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URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES

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Trends and Challenges of Urban Space Utilization in the Cities of Cebu and Lapulapu

OUTLINE
Urbanization and Urban Growth Patterns in the Philippines  Legal Mandate for land use planning and urban development in the Philippines  Current status of public urban space utilization in Cebu City and Lapulapu City  Land Use Planning and Urban development activities in Cebu City and Lapulapu City  Observations and Areas for research

PHILIIPPINE MAP

water system.HISTORICAL TREND IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES Spanish Regime . and telecommunication.  Current urban development – the role of the poblacion as the center of urbanization becomes less and less important as other areas of the town vie for designation as urban center.Poblacion and plaza complex  American Regime – expansion of the poblacion and Plaza complex to include public school and public market. road network.  .

Urban fringe Rural sector Core built up Area/Poblacion Inner Outer Urban shadow Rural Hinterland Urban barangay barangay Isolated residences Form of a Typical Philippine Town * Adapted from Russwurm ass cited by E. Serote .

The Philippines .

HISTORICAL TREND IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES There was no deliberate attempt to shape urban growth according to a predetermined concept  Introduction of real estate business that resulted to private-led land development  Unmanaged urban growth  Dualism in urban space utilization  Rise of squatters in open spaces  Commercial and industrial establishments are sporadic  Open space for public use and benefits are not protected for the public  .

Government regulations especially on real estate development was not effective in influencing the direction and location of developments. mountain ridges and visual corridors are built over Town plazas are giving way to commercial buildings. coastal zones.HISTORICAL TREND IN URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN THE PHILIPPINES  Open Space      Sidewalks are utilized as spaces for commerce River and utility easements have been built over Waterfronts. . Power and resources were still centralized. covered courts and other similar construction.

 Metropolitan area  .TYPES OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT Predominantly rural towns with their poblacion as the only urban core  Towns with a much expanded urban core but the contiguous area is still within the town boundaries.

commercial/manufacturing/ recreational/personal services establishments.000 persons/sq. plaza.  Poblaciones or central district (not included in 1 or 2) regardless of population size which have a network of streets. market. and public places (town hall. health centers. school.  Poblaciones or central districts of municipalities and cities which have a population density of 500 persons/sq. library)  . km.URBAN AREAS IN THE PHILIPPINES AS DEFINED BY THE NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE All cities and municipalities with a population density of at least 1. hospital. km.

which aims to :  Uplift the conditions of the underprivileged and homeless citizens in urban areas and in resettlement areas . “ It shall be the policy of the State to undertake.LEGAL MANDATE FOR LAND USE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992  The law declares that. a comprehensive and continuing Urban Development and Housing Program. in cooperation with the private sector.

particularly those that adversely affect public health.LEGAL MANDATE FOR LAND USE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992  Provide for the rational use and development of urban land to bring about :  Equitable utilization of residential lands in urban and urbanizable areas  Optimization of the use and productivity of land and urban resource  Development of urban areas conducive to commercial and industrial activities  Reduction in urban dysfunctions. safety and ecology  Access to land and housing by the underprivileged and homeless citizens .

LEGAL MANDATE FOR LAND USE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992  Adopt workable policies to regulate and direct urban growth and expansion towards a dispersed urban net and more balanced urban-rural interdependence  Provide for an equitable land tenure system that shall guarantee security of tenure to Program beneficiaries  Encourage more effective people’s participation in the urban development process  Improve the capability of local government units in undertaking urban development and housing programs and projects .

hospitals and health centers. and other areas necessary to maintain ecological balance or environmental protection. or educational purposes. and cemeteries or memorial parks. reserves for flora and fauna. cultural and historical sites.  . as determined and certified to by the proper government agency. forests and watersheds. charitable.LEGAL MANDATE FOR LAND USE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT  Exemptions from RA 7279 Those used or set aside for parks.  Those actually and primarily used for religious.

LEGAL MANDATE FOR LAND USE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992  The law requires that a National Urban Development and Housing Framework (NUDHF) be formulated by the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) under the direction of the Housing and Urban Development Coordinating Council (HUDCC) in coordination with all local government units and other concerned public and private sectors within one (1) year from the effectivity of the law. .

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a review and rationalization of existing town and land use plans. infrastructure. . housing programs. environment and population movements shall be undertaken with the concurrence of the local government units concerned.  In the formulation of the framework. transportation and public utilities. and all other projects and activities of government agencies and the private sector which may substantially affect urban land use patterns.INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR LAND USE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992  The UDHA Framework refers to the comprehensive plan for urban and urbanizable areas.

these are included in the discussions on ecological balance and transport system.  The local government units are the implementers of the law. . But the other functions of public spaces are not mentioned but assumed to be part of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan (CLUP) the LGUs are required to prepare.  There are no clear provisions for the development of public urban space.INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR LAND USE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Urban Development and Housing Act of 1992  The policy direction set by the UDHA is towards the provision of the basic need for shelter of the underprivileged and the homeless.

URBAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CEBU CITY .

