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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

Lab 1: Efficient Model for Access in Cellular Networks

Introduction

We consider the problem of modeling mobile to base-station (uplink) communications in a cellular network. The base station potentially has several channels available for simultaneous communication with multiple mobiles. Several approaches can be taken to model the uplink. The brute force approach is to broadcast packets from the mobile and discard packets at all receiver channels (both at the base and other mobiles) that are not eligible to receive the packets. Because transmissions from the mobile are intended only for the base station, another approach to model the uplink is to use a “directed broadcast” technique in which only the base station receives packets from the mobiles. Lastly, if the channel at the base station that is eligible to receive the transmission is known in advance, the uplink transmission can be limited to a single channel at the base station—this approach is the most efficient.

Objectives

  • 1. Contrast the inefficiency of a brute-force technique (full broadcast) with more efficient techniques: node-directed broadcast & channel-directed broadcast.

  • 2. Demonstrate use of the “broadcast unique” feature and dynamic receiver groups.

Model Overview

The network model consists of base-station nodes and mobile nodes. Because we are primarily considering uplink transmissions, the mobile acts as a traffic source and the base station acts as a sink. The base station has ten receiver channels. Only the first channel is eligible to receive transmissions from the mobile.

Three scenarios are studied in this lab:

“Full Broadcast”: The network is set up so that all receiver channels (both mobile and base) process packets.

“Broadcast Unique”: In this scenario, only the receiver channels at the base process packets.

“Dynamic Rxgroup”: In this scenario, the packet is processed only by the first channel at the base that can successfully demodulate and decode it.

The “full broadcast” scenario is used as a baseline—it has already been set up and is ready to run. For the next two scenarios, the code will be modified to enable the two efficiency techniques.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

Simulate the Performance of Full Broadcast

  • 1. Start OPNET Modeler, if not already running. Open the project OPNK_1530. The project OPNK_1530_ref is available if you want to “follow along” without actually carrying out the lab procedure.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Simulate the Performance of Full Broadcast 1. Start
  • 2. The scenario “full_bcast” is selected.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Simulate the Performance of Full Broadcast 1. Start

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

3. 3. Select statistics for collection: a. From the menu bar, choose DES > Choose Individual
3.
3.
Select statistics for collection:
a.
From the menu bar, choose DES > Choose Individual Statistics.
b.
Select the “Traffic Received (packets/sec) statistic under Global / Traffic Sink.
c.
Click OK.
4.
Run the simulation using the key sequence Ctrl+Shift+R OR click on the Configure/Run
Discrete Event Simulation button
and click Run.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 5. When the simulation is complete, note the
  • 5. When the simulation is complete, note the number of events and time taken before closing the window.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 5. When the simulation is complete, note the

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

Number of events simulated: ______________ Time taken: _____________

  • 6. Note the number of packets received by the base station:

    • a. Click on the Hide/Show Graph Panels button

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Number of events simulated: ______________ Time taken: _____________

to open an empty template.

  • b. Right-click on the empty panel and choose Load Data Into Template from the pop-up menu.

  • c. Approximately 80 packets/sec are received on an average.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Number of events simulated: ______________ Time taken: _____________

Simulate the Performance of Node-Directed Broadcast

In the previous scenario, all receivers in the network—the base station and all mobiles—received a transmission from the transmitting mobile. The packets were filtered out only after all the pipeline stages were executed. In this next approach, we use the “broadcast unique” property of a packet to limit the eligible receiver channels so that only the base station channels receive the packet.

  • 1. Duplicate the current scenario:

    • a. Use Ctrl+Shift+D or choose Scenario > Duplicate Scenario from the menu bar.

    • b. Name the new scenario “bcast_unique”.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Make code modifications to enable the efficiency
  • 2. Make code modifications to enable the efficiency approaches:

    • a. Double-click on any mobile node.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Make code modifications to enable the efficiency
  • b. Double-click on the channel access module to open the underlying process model:

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Make code modifications to enable the efficiency
  • c. Study the code in the exit executives of the “Send RACH” state (double-click on the bottom half of the state).

  • d. Uncomment the code between lines 5 and 30 by deleting the #if 0 and #endif statements.

  • 3. Code review:

    • a. Notice that the state variable “SV_DRG” is used to decide whether dynamic receiver groups must be used or the broadcast unique property of the packet must be set.

    • b. Notice that the dynamic receiver groups are set by a call to opnk_drg_set() (we will look at this function in the next part of the lab).

