You are on page 1of 166

Course Content

Radio Resource Management Overview Parameter Configuration Common Channels & Power Control Load Control Admission Control Packet Scheduling Handover Control Resource Manager

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Course Objectives
At the end of the course you will be able to:
Name and describe the different Handover types Describe and list the steps of the Handover procedure for each Handover type Name and describe the main RAN parameters related to Handover reporting triggering Describe the main difference between inter system Handover and other Handover types Name and describe the main RAN parameters related to inter system Handover

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


Measurement triggering Measurements HO decisions Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

GSM ISHO

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


3 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types
Intra-Frequency Handovers
Softer Handover

Handover between sectors of the same Node B (handled by BTS) No extra transmissions across Iub interface Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) is occurring in both the UL and DL MS simultaneously connected to multiple cells (from different Node Bs) Extra transmission across Iub, more channel cards are needed (compared to non-SHO) Mobile Evaluated Handover (MEHO) DL/UE: MRC & UL/RNC: Frame selection combining Arises when inter-RNC SHO is not possible (Iur not supported or Iur congestion) Decision procedure is the same as SHO (MEHO and RNC controlled) Causes temporary disconnection of the (RT) user

Soft Handover

Hard Handover

Inter-Frequency Handover
Can be intra-BS, intra-RNC, inter-RNC Network Evaluated Handover (NEHO) Decision algorithm located in RNC

Inter-RAT Handover
Handovers between GSM and WCDMA (NEHO)
4 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


5 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

HC Parameter Database Structure


32

RNC
100

ADJG FMCG WBTS


48 HOPG 100

G:InterG:InterSystem System
100

I:InterI:InterFrequency Frequency
100

ADJI FMCI WCELL ADJS


HOPI 100

32

S:IntraS:IntraFrequency Frequency

FMCS
HOPS 100

RNC = Radio Network Controller level parameters WBTS = Node B level parameters WCELL = Cell level parameters FMCx = Frequency Measurement Control parameters (S=intra-frequency set; I=inter-frequency; G=inter-RAT) ADJx = Adjacent Cell parameters (S=intra-frequency set; I=inter-frequency; G=inter-RAT) HOPx = Handover Path parameters (S=intra- frequency set; I=inter-frequency; G=inter-RAT)

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SHO: Neighbour Cell Definition


WCEL WCEL

NrtHopsIdentifier = 5 RtHopsIdentifier = 10
HOPS (NRT) ADJS HOPS (RT) HOPS (NRT)

HOPSid = 5

WBTS

WCEL WCEL

ADJSid = 1

HOPSid = 10

NrtFmcsIdentifier = 3 RtFmcsIdentifier = 40
Each WCEL has associated 1 FMCS for NRT & 1 for RT, both can be reused for other cells. Different FMCSs could be defined for the different type of cells (urban, rural, macro/micro/pico)
7 NOKIA

WCEL

ADJS HOPS (RT) HOPS (NRT) ADJS HOPS (RT)

ADJSid = 2
FMCSid = 3
FMCS (NRT)

Each ADJS has associated 1 HOPS for NRT & 1 for RT, both can be reused for other cells. Different HOPSs parameters could be defined for the different type of cells (urban, rural, macro/micro/pico)

FMCSid = 40

FMCS (RT)

ADJSid = 3

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

HO Parameter Categories
Handover Control Parameters RNC parameters WCEL parameters HOPS parameters FMCS parameters ADJS parameters HOPI parameters FMCI parameters ADJI parameters HOPG parameters FMCG parameters ADJG parameters

ADJS, HOPS & FMCS


Define Adj Cell Define Adjacent Cell Measurement Control
31 100 1

Define Target Cell Selection


HOPS parameters 1 Cell Re-selection HCS Priority Cell Re-selection HCS Threshold Cell Re-selection Minimum Quality Cell Re-selection Minimum RX Level Cell Re-selection Penalty Time Cell Re-selection Quality Offset 1 Cell Re-selection Quality Offset 2 Cell Re-selection Temporary Offset 1 Cell Re-selection Temporary Offset 2 CPICH Ec/No Averaging Window Enable Inter-RNC Soft Handover Enable RRC Connection Release HHO Margin for Average Ec/No HHO Margin for Peak Ec/No Release Margin for Average Ec/No Release Margin for Peak Ec/No

Intra-Frequency Inter-Frequency Inter-System

ADJS parameters 1 Cell Identifier CPICH Ec/No Offset Disable Effect on Reporting Range Location Area Code Maximum UE TX Power on RACH Mobile Country Code Mobile Network Code Mobile Network Code Len Primary CPICH power NRT HOPS Identifier Primary Scrambling Code RNC Identifier Routing Area Code RT HOPS Identifier Tx Diversity Indicator

100

FMCS parameters Active Set Weighting Coefficient Addition Reporting Interval Addition Time Addition Window CPICH Ec/No Filter Coefficient CPICH Ec/No HHO Cancellation CPICH Ec/No HHO Cancellation Time CPICH Ec/No HHO Threshold CPICH Ec/No HHO Time Hysteresis CPICH RSCP HHO Cancellation CPICH RSCP HHO Cancellation Time CPICH RSCP HHO Filter Coefficient CPICH RSCP HHO Threshold CPICH RSCP HHO Time Hysteresis Drop Time Drop Window Maximum Active Set Size Replacement Reporting Interval Replacement Time Replacement Window

In GSM:

Define Adj Cell

Define HO Trigger
HoThresholdsLevDL Rx (LDR): -92 dBm Px (LDP): 3 Nx (LDN): 4

Define Target Cell Selection


Rx Lev Min Cell: -95 dBm

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Neighbour Cell Definition


Separate Handover Parameter Set (HOPS) identifiers for real time(RT) & non-real time(NRT) traffic RtHopsIdentifier - real time NrtHopsIdentifier - non-real time Each HOPS object is identified by a unique HOPSid (HOPS) in the RNC - on to which the RtHopsIdentifier and/or NrtHopsIdentifier parameters are mapped to identify the appropriate HOPS parameter set for that particular neighbor cell

