

6.

7.a)

b) c) 8.

Set No.

Code No.410203 IV-B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, May 2003 COMPUTER METHODS IN POWER SYSTEMS (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 Hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks. --Draw flow chart for load flow solution by Gauss-Siedel (G.S.) iterative method using Ybus. Describe New-ton Raphson (N.R) method in polar coordinates. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of finding Ybus by (a) Singular transformation using graph theory, (b) Directly from the network. Give illustration. Explain clearly with a detailed flow chart the computational procedure for load flow solution using decoupled method. Explain in detail, the sequential form of solution in least square estimation. Sketch the waveform of a stator current of a synchronous generator when subjected to a 3-phase short circuit at its terminals and explain the salient features of this waveform. Three 6.6 KV alternators of rating 2 MVA, 5 MVA and 8 MVA having per unit reactances of 0.08, 0.12, and 0.16 respectively are connected to a common bus. From the bus, a feeder cable of reactance of 0.125 ohm connects to a sub-station. Calculate the fault MVA, if a 3-phase symmetrical fault occurs at the sub-station. Derive an expression to calculate the fault current in a network of an unloaded generator for line to ground fault on phase “A”. Draw the connection of sequence networks for single line to ground fault through an impedance “Zf”. Give details of assumptions made in the study of steady state and transient stability solution techniques. Give important difference between steady state, dynamic and transient stability studies. Give the list of methods to improve transient stability of the system. Explain the modified Euler method of finding the stability of a multi machine system. Draw the block diagram of a typical speed governing system. Develop its mathematical model to be used in transient stability studies.

4

1.a) b) 2.

3. 4. 5.a) b)

6.a) b) 7.a) b) c) 8.a) b)

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