82 41.82 24.25 Percent Distribution 100.00 62. of Barangays Cebu City Urban Rural North District Urban Rural South District Urban Rural 80 50 30 46 30 16 34 20 14 Percent Distribution 100.09 248.00 14.28 53.Total Land Area: Cebu City. Urban and Rural In Square Kilometers (Sq Km) No.00 23.75 100.78 100.05 100.10 78.76 169.57 145.00 34.47 85.01 156.52 102.00 65. By District.50 37.53 .95 76.25 65.22 34.18 Area (Sq Km) 326.50 100.00 58.

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451 12.07 32.256 120.281 610.821 7.299 718.6 1.909 77.24 3.9 2.88 32.24 17.643 95. Growth Change Rate Population Density (Pop.064.23 19.068 6.522 1.970 9.266.304 2.817 167.2 513.994 65.) 141.7 770./ Sq.09 30.84 1.025 490.181 15.503.417 662.376 11.597 13. km.77 Source: NSO 2000 Census Report .872.013 10.146 347.204.136 51.Cebu City Intercensal Population: 1903-2000 Total City Population % to Province’s Total InterIntercensal % Annual censal Change Average Population Average/Yr.882 56.86 28.970 65. 2.9 450.031.88 23.38 3.32 3.0 2.63 1.19 1.503 251.71 8.0 Census Year 1903 1918 1939 1948 1960 1970 1975 1980 1990 1995 2000 45.2 1.4 1.116 413.26 31.89 32.1 200.315 20.871.43 2.52 16.36 3.686 83.300 3.502 146.48 3.508 81.5 1.

54 1.299 .31 4.99 3.Rural North District South District 2.069 12. Km.64 589.280 318.581 . Cebu City District Total Population Density Per Sq.877 37.06 3.38 2.561 72.458 34.965 292 339 259 1.26 0. Annual Growth Rate 662.Population. Density and Annual Growth Rate.031 7.841 271.Urban North District South District .553 5.

Summary of Existing Urban Land Use.81 0.40 0.325 109 25 7.43 4.31 100.67 0.30 0.809 Percent (%) to Total 54.15 0.06 7.77 1.51 29.00 .58 0.222 610 34 364 12 22 46 40 2. 2000 Cebu City Land Use Classification Residential Commercial Industrial Institutional Parks and Playground Agricultural Infrastructure Facilities Cemetery Open Space Sports and Recreation Waste Disposal Site Total Est’d Land Area (hectares) 4.

safety. convenience and general welfare of the inhabitants. agricultural and open space areas prevent undue congestion of population . peace. comfort. morals.CEBU CITY LAND USE AND ZONING ORDINANCE  Objective     promote and protect the health. control and regulate future growth and development protect the character and stability of residential. industrial. commercial. guide.

culture. character and the historical background of the site. “The planning approach is to induce development towards the hinterlands to accommodate future population overspill. ….CEBU CITY LAND USE AND ZONING ORDINANCE Development Strategy.. All structures shall blend with the surroundings to preserve order and ecological balance.  The architectural design of buildings must respect Filipino heritage.The land use planning is interphased with the planning of the metropolitan transportation system. 1996)  .” (Cebu City Zoning Ordinance.

CEBU CITY. nearby streets along the current location are being utilized by vendors. CARBON MARKET.The current Carbon Public Market’s capacity cannot accommodated the current demand for market space. Hence. PHILIPPINES .

. and economic activity for lack of proper spaces for these functions to be delivered by the local government. PHILIPPINES A normal scene along Colon Street. the oldest street in the City. CEBU CITY. it serves the function of transport.COLON STREET.

JONES AVENUE.Competing use of public spaces: market space and pedestrian areas. CEBU CITY PHILIPPINES .

PHLIPPINES . and market place. CARBON MARKET.There is order in chaos: the multifunctional use of the street along Carbon market: pedestrian. CEBU CITY. motor vehicle transport.

One of the two remaining green spaces in Cebu City: Fuente Osmena. CEBU CITY . FUENTE OSMENA. PHILIPPINES .

CEBU CITY . PLAZA INDEPENDENCIA & FORT SAN PEDRO.A historical and cultural site showing the Spanish influences in the city currently being renovated as a consequence of urban transport expansion: the construction of an underground tunnel.

festivals. CEBU CITY SPORTS COMPLEX. CEBU CITY .The sports complex becomes a venue not only for sports related activities but for concerts. and public discourse more than what it ws originally intended to be used.

On-going renovation of Plaza Independencia: part of the construction work undertaking of the underground tunnel road. PLAZA INDEPENDENCIA. CEBU CITY. PHILIPPINES .

CEBU CITY .Care was taken not to create much damage to the structures above this tunnel road under Plaza Independencia TUNNEL UNDER PLAZA INDEPENDENCIA.

The Plaza complex in the old district of Cebu City CEBU CITY HALL AND PLAZA COMPLEX .

CEBU CITY LIBRARY AND MUESUEM. . it now houses the city library and museum.The building built in the 1920’s. Originally a hospital. The upper floor also serves a function room which could be used for private parties and public gatherings.