    • c. The state variable “SV_DRG” gets its value from a simulation attribute called “Efficiency Mode”. (Where is this done?)

    • d. Save the changes and close the editor (Ctrl-S) OR choose File > Save.

    • e. Compile the modified code by clicking the Compile button

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Make code modifications to enable the efficiency

in the Process Editor.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

  • 4. Configure and run the simulation.

    • a. Close the Process Editor and Node Editor windows.

    • b. In the Project Editor, use either Ctrl+R OR click on the Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation button.

    • c. Expand Inputs in the tree view window and select Global Attributes.

    • d. Verify that “Efficiency Mode” is set to “Node Specific”.

    • e. Click on “Efficiency Mode” to select it, then click on Details to see the meaning of each mode.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 4. Configure and run the simulation. a. Close
  • f. Click Run to run the simulation.

  • 5. Note the number of events and the time taken before closing the window:

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Number of events simulated: ______________ Time taken: _____________

Number of events simulated: ______________

Time taken: _____________

  • 6. Observe the number of packets received in this scenario:

    • a. Click on the Hide/Show Graph Panels button to bring up the previous result.

    • b. Right-click on the panel and choose Make Graph Template.

    • c. Right-click on the panel again and choose Load Data Into Template.

    • d. Approximately 80 packets/sec are received on an average.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Simulate the Performance of Channel-Directed Broadcast In the

Simulate the Performance of Channel-Directed Broadcast

In the previous scenario, all the channels at the base station received each transmission. This might be a valid model for some systems where the mobiles do not know which channel at the base is available. You will next model a scenario in which only one channel at the base station is the intended receiver for the transmission. In such a scenario, the receiver group must be limited to exactly one channel. Use the dynamic receiver groups feature to implement this model.

  • 1. Duplicate the scenario:

    • a. Use (Ctrl+Shift+D) OR choose Scenario > Duplicate Scenario.

    • b. Name the new scenario “dynamic_rxgroup”.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Simulate the Performance of Channel-Directed Broadcast In the
  • 2. Code review:

    • a. As noted earlier, the dynamic receiver groups are set through a function opnk_drg_set().

    • b. Open external source file opnk_1530_phy_sup.ex.c.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

  • c. Choose File > Open.

  • d. Select External Source (C Code) from the pull-down menu.

  • e. Select opnk_1530_phy_sup.ex.c and click OK.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual c. Choose File > Open. d. Select External
  • f. Look at the function opnk_drg_set() (line 93).

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual c. Choose File > Open. d. Select External
  • g. The receiver group comprises only one channel from the base station—all other channels at the base station will not receive the transmission.

  • h. Close the editor window.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

  • 3. Configure and run the simulation.

    • a. In the Project Editor, use either Ctrl+R OR click on the Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation button.

    • b. Expand Inputs in the tree view window and select Global Attributes.

    • c. Set the “Efficiency Mode” attribute to “Channel Specific”.

    • d. Run the simulation by clicking on Run.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 3. Configure and run the simulation. a. In
  • 4. When the simulation is complete, note the number of events and time taken before closing the window:

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Number of events simulated: ______________ Time taken: _____________

Number of events simulated: ______________

Time taken: _____________

  • 5. Compare results from all three scenarios:

    • a. Right-click in the workspace and choose View Results.

    • b. Select Global Statistics / Traffic Sink / Traffic Received.

    • c. Select Overlaid Statistics, average and All Scenarios from the corresponding pull-down menus.

    • d. Click Show.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual e. Observe that the number of packets received
  • e. Observe that the number of packets received successfully is the same in each case.

  • f. Compare the number of events simulated and the time taken in each case.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Conclusions The number of events is large when

Conclusions

The number of events is large when a copy of a transmitted packet is received by all eligible channels. (The simulation time is also correspondingly high.) Use of a packet’s broadcast unique property or dynamic receiver groups should be based on the number of channels at the receiving node. Dynamic receiver groups is the most efficient method to limit the amount of processing that occurs at a receiver. However, the transmission does not result in any interference to other receivers in the last case. Therefore, there is a trade-off between efficiency and level-of-detail in the model.