Primary scrambling code for neighbor cell specified using AdjsScrCode AdjsTxDiv specifies whether the neighbor cell is using Tx diversity AdjsTxPwrRACH determines the maximum power the UE can use on the PRACH when accessing the neighbor cell

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SHO: Neighbour Cell Definition


Each intra-frequency neighbor (ADJS) is identified using ADJSid (ADJS) The ADJS parameters provide information on the identity of each neighbor cell together with its properties (i.e. Handover parameter set identifier, scrambling code etc..) Each neighbor cell is defined using the UTRAN cell identifier which comprises
UTRAN UTRAN Cell Cell Identifier Identifier = = MCC MCC + + MNC MNC + + RNC RNC identifier identifier + + Cell Cell identifier identifier

Each neighbor cell is defined using the UTRAN cell identifier which comprises; MCC (Mobile Country Code) MNC (Mobile Network Code) RNC Identifier Cell Identifier = AdjsMCC = AdjsMNC = AdjsRNCid = AdjsCI

ADJS Parameters

The LAC (AdjsLAC) & RAC (AdjsRAC) are also in ADJS parameter set
10 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SHO: Neighbour Cell Definition


RT HO Control Parameter: RtHopsIdentifier NRT HO Control Parameter: NrtHopsIdentifier

RNC

MaxActiveSetSize

ADJSid AdjsScrCode AdjsTxDiv AdjsTxPwrRACH

AdjsMCC AdjsMNC UTRAN Cell ID AdjsRNCid AdjsCI


11 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


12 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Soft Handover
HC supports the following measurement reporting events:
Event 1A: A primary CPICH enters the reporting range (Ncell addition) Event 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range (Ncell deletion) Event 1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH (Ncell
replacement)

Cell individual offsets for modifying measurement reporting behaviour Mechanism for forbidding a neighbor ing cell to affect the reporting range

Handover decision performed by RNC based on measurements and available resources Admission Control can reject the branch addition in case the maximum load is achieved in DL (threshold + offset), valid both for RT and NRT bitrates. Hard blocking may prevent branch addition
13 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SHO: Measurement Control


The Handover measurement is based on CPICH Ec/Io The accuracy of pilot Ec/Io measurements is important for Handover performance Measurement accuracy depends on the filtering length and mobile speed.
When a MS moves slowly or is stationary, filtering length (in ms) has to be just long enough to avoid fast fades leading to errors and causing unnecessary Handovers within a short period. Long filtering length will cause Handover delays to fast moving MS

UE can perform averaging on EC/IO measurement prior to the event reporting process EcNoFilterCoefficient (FMCS) defines the measurement period for intra-frequency CPICH EC/IO measurements used by UE (default = 600ms). In the CELL_DCH state the UE physical layer measurement period for intra frequency CPICH Ec/No measurements is 200 ms. The Filter Coefficient parameter controls the higher layer filtering of physical layer CPICH Ec/No measurements before the event evaluation and measurement reporting is performed by the UE. RNC averages CPICH Ec/Io measurements using EcNoAveragingWindow (HOPS) - defines the number of event triggered periodic intra-frequency measurement reports used by RNC to calculate averaged CPICH EC/IO (default = 8 Measurements)

14

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SHO: Measurement Control


SIB 11/12

EcNoFilterCoefficient
Measurement accuracy depends on speed & Filter Coefficient

EcNoAveragingWindow

I am in the CELL_DCH sub-state


UE

System Information [ ] Measurement Control [ ]

UTRAN
Node B RNC

Measurement Type: Intra-frequency measurements Reporting events: 1A: A primary CPICH enters the reporting range 1B: A primary CPICH leaves the reporting range 1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH Event triggered / Periodical reporting Measurement quantity: CPICH Ec/No etc.
15 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range


Reporting range defined by offset (point 1 on next slide) from either (i) best CPICH Ec/Io in the AS, or (ii) sum of the AS measurement results set using ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient (FMCS) (0 = use best CPICH : <>0 = use sum) Offset defined using AdditionWindow (FMCS) Event 1A triggered when CPICH3 Ec/Io enters UE reporting range (point 2) If CPICH3 Ec/Io remains within reporting range for a time period defined by AdditionTime (FMCS) , and the AS is not full, UE sends measurement report to RNC which adds Ncell3 to AS if possible (point 3) AdditionTime defines the 'time-to-trigger' interval between the Ncell first entering the reporting range and the UE sending the measurement report to the RNC If RNC is unable to add Ncell to AS, UE will wait for a period of time, defined by AdditionReportingInterval (FMCS) (point 4) after the first measurement report, before sending further reports periodically, with interval AdditionReportingInterval, until (a) Ncell moves out of reporting range, or (b) RNC adds Ncell to AS.

16

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range


ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient
Ec/Io P CPICH 2 Strongest CPICH in AS P CPICH 1

AdditionWindow
1 2

P CPICH 3 time 3

AdditionTime
Measurement Report no Add to the AS?

AdditionReportingInterval

17

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

RNC

1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range


Reporting criteria of event 1A in 25.331/RRC Measurement Control :

Reporting Cell Status: All active cells + 2 monitored cells. Triggering Condition: Monitored Set cells Reporting Range Constant AdditionWindow / 4 dB Cells forbidden to affect Reporting range: AdjsDERR / Enable W: ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient / 0 Time to trigger: AdditionTime / 0 = 0 ms Reporting deactivation threshold: MaxActiveSetSize = 3 Amount of reporting: infinity Reporting interval: AdditionReportingInterval / O.5 s

18

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1A: A Primary CPICH Enters the Reporting Range

19

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1B: A Primary CPICH Leaves the Reporting Range


Event 1B triggered when CPICH3 EC/I0 drops out of the UE reporting range for a defined period of time (point 1 on next slide) Reporting range = Strongest CPICH in AS - DropWindow (FMCS) (point 2) Time-to-trigger period set using DropTime (FMCS) (point 3) UE sends RNC measurement report on expiry of DropTime to remove Ncell (CPICH3) from AS. RNC drops the cell from the AS and UE drops the cell from the AS to the Neighbour Set

20

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1B: A Primary CPICH leaves the Reporting Range


Ec/Io Strongest CPICH in AS P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 1 P CPICH 3 2

DropWindow

3 time

DropTime
Measurement Report
21 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Remove the reported cell from the AS

1B: A Primary CPICH Leaves the Reporting Range


Reporting criteria of event 1B in 25.331/RRC Measurement Control :

Reporting cell Status: 3 active cells Triggering Condition: Active cells Reporting Range Constant: DropWindow / 4 dB Cells forbidden to affect Reporting range AdjsDERR / Enable W : ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient / 0 Time to trigger: DropTime / 320 ms

22

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1B: A Primary CPICH Leaves the Reporting Range

23

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Soft and Softer Handover (case1)


SIB 11 contains the relevant parameters to read when in idle mode These are valid in connected mode prior to receiving the measurement control that overwrites them In this example:

Extract from SIB 11


reportCriteria intraFreqReportingCriteria : { eventCriteriaList { { event e1a : { triggeringCondition monitoredSetCellsOnly, reportingRange 4, w 0, reportDeactivationThreshold t2, reportingAmount ra-Infinity, reportingInterval ri0-5 }, hysteresis 0, timeToTrigger ttt100, reportingCellStatus allActiveplusMonitoredSet : viactCellsPlus2 } event e1b : { triggeringCondition activeSetCellsOnly, reportingRange 6, w0 }, hysteresis 0, timeToTrigger ttt640, reportingCellStatus withinActiveSet : e3 },

Addition window= 2 dB (factor of 2 mapping between the signalled value and the actual value, TS 25.331 defines this mapping) Addition time = 100 ms Reporting interval = 500 ms Drop window = 3 dB (factor of 2 mapping between the signalled value and the actual value) Drop time = 640 ms
RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

24 NOKIA

SIB11 length limitation


3GPP has inconsistent requirements concerning the maximum number of neighbouring cells that can be broadcasted in the SIB 11 and 12 SIB 11 and 12 can contain information on the maximum of 96 cells (32 intrafrequency cells, 32 inter-frequency cells and 32 GSM cells) On the other hand, the physical size of SIB data (no more than 3552 bits) has capacity only for 47 cells!! If too many adjacencies are declared, the cell will go blocked by system with alarm: 7771 WCDMA CELL OUT OF USE (BCCH scheduling error) in RAN04 As a rule of thumb, assuming that
ADJS=15, ADJG=15, ADJI=15
and

realistic worst case values, SIB11 length = 3187.5 < 3552 -> OK!!

Some sites might need additional neighbors and might pose a problem with the SIB11 limitation Avoid setting AdjsQoffset2 values, different CPICH values or other parameters used to tune cell reselection or handover
Further information Technical Note No. 046 / Restriction on number of cells in SIB11/12 due to inconsistency problem in 3GPP TS 25.331
25 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH


UE AS full (MaxActiveSetSize = 3) Event 1C triggered when CPICH4 EC/IO > CPICH3 in AS by a defined margin, ReplacementWindow (FMCS). (point 1 in next slide) Sending of measurement report to RNC can be delayed by using 'time-to-trigger' period set by ReplacementTime (FMCS) If 'time-to-trigger' is used difference between CPICH4 and CPICH3 must be ReplacementWindow for the period of ReplacementTime (point 2) If the RNC is not able to replace the Ncells, the UE continues to send measurement reports periodically, with interval ReplacementReportingInterval, to the RNC until (a) CPICH4 falls out of ReplacementWindow or (b) RNC replaces CPICH4 by CPICH3 (point 3)

26

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH


AS has 3 cells Ec/Io P CPICH 1 P CPICH 2 1 P CPICH 4

ReplacementWindow
P CPICH 3

weakest CPICH3 in AS

time 2

ReplacementTime
Measurement Report

ReplacementReportingInterval
no AS update?

27

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

RNC

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH


Reporting criteria of event 1C in 25.331/RRC Measurement Control :

Reporting cell Status: All active cells + 2 monitored cells. Hysteresis: ReplacementWindow / 2 dB Time to trigger: ReplacementTime / 0 = 0 ms Replacement activation threshold : MaxActiveSetSize / 3 Amount of reporting: infinity Reporting interval: ReplacementReportingInterval / 0.5s

28

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1C: A non-active CPICH becomes better than an active primary CPICH

29

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Soft and Softer Handover (case 2)


In this example:

Replacement window = 1 dB Replacement time = 100 ms Reporting interval = 500 ms Replacement window requires mapping to its true value according to: 4/(2*2) = 1 dB

Extract from SIB 11 cont.


event e1c : { replacementActivationThreshold t3, reportingAmount ra-Infinity, reportingInterval ri0-5 }, hysteresis 4, timeToTrigger ttt100, reportingCellStatus withinActiveSet : e3 }

There are two mappings first is the signalled value to actual value mapping and second is the way in which hysteresis is applied in the event triggering equation (TS25.331) Once in connected mode the networks sends the same set of information elements via a measurement control message Nokias implementation is that the values in the measurement control message are the same as those within SIB 11 Events 6F and 6G are configured in a similar fashion i.e. within SIB 11 and subsequently with a measurement control message
30 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Individual Ncell Offset & Forbidding Neighbour Cell from Reporting Range
Individual Ncell Offset cell individual offsets for modifying measurement reporting behaviour effectively 'moves' cell border (shrinks or enlarges cell) offset set using AdjsEcNoOffset (= CPICH Ec/No Offset) (ADJS) offset applied to Primary CPICH measurements before event evaluation by the UE Forbidding Neighbour Cells from Reporting Range the primary CPICH of certain cells can be forbidden from reporting range calculation in some instances cells can be forbidden from reporting range using AdjsDERR (ADJS)

31

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Individual Ncell Offset


Ec/Io Reporting Range

P CPICH 1

P CPICH 2

AdjsEcNoOffset

Artificially Enlarging Cell 3 by x dB


P CPICH 3 Reporting Event 1B Reporting Event 1A time

32

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Forbidding Neighbour Cell from Reporting Range


Ec/Io

P CPICH 1 Reporting Range P CPICH 2

PCPICH3 is forbidden to affect the reporting range as its quality is quite unstable.

AdjsDERR

P CPICH 3

Time

33

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SHO Summary
Event Reporting cell status Triggering Condition Reporting Range/ Time to Trigger Hysteresis Addition Window/4 dB Drop Window/ 6 dB Addition Time /0 ms Drop time /320 ms Replacement time/0 ms Active set cells + Event 1A Monitored set 2 monitored set (Add) cells cells Event 1B (Drop) Active set cells Active set cells Reporting Interval Addition Reporting Interval /0.5 s Replacement Reporting Interval/ 1s

Active set cells + Event 1C 2 monitored set (Replace) cells

Replacement Window/4 dB

3GPP reporting events 1A, 1B and 1C (also 6F and 6G) CPICH Ec/Io is used as a measurement quantity rather than CPICH RSCP CPICH Ec/Io measurements are more accurate 1A and 1B reporting range is defined by strongest active set cell 1C reporting range is defined by weakest active set cell
34 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

UE Internal Measurements
SHO for synchronisation reason: Event 6F: The UE Rx-Tx time difference for a Radio Link (RL) included in the active set becomes larger than an absolute threshold Reporting Reporting event 6G: The UE Rx-Tx time difference for a RL included in the active set becomes smaller than an absolute threshold Estimation of these events: Based on UE Rx-Tx time difference Measurement configuration: Time-to-trigger: not used. 6F: UE Rx-Tx time difference threshold: UpperRxTxTimeDiff default: 1174 chips, range:1152 ... 1280 chips, step 1 chip 6G: UE Rx-Tx time difference threshold: LowerRxTxTimeDiff default: 874 chips range: 768 ... 896 chips, step 1 chip

NOTE: Some UE does not support these events

35

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

UE Internal Measurements
time

time UL DPCH

time

6F
I am in the CELL_DCH sub-state

DLnom

6G

T0 Measurement Control [ ]

UTRAN
Node B RNC

UE Measurement Type: UE Internal measurements Reporting events: 6F: The UE Rx-Tx time difference for a RL included in the active set becomes larger than an absolute threshold Reporting 6G: The UE Rx-Tx time difference for a RL included in the active set becomes smaller than an absolute threshold
36 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Question: what is the action after receiving MR e6f ?

Measurement Report Updating


Measurement reporting criteria are cell specific Neighbouring cells (ADJS and HOPS parameters) are defined on a controlling cell (cell from which the call has been started or best cell in case the original cell has been deleted from the active set) During SHO the measurement reporting criteria are taken from the cell where the UE has started the connection The measurement reporting criteria are updated only when the Original (Reference) cell leaves the Active Set (Nokia Implementation), according to the strongest cell in the Active Set, by sending the MEASUREMENT CONTROL message, transmitted on the downlink DCCH. Standard would allow to update reporting criteria, according the current best server. Note: When Reference cell (not always the best cell) leaves the Active Set, it could be easily identified since this is followed by UTRAN MOBILITY INFORMATION & UTRAN MOBILITY INFORMATION CONFIRM to indicate that AS Reference Cell has changed.

When the UE receives a MEASUREMENT CONTROL message, the UE shall stop monitoring and measurement reporting and shall replace the measurement reporting criteria with the new information received in the MEASUREMENT CONTROL message.
37 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Measurements Reporting Criteria Updating during Soft Handover


BEST Server: Cell 11 BEST Server: Cell Neighbour ListCell1 Addition WindowCell1 Drop WindowCell1 Drop TimeCell1

Intra-frequency Intra-frequencyMeasurement Measurement


System Information (BCCH)
3. MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH)

BEST Server: Cell 22 BEST Server: Cell Neighbour ListCell2 Addition WindowCell2 Drop WindowCell2 Drop TimeCell2

4. MEASUREMENT CONTROL (DCCH)

1. Idle Mode

Connected Mode: Cell_DCH 2. Connected Mode: Cell_DCH

The Themeasurement measurementreporting reporting criteria are updated criteria are updatedas assoon soon as the original cell drops as the original cell dropsout out from the Active Set (Nokia from the Active Set (Nokia Implementation). Implementation). Connected Mode: Cell_DCH

Measur ement Measur ement Reporti ng Criteria Reporti ng Criteria accordi ng accordi ngto toCell Cell11

Cell 1

The TheUE UEshall shallsend sendthe the MEASUREMENT REPORT MEASUREMENT REPORT message messagewhen whenreporting reporting criteria are fulfilled. criteria are fulfilled.

Cell 2

Measur ement Measur ement Reporti ng Criteria Reporting Criteria accordi ng accordi ngto toCell Cell22

The TheUE UEshall shallcontinue continue monitoring the list monitoring the listof ofneighbor neighbor ing ingcells cellsassigned assignedin in System System Information during Idle Information during IdleMode Mode
38 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Reporting Criteria Updating


Measur ement Measur ement Reporti ng Criteria Reporting Criteria accordi ng accordi ngto toCell Cell11

Neighbour List Measurement during SHO


BEST Server: Cell 11 BEST Server: Cell Addition WindowCell1 Drop WindowCell1 Drop TimeCell1

Intra-frequency Intra-frequencyMeasurement Measurement


4. ACTIVE SET UPDATE 7. 1. System Information (BCCH)
3. MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH)

BEST Server: Cell 22 BEST Server: Cell Addition WindowCell2 Drop WindowCell2 Drop TimeCell2

8. MEASUREMENT CONTROL (DCCH)

Active Set: Cell 11 Active Set: Cell 22 33 55

1A

5. MEASUREMENT CONTROL (DCCH)


Neighbour List Update

Neighbour List Update Meas. Rep. Criteria Update

Active Set: Cell 22 Active Set: Cell 11 33 44

6. MEASUREMENT REPORT (DCCH)

1B

Active Set: Cell1 -Cell2 Active Set: Cell1 Cell2

Cell 1
Neighbour NeighbourList ListCell Cell11 Neighbour NeighbourList ListCombination Combination

33 11 44 22 55

Cell 2
Neighbour NeighbourList ListCell Cell22

Meas ureme nt ting Meas ureme ntRepor Repor ting Criter ia ding Criter iaaccor accor dingto to Cell 1 Cell 1
39 NOKIA

2. 2.Setup Setup Call Call

Meas ureme nt ting Meas ureme ntRepor Repor ting Criter ia accor ding to Criteria according to Cell Cell11

Measur ement gg Measur ementReportin Reportin Criteria ggto Criteriaaccordin accordin toCell Cell22

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Nokia Parameters for Intra-Frequency Measurements In Nokia RAN the measurement quantity for events 1A, B, C, E, F is P-CPICH Ec/No and for 1E,F
also P-CPICH RSCP

There are a huge number of intra-frequency measurement parameters. Please refer to the WCDMA Parameter Dictionary. See Measurement Control Parameter Set (FMCS object) which controls the intra-frequency measurements radio bearer, such as: 1A paramters: ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient, AdditionReportingInterval, AdditionWindow, AdditionTime, MaxActiveSetSize, etc. 1B parameters: ActiveSetWeightingCoefficient, DropTime, DropWindow, etc. 1C parameter: MaxActiveSetSize, ReplacementReportingInterval, ReplacementTime, ReplacementWindow, etc. 1E parameter: HHoEcNoCancel, HHoEcNoCancelTime, HHoRscpCancel, HHoRscpCancelTime, etc. 1F parameter: HHoEcNoCancel, HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis, HHoRscpCancel, HHoRscpThreshold, HHoRscpTimeHysteresis, etc.

40

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Neighbour Lists
In the RRC idle state and in the RRC connected sub-states CELL_FACH, CELL_PCH and URA_PCH, the UE is responsible for cell selection and re-selection. It camps on one cell or it is served by one cell. By reading the System Information Block 11 and/or 12, the UE gets the Intra-frequency cell info list, Inter-frequency cell info list, and Inter-RAT cell info list, i.e. it gets several neighbourhood lists. In the CELL_DCH sub-state, the RNC must be able to continuously update the neighbour cell lists in order to reflect the changing neighbourhood of a moving mobile station. This is part of the RNCs handover control. If we have more than one active set cell, which participate in a soft handover, the handover control of the RNC is responsible to combine the lists into one neighbour cell list which is then transmitted to the mobile station. The neighbour cell list combination is carried out in the steps depicted in next slide. A soft handover only takes place with cells on the same UTRA carrier band. Consequently, the combining of neighbourhood lists of several active set cells is only required for intra-frequency handovers and has to combined with their measurements.

41

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Neighbourhood List Combination for Intrafrequency HOs


Two Cells in the Active Set Neighbour List Cell 7: Cell 3 Cell4 Cell 8 Cell 12 Cell 11 Cell 6
Cell 8 Neighbour cells defined only for Cell 7 Cell 12

Cell 1

Cell 2

Cell 3

Cell 4

Cell 5

Cell 6

Cell 7

Cell 9

Cell 10

Cell 11

Neighbour List Cell 6: Cell 2 Cell3 Cell 7 Cell 11 Cell 10 Cell 5

Cell 33 Cell Cell11 Cell11 Neighbour cells which are common to Cell 6 and Cell 7 Neighbour cells defined only for Cell 6 Cell 22 Cell Cell7 Cell7 Cell 44 Cell Cell 88 Cell

Cell 10 Cell 10 Cell 5 Cell 5

Cell 12 Cell 12 Cell 6 Cell 6

42

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Neighbourhood List Combination for Intrafrequency HOs


Cell Cell22 Cell Cell55 Cell Cell77 Cell Cell99 Cell Cell15 15 Cell Cell21 21 Cell Cell22 Cell Cell77 Cell Cell11 Cell Cell22 Cell Cell33 Cell Cell77

Step Step2 2
Common to 3 Neighbour Lists

Cell Cell11 11 Cell Cell15 15 Cell Cell48 48 Cell Cell44 Cell Cell41 41 Cell Cell66 .... ... ...

Cell Cell37 37 Cell Cell51 51 Cell Cell49 49 Cell Cell99 Cell Cell10 10 Cell Cell56 56 ... ...

Cell Cell11 11 Cell Cell50 50 Cell Cell99 Cell Cell13 13 Cell Cell10 10 Cell Cell22 22 ... ... Cell2 Cell2 Cell Cell77

Common to 2 Neighbour Lists

Cell Cell99 Cell Cell11 11 Cell Cell15 15 Cell Cell10 10 Cell Cell37 37 Cell Cell41 41 Cell Cell49 49 .. .. Cell Cell22 22 Max 32 Cells

Cell Cell43 43

Cell Cell25 25

Cell Cell33 33

Step Step3 3

Step Step1 1
Neighbour Cells Lists Three Cells in the Active Set
43 NOKIA

Step Step4 4

Neighbour Cells defined for only 1 Neighbour list: best Ec/No first

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Step 1: Active set cells First the handover control sets the active set cells into the neighbour cell list. Step 2: Neighbour cells which are common to three active set cells During the second step of neighbour cell list combination the handover control selects those neighbour cells which are common to all three active set cells. If the total number of relevant neighbour cells exceeds the maximum number of 32 after the second step, the handover control removes in random order those surplus cells from the combined neighbour cell list which are selected during the second step Step 3: Neighbour cells which are common to two active set cells During the third step of neighbour cell list combination the handover control selects those neighbour cells which are common to two active set cells. If the total number of relevant neighbour cells exceeds the maximum number of 32 after the third step, the handover control removes in random order those surplus cells from the combined neighbour cell list which are selected during the third step. Step 4: Neighbour cells which are defined for only one active set cell During the fourth step of neighbour cell list combination the handover control selects those neighbour cells which are defined for only one active set cell (random). If the total number of relevant neighbour cells exceeds the maximum number of 32 after the fourth step, the handover control removes those surplus neighbours from the combined neighbour cell list which are selected during the fourth step, starting from the neighbours of the weakest (CPICH Ec/Io) active set cell.
44 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Neighbourhood List Combination for Intrafrequency HOs The neighbourhood lists for intra-frequency handover measurements can be composed like this:

06Mar29 adjs Ec_no offset update_in to outdoor--a lot round.rar

Testing Details

45

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AdjsEcNoOffset Testing Candidate Sites / Cells


Testing sequence / scenario: 1-way AdjsEcNoOffset = 6dB defined between 11036 (36) 26016 (382). Rest of the ADJS = 0dB offset. UE initiate call under 16016 (374) with AS: SC374 as Reference Cell. MC indicates that SC382 (intraFreqCellID = 12) is without any AdjsEcNoOffset = 6dB UE moves towards 11036 (36), with SHO in between. When Reference cell change occurs; i.e. SC374 leaves the AS, SC36 became the new AS Reference Cell. (signified by UE receiving UMI & UMIC after MR e1b to remove Reference Cell from AS)
1-way 1-way AdjsEcNoOffset AdjsEcNoOffset = = 6dB: 6dB: 13016 13016 (36) (36) 26016 26016 (382) (382) Rest Rest = = 0dB 0dB offset offset

DL sends MC to indicate new set of intrafrequency reporting criteria (e1a, e1b etc) ; as well as modify UE NB list; i.e. removing old NBs unique to SC374 & add new common NBs. Also, modify FreqCellID=12, SC382 with AdjsEcNoOffset=6dB. Individual Cell Offset works!!

46

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AdjsEcNoOffset Verification
RRC connection setup on 16016 (374). SC374 is the Active Set (AS) Reference Cell.

47

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AdjsEcNoOffset Verification
RRC connection setup on 16016 (374). Measurement Control sent indicating AS Reference Cell neighbour list. Note: intraFreqCellID = 12 SC382 has NO AdjsEcNoOffset defined.

48

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AdjsEcNoOffset Verification
RRC connection setup on 16016 (374). Measurement Control sent indicating AS Reference Cell neighbour list. Note: intraFreqCellID = 12 SC382 has NO AdjsEcNoOffset defined. UE sends MR e1b to remove Reference Cell SC374 from AS. This is followed by UMI & UMIC to indicate that AS Reference Cell has changed (to SC36).

49

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AdjsEcNoOffset Verification

RRC connection setup on 16016 (374). Measurement Control sent indicating AS Reference Cell neighbour list. Note: intraFreqCellID = 12 SC382 has NO AdjsEcNoOffset defined. UE sends MR e1b to remove Reference Cell SC374 from AS. This is followed by UMI & UMIC to indicate that AS Reference Cell has changed (to SC36). DL sends MC (based on SC36) to indicate new set of intra-frequency reporting criteria (e1a, e1b etc). As well as modify UE NB list; i.e. removing old NBs unique to SC374 & add new common NBs. Note: Also, modify intraFreqCellID=12, SC382 with AdjsEcNoOffset=6dB (mapping IE x 2 12). Individual Cell Offset

50

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Conclusion

51

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Conclusion of Parameter Verification:


Obviously the Individual Ncell individual offsets for modifying measurement reporting behaviour works!! Else we would be in deep shit!! ;-) However, based on the test scenario in this report, and Nokia Implementation**, it should be noted that the Individual Cell Ec/No Offset definition or chaining between NCells would only come into effect IF the mutual cells became the AS Reference Cell with the old Reference Cell (who did not define AdjsEcNoOffset) removed. So, depending on the direction of drives, it may happen that in the case of some inconsistant drop calls along the highways or byways (with consistant deep fades due to physical structures obstruction etc) may still occur, although the individual cell EcNo offset was defined mutually between 1 pair of cells. Becos the AS Reference Cell was simply not changed in time to either of the supposedly chained pair of cells to modify the NB list to reflect the Ec/No Offset. For those serious and consistant drop call cases with the above symptom, on a caseby-case basis, it may be so that the possible solution is to define AdjsEcNoOffset to the earlier AS Reference Cell as well, which has NB definition both the supposedly chained pair of cells. (example to be included later, ZhongSan HW 6009U case)
** - The measurement reporting criteria are updated only when the original cell leaves the Active Set (Nokia Implementation), according to the strongest cell in the Active Set, by sending the MEASUREMENT CONTROL message, transmitted on the downlink DCCH. Standard would allow to update reporting criteria, according the current best server.
52 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


53 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Hard Handover
If RNC is not able to add (Event 1A) to or replace (Event 1C) an Ncell from the AS, UE sends periodic measurement reports (AdditionReportingInterval / ReplacementReportingInterval) until;
Ncell is added/replaced in to AS Ncell leaves reporting range HO no longer required (e.g. different Ncell enters AS)

RNC may not be able to add/replace Ncell due to (a) Iur congestion or (b) inter-RNC SHO is prevented due to setting of EnableInterRNCsho (HOPS) (Point 1 in next slide) If CPICH EC/NO of non-active Ncell continues to increase it will cause additional interference due to a non-optimal connection (point 2)

54

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

HHO decision
To avoid excessive uplink interference, RNC will perform an intrafrequency hard Handover if either of the following criteria are met
AveEcNoDownlink + HHoMarginForAveEcNo(n) < AvEcNoNcell(n) EcNoDownlink + HHoMarginPeakEcNo(n) < EcNoNcell(n)

AveEcNoDownlink and AvEcNoNcell(n) = measured values for the best AS cell and the nth NS cell, averaged over EcNoAveragingWindow measurements EcNoDownlink and EcNoNcell(n) = instantaneous values HHoMarginForAveEcNo (HOPS) = average Ec/N0 margin [-6 6]dB, default 1dB HHOMarginPeakEcNo (HOPS) = peak Ec/N0 margin [-6 6]dB, default 2dB