This building built originally built in 1869 as a prison cell is now a museum for Cebuano heritage and history. MUSEO SUBGO. CEBU CITY PHIIPPINES .

CEBU CITY .00 CEBU SOUTH BUS TERMINAL.The newly renovated public transport terminal has provided a comfortable space for the commuting public with a minimal fee of P7.

PHILIPPINES . the Asia Town IT Park . CEBU CITY. ASIATOWN IT PARK. an integrated special economic zone and modern trading center .Originally a domestic airport.

CEBU CITY. . PHIL. NIGHT AT THE MUSEUMS TOUR.An annual activity of the Ramon Aboitiz Foundation offering visits to 9 museums from 6 pm to 12 midnight including Museo Sugbu.

The mall provides an alternative “public space” for the residents of Cebu City and its neighboring towns/ municipalities AYALA CENTER CEBU. PHILIPPINES .

434 785 44 469 15 28 59 51 2.325 2005 4.657 2020 5.925 140 32 10.367 125 29 8.222 610 34 364 12 22 46 40 2.825 697 39 416 14 25 53 46 2.051 Note: assumption made on the basis of current ratio and trends Cebu City Master Plan .491 2010 4.Future Urban Land Use Requirements Cebu City 2000 Residential Commercial Industrial Institutional Parks and Playground Agricultural Infrastructure/Utilities Cemetery Open Space 4.993 Sports and Recreation Waste Disposal Site Total 109 25 7.809 117 27 8.524 654 36 390 13 24 49 43 2.

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URBAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF LAPULAPU CITY .

PHILIPPINES .Lapulapu City and the municipality of Cordova comprise the Island of Mactan. CEBU. MACTAN ISLAND.

170 3.933 6.298 34032 217.56 . Annual Growth Rate 1995-2000 (%) Metro Cebu Compostela Liloan Consolacion Cordova Lapulapu Mandaue Cebu City Talisay 1.146 2.73 5.33 5.743 2.77 4.Comparative Total Population and Annual Growth Rate Metro Cebu.821 148.062 2.370 3.019 259.881 31.41 4.970 62.18 5. 1.728 718. Region VII and Philippines Total Population Sept.990 387 1.110 1.446 64. Km.88 6.130 1.26 3.36 1. 2000 Population Density Per Sq. Province.693.

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LAPULAPU CITY. The city lacks a well established road network.An aerial view of the city of Lapulapu. PHIIPPINES .

MACTAN .The coastlines and islands of Lapulapu City has been earmarked for tourism development which may pose problems to the environmental conditions of the coastal zones. AERIAL VIEW. CEBU .

LAPULAPU CITY GOVERNMENT CENTER .The city was able to secure land to locate government public services infrastructure.

The infrastructure was constructed by the city government. LAPULAPU CITY . however most of the public utility vehicles don’t often use this public transport space. Most of these vehicles just pick up passengers along the way exacerbating the city’s traffic problem. PUJ TERMINAL.

LAPULAPU CITY .Dilapidated condition of the Lapulapu Market Market. PUBLIC MARKET.

STREETS ALONG LAPULAPU PUBLIC MARKET

STREET
ALONG LAPULAPU PUBLIC MARKET

LAPULAPU PUBLIC MARKET

frequented by domestic and foreign tourism.A cultural and historical site. MACTAN SHRINE. LAPULAPU CITY .

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They are capable of addressing the concerns for the provision of public urban spaces provision/ development but would still need technical.  The success of urban public space development lies on the presence and initiative of “drivers” and “movers” within the public and private spheres.BASIC OBSERVATIONS National policy on the provision of public spaces provides the framework for urban development. financial and management assistance. as powers and responsibilities for urban planning implementation are within its jurisdiction.e. civic and professional groups. i.  . The task lies primarily on the Local Government Unit (LGU). local government officials.

these do not fit to the surrounding area where it located and it excludes local residents in enjoying its amenities. How can the private sector and civil society participate and ensure the provision of public spaces? How are conflicts in the use of public spaces resolved?  There is a disconnect between private land developers and the city planning activities.  .BASIC OBSERVATIONS The provision of public urban spaces are less of a priority of most LGUs. While these groups create very livable environment. in most cases.

Does it speak also of the priorities of local residents or the lack of understanding of its significance? Have they found alternative means and schemes that could substitute these public spaces? How much are they willing to pay to avail of these spaces? .BASIC OBSERVATIONS  Community participation in ensuring that public spaces are provided/available are not strongly advocated.

AREAS FOR RESEARCH Impact of tourism development and investment policies on land development along coastal areas on the way of life of local residents in Lapulapu City  Validation of people’s perception on the provision of public green spaces or urban public spaces.  Documentation of good/current practices in urban public space development and management.  Designing a renewal/revitalization incentive schemes for property owners Central Business District of Cebu City.  . user fees and charges for urban public space utilization.

AREAS FOR RESEARCH Social acceptability of converting historically significant Colon Street into a pedestrian zone. (Valuation of space in an urban area)  Reclamation Projects as new urban spaces.  Redefining the concept of urban space from 2 dimensional to 3 dimensional perspective due to limited land area.  .