END OF LAB 1

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

Lab 2: Worst-Case Interference Calculation

Introduction

In a CDMA-based cellular network, packet reception is accomplished in a multiple-access interference environment. Convolutional codes are typically used to mitigate channel errors. The multiple access interference levels are not constant throughout the duration of packet reception, but the packet can be divided into segments that have constant interference levels. The error correction capability of a convolutional code cannot be evaluated on a segment-by-segment basis. As an approximation, use the worst-case interference over the entire packet to develop a conservative model.

Objective

  • 1. Devise a simple technique to store the highest level of interference experienced during reception of a packet.

  • 2. Illustrate the use of custom TDAs.

  • 3. Show how output statistics can be written from pipeline stages.

Model Overview

The inoise pipeline stage is invoked each time a new interfering packet starts reception at the receiver. Compare the interference level computed at each invocation to a maximum value stored in a TDA. If the interference level calculated upon invocation is higher, update the maximum value stored. However, you must ensure that the value of the custom TDA is initialized correctly. The power stage can be modified for this initialization. At the end of packet reception, write the value of the custom TDA to the “Max Interference” statistic. For this purpose, use the ecc stage.

Radio Receiver Configuration at the Base Station

  • 1. Switch to scenario “max_int_power”.

    • a. Choose Scenario > Switch To Scenario.

    • b. Select max_int_power.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Open the node model for the base
  • 2. Open the node model for the base station.

    • a. Double-click on the Base Station node.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Open the node model for the base
  • 3. Look at the receiver attributes power model, inoise model, and ecc model.

    • a. Right-click on the receiver module rr_0 and choose Edit Attributes.

    • b. Examine the power model, inoise model, and ecc model attributes.

    • c. Click Cancel when done.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 4. Power pipeline stage code review and compilation:
  • 4. Power pipeline stage code review and compilation:

    • a. Using the Pipeline Stage Editor, open the power stage.

    • b. Choose File > Open.

    • c. Select Pipeline Stage (C code).

    • d. Select opnk_dra_power.

    • e. Observe the block of code starting at line 47.

    • f. The code is used to initialize the custom TDA OPNKC_TDA_MAX_INOISE. This TDA is defined as OPC_TDA_RA_MAX_INDEX + 1 on line 16.

    • g. Uncomment the code as directed.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual h. Save and compile the file. 5. Inoise
  • h. Save and compile the file.

  • 5. Inoise pipeline stage code review and compilation:

    • a. Using the Pipeline Stage Editor, open the inoise stage.

    • b. Choose File > Open.

    • c. Select Pipeline Stage (C code).

    • d. Select opnk_dra_inoise.

    • e. Observe the blocks of code at lines 65 and 87.

    • f. This code compares the value of the current interference level to the maximum observed level and stores a new maximum value if necessary.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual g. Uncomment the code as directed. h. Save
  • g. Uncomment the code as directed.

  • h. Save and compile the file.

  • 6. Using the Pipeline Stage Editor, open the ecc stage

    • a. Choose File > Open.

    • b. Select Pipeline Stage (C code).

    • c. Select opnk_dra_ecc.

    • d. Study the code starting at line 37.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual e. This code retrieves and records the maximum
  • e. This code retrieves and records the maximum interference level as a statistic.

  • f. Uncomment the code as directed (lines 35 and 45).

  • g. Save and compile the file.

  • 7. Review code that initializes the statistic.

    • a. Reopen the external code opnk_1530_phy_sup.ex.c.

    • b. Look at functions opnk_bs_chan_info_init(), opnk_intf_stat_write(), and opnk_max_intf_stat_write().

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual e. This code retrieves and records the maximum

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

Configure and Run Simulation; Observe Results

  • 1. Change the modulation on all but one mobile.

    • a. Right-click on a mobile station (MS) and choose Select Similar Nodes.

    • b. Hold down the control key and click on node_0 (to unselect it).

    • c. Right-click on one of the other MS nodes and select Edit Attributes.

    • d. Select Apply changes to selected objects in the Attributes dialog box.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Configure and Run Simulation; Observe Results 1. Change
  • e. Set the modulation to “msk” and click OK. A message “9 objects changed” appears on the status bar. Because of this change, all nodes except node_0 will generate interference packets (marked as “NOISE”) because the base station expects “bpsk” modulation.

  • 2. Run the simulation.

    • a. Use Ctrl+Shift+R or click on the Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation button and press Enter.

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

  • b. Close the window after the simulation is done.

  • 3. Observe the maximum interference statistic.

    • a. Click on the Hide/Show Graph Panels button to open a template.