55

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Hard Handover
AveEcNoDownlink + HHOMarginAveEcNo < AveEcNoNcell EcNoDownlink + HHOMarginPeakEcNo < EcNONcell
Ec/Io

3 2 Reporting range

HHOMarginAverageEcNo HHOMarginPeakEcNo
P CPICH 1

P CPICH 2

P CPICH 3 1 1A (AdditionTime = 0)

Time

AdditionReportingInterval

56

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Inter-RNC intra-frequency Hard Handover (HHO)


Intra-frequency hard handover is required to ensure handover between cells controlled by different RNCs when an interRNC Soft Handover is not possible

No Iur between RNCs Iur congestion or failure


RNC

CN

CN

Iu

Iu
RNC RNC

Iu

Iu
RNC

Intra-frequency hard Handover is lossless for NRT radio bearer but it causes short disconnection of RT radio bearer. Intra-frequency hard handover decisions made by the RNC are based on the intrafrequency measurement results, which are usually applied to the SHO procedure Also Enable Inter-RNC SHO parameter in intra-frequency HO path defines whether intra-frequency HO from the serving cell to a specified neighbour cells is performed as soft of hard 57 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim Mobile evaluated Handover (MEHO)

Iur

Iur

If RNC is not able to add (Event 1A) to or replace (Event 1C) an Ncell from the AS, UE sends periodic measurement reports (AdditionReportingInterval/ ReplacementReportingInterval) until; Ncell is added/replaced in to AS Ncell leaves reporting range HO no longer required (e.g. different Ncell enters AS) RNC may not be able to add/replace Ncell due to (a) Iur congestion or (b) inter-RNC SHO is prevented due to setting of EnableInterRNCsho (HOPS) (point1 on next slide) If CPICH EC/NO of non-active Ncell continues to increase it will cause additional interference due to a non-optimal connection (point 2) To avoid excessive uplink interference, RNC will perform an intra-frequency hard handover to the Ncell (CPICH3) if either of the following criteria are met (point 3); AveEcNoDownlink + HHOMarginAveEcNo < AveEcNoNcell EcNoDownlink + HHOMarginPeakEcNo < EcNONcell Parameters : Enable Inter-RNC Soft Handover HHO margin for Peak EcNo
58

Inter-RNC intra-frequency Hard Handover (HHO)

( YES/NO, default = YES ) (-66 dB, default =2 dB) (-66 dB, default=1 dB)

HH Margin for Average EcNo NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AveEcNoDownlink AveEcNoDownlink + + HHOMarginAveEcNo HHOMarginAveEcNo < < AveEcNoNcell AveEcNoNcell EcNoDownlink EcNoDownlink + + HHOMarginPeakEcNo HHOMarginPeakEcNo < < EcNONcell EcNONcell
Ec/Io

Inter-RNC intra-frequency Hard Handover (HHO)


3 2 Reporting range P CPICH 2

HHOMarginAverageEcNo HHOMarginPeakEcNo
P CPICH 1

P CPICH 3 1 1A (AdditionTime = 0)

Time

AdditionReportingInterval

59

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Case #1-1 Inter-RNC, Intra-Frequency Hardhandover (HHO)


TMSI RNTI 00 01 86 55 RN26:00 57 8 (= 1400) RN27: 02 2E 6 (= 8934) 15:21:45.882 RN26 / 22952 (258) RN27 / 32242 (264)

UE UE RSCP RSCP RN26 RN26

Time_orig RNC_orig / CID (SC) RNC_End / CID (SC)

RN27 RN27


UE UE Ec/No Ec/No

Handover Category: Iur Failure - Inter-RNC SRNC Relocation failure => Triggering Inter-RNC, Intra-Frequency HHO. Analysis: Iur failure was simulated / purposely disabled via blocking AAL2 User Plane, to invoke InterRNC, Intra-Frequency HHO.

Iur Iur Failure Failure !!


Scanner Scanner

Solution / Action proposed:


RNTI_00000578_0157.zip

RNTI_000022E6_03EF.zip

60

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Case #1-2 Inter-RNC, Intra-Frequency Hardhandover (HHO)


TMSI RNTI 00 01 86 55 RN26:00 57 8 (= 1400) RN27: 02 2E 6 (= 8934) 15:21:45.882 RN26 / 22952 (258) RN27 / 32242 (264)

UE UE RSCP RSCP RN26 RN26

Time_orig RNC_orig / CID (SC) RNC_End / CID (SC)

RN27 RN27


UE UE Ec/No Ec/No

Handover Category: Iur Failure - Inter-RNC SRNC Relocation failure => Triggering Inter-RNC, Intra-Frequency HHO. Analysis: Iur failure was simulated / purposely disabled via blocking AAL2 User Plane, to invoke InterRNC, Intra-Frequency HHO.

Scanner Scanner

Solution / Action proposed:

61

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

RRC Connection Release


If difference between the best AS cell and the NS cell is too high and SHO is not performed, the RRC connection is released to avoid excessive interference Why might an AS update not be possible? Excessive load in the neighbor ing cell Hard blocking in the target BTS Unavailability of DL spreading codes Iub transport resources unavailable This function is activated by EnableRRCRelease (HOPS parameter)/0=no (def),1 =yes The RRC connection is released if either: AveEcNoDownlink + ReleaseMarginForAveEcNo(n) < AvEcNoNcell(n) EcNoDownlink + ReleaseMarginPeakEcNo(n) < EcNoNcell(n)

ReleaseMarginForAveEcNo (HOPS) = average Eb/N0 margin [-6 6] dB, default 2.5dB ReleaseMarginPeakEcNo (HOPS) = peak Eb/N0 margin [-6 6] dB, default 3.5dB

Emergency calls are exempt from RRC Connection Release process

62

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


63 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Traffic Balancing
Traffic balancing with Call setup control or during hard HO to another frequency Directed RRC connection setup => direct the user to the frequency with lower loading within the same sector A second frequency can be added for each sector/site independently as the capacity needs to be increased
High capacity site f1 f1 f2 f2 f2 f2 Start call on f2
64 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

High Highcapacity capacityWCDMA WCDMAsites sites can canbe beutilized utilizedwith withRAN1.5 RAN1.5 f1 f1 f1 f1

f1 f1 Coverage reason Handover

f1 f1

Directed RRC Connection Setup


between cells which belong to same sector

Directed RRC connection setup is used for balancing the load (UL/DL)
Same sector has cells with equal primary CPICH power, PtxTarget, PtxOffset, PrxTarget and PrxOffset values Parameter Sector Identifier tells to which sector cell belongs to

If either the UL or DL load of the Source cell exceed a certain threshold value, the DRRC Connection setup process is initiated.

CurrentCellPrxTotal > PrxTarget (default 4 dB)+ DRRCprxOffset (default -1 dB) CurrentCellPtxTotal > PtxTarget (def. max-3 dB)+ DRRCptxOffset (default -3 dB) The load of the current cell (UL/DL) is compared with the load of other cells in same sector to find out cell having less load: CurrentCellPrxTotal > CellPrxTotal(n) - DRRCprxMargin(default -0.5 dB) CurrentCellPtxTotal > CellPtxTotal(n) - DRRCptxMargin(default -2 dB) Decision of Directed RRC connection setup is done by Admission Control in RNC

65 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Site Sector Cell in 3G


Site Bonn 77
Sector 1 Cell 1

high capacity-site Bonn 99

1+ 1+ 1
f1

Cell 4

Cell 1

Sector 1

f1 f2

2+ 2+ 2
Cell 2 Cell 5

Sector 3 Cell 3 Cell 2

Cell 6

Cell 3

Sector 3 Sector 2

Sector 2

1 site (NodeB, WBTS) with 3 cells. 3 cells covering 3 sectors.

1 site (NodeB, WBTS) with 6 cells. 6 cells covering 3 sectors.


Each WCDMA cell consits of: Load Control (LC) Admission Control (AC)

Packet Scheduler (PS) / HSDPA Sector is meant as geographical coverage area


66 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Directed RRC Connection Setup - Signalling

RACH: RRC Connection Setup Request Cell_1 load > Cell_2 load + load threshold -> DRRC activated FACH: RRC Connection Setup incl. UARFCN of target cell DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete

Cell_2 frequency 2 Cell_1 frequency 1

67

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Technical Background DRRC (2)


If either the UL or DL load of the Source cell exceed a certain threshold value, the DRRC Connection setup process is initiated. CurrentCellPrxTotal(s) > PrxTarget(s) + DRRCprxOffset (default 1dB) CurrentCellPtxTotal(s) > PtxTarget(s) + DRRCptxOffset (default 3dB)
Load of Source cell 60 % DRRC PrxTarget PtxTarget DRRCprxOffset (-1 dB) DRRCptxOffset (-3 dB) 60 % NoDRRC allowed Load of Target cell PrxTarget PtxTarget DRRCprxMargin (0dB) DRRCptxMargin (-0.5 dB) CellPrxTotal(n) CellPtxTotal(n) DRRC 0%

CurrentCellPrxTotal CurrentCellPtxTotal NoDRRC needed 0% DRRC connection setup

DRRC connection setup to the target cell if both of the following equations are fulfilled: CurrentCellPrxTotal (source cell) > CellPrxTotal(n) DRRCprxMargin (default 0dB) CurrentCellPtxTotal (source cell) > CellPtxTotal(n) DRRCptxMargin (default 0.5dB).
68 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Basic 2nd Carrier & DRRC Parameter Settings (Example)


Parameter LCR ID Ptx_CPICH Ptx_Target Ptx_Offset Prx_Target Prx_Offset Sector ID DRRCptxOffset DRRCptxMargin DRRCprxOffset DRRCprxMargin FMCS (RT/NRT)
st nd Remark 1 Carrier 2 Carrier 1,2,3 4,5,6 33 dBm 33 dBm Cell specific. Carrier 1 & 2 must have same value. 42 dBm 42 dBm Cell specific. Carrier 1 & 2 must have same value. 1 dB 1 dB Cell specific. Carrier 1 & 2 must have same value. 30 dB 30dB Cell specific. Carrier 1 & 2 must have same value. 1 dB 1 dB Cell specific. Carrier 1 & 2 must have same value. As defined As defined Carrier 1 & 2 must have same value/ sector. - 3 dB - 3 dB -0.5dB -0.5 dB -1 dB -1 dB 0 dB 0 dB 2 / 12 7/8 *FMCS 7 / 8 HHoRscpThreshold: -95dBm HHoRscpCancel:-92dBm 1 / 11 1/1 *FMCI 1 / 1 IFHO caused by CPICH RSCP: used 1 / 11 NA GSM HO caused by CPICH RSCP: not used -20 dB -20 dB -115 dBm -90 dBm On/12 off Off:always measure On/2 off Off:always measure On/4 On/4

These These parameters parameters MUST MUST BE BE the the same same for cells defined as same Sector, for cells defined as same Sector, in in order for DRRC functionality to work. order for DRRC functionality to work.

FMCI (RT/NRT)

FMCG (RT/NRT)

Minimum Required quality level Minimum Required RX level Sintrasearch Sintersearch SsearchRAT

69

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


70 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Compressed Mode in Uplink


GSM BTS WCDMA BTS

DL CM (this should be off when GSM is measured) DL

UL CM (needed to avoid interference) During WCDMA transmission signal leakage will go to GSM Rx also

71

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Compressed Mode (CM)


CM was introduced to WCDMA to allow inter-frequency (system) Handovers CM is used to create idle periods (gaps) in the transmission during which ncell measurements on another frequency can be made Power / Data Rate
Normal frame Compressed Mode Normal frame Measurement Measurementgap gap