    • b. Right-click on the panel and choose Load data into template.

1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual b. Close the window after the simulation is

Conclusions

Custom TDAs can be used to store special values of interest. “State” information associated with a packet can be stored using TDAs to pass intermediate values from on-going calculations between pipeline stages. Existing pipeline stages can be enhanced with minor modifications to generate useful link statistics using the following steps:

Define statistic handles as static variables in an external file.

Call a statistic registration function from a process model that declares the statistic.

Call statistic-recording functions from pipeline stages to write the statistic.

END OF LAB 2

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1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

Lab 3: Efficient Mobility Modeling For Hand-off Decisions Introduction

Base stations typically transmit continuously on a pilot channel, permitting mobiles to monitor the pilot channel signal strengths from various base stations for hand-off decisions. In an abstract model, continuous measurement of signal strengths is unnecessary. It is sufficient to evaluate relative signal strength only when the node needs to send or receive a packet. In this lab you will develop a model that permits the mobile to make “just-in-time” signal strength measurements.

Objective

Compare two methods of monitoring pilot channels:

Schedule regular interrupts to make measurements.

Receive notification from kernel when measurement is necessary.

Model Overview

Set up a module with a process that performs a signal strength calculation when interrupted. This module must reside on the mobile node, permitting periodic evaluation of distance from the base station. The calculation can be initiated either by self-interrupts or by a remote interrupt from the kernel. Use a simulation attribute to decide which method is used, run simulations for both cases, and compare performance.

Model Configuration and Code Review

  • 1. Switch to scenario “pilot_ch_timed_reg”.

    • a. Choose Scenario > Switch To Scenario.

    • b. Select “pilot_ch_timed_reg”.

  • 2. Drill down to the module in which the process model that monitors the pilot resides:

    • a. Double-click on any mobile station node. (The Node Editor opens.)

    • b. Double-click on the module “Pilot Mon”. (The Process Editor opens.)

  • 3. Observe the code in the following executives:

    • a. Init Enter Execs (to open, double-click on the top-half of the Init state).

    • b. Loc Update Enter Execs (to open, double-click on the top-half of the Loc Update state).

    • c. Loc Update Exit Execs (to open, double-click on the bottom-half of the Loc Update state).

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    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Configure and Run Simulations for Two Scenarios 1.

    Configure and Run Simulations for Two Scenarios

    • 1. Configure the simulation for the “self-interrupt” method:

      • a. In the Project Editor, use either Ctrl+R OR click on the Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation button.

      • b. Expand Inputs in the tree view window and select Global Attributes.

      • c. Verify that “Location Update Method” is set to “Timed Regular”.

      • d. Click Cancel.

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    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Duplicate the current scenario. a. Choose Scenario
    • 2. Duplicate the current scenario.

      • a. Choose Scenario > Duplicate Scenario.

      • b. Name the new scenario “pilot_ch_kernel_notif”.

  • 3. Configure the simulation for the “Kernel notification” method.

    • a. In the Project Editor, either press Ctrl+R OR click on the Configure/Run Discrete Event Simulation button.

    • b. Expand Inputs in the tree view window and select Global Attributes.

    • c. Set “Location Update Method” to “Kernel Notification”.

    • d. Click Apply followed by Cancel.

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    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 4. Run two scenarios in sequence. a. Choose
    • 4. Run two scenarios in sequence.

      • a. Choose Scenarios > Manage scenarios.

      • b. Select <collect results> for the two scenarios of interest—pilot_ch_timed_reg and pilot_ch_kernel_notif .

      • c. Click OK.

    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 4. Run two scenarios in sequence. a. Choose

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    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

    Performance Analysis

    • 1. Notice the difference in number of events generated:

    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual Performance Analysis 1. Notice the difference in number

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    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual

    • 2. Click on the Hide/Show Graph Panels button to open a template.

    • 3. Right-click on the panel and choose Load Data Into Template.

    1530 Modeling Custom Wireless Effects – Lab Manual 2. Click on the Hide/Show Graph Panels button
    • 4. Notice how, when interrupts are timed regularly, the pilot channel power is tracked closely. However, the pilot channel power is only “sampled” when needed when the “kernel notification” mode is used.

    Conclusions

    The mobility callbacks can be used when certain location-related calculations need to be performed only when there is an event of interest.

    The efficiency increase by use of such callbacks depends on the amount of processing that is performed at each juncture.

    END OF LAB 3

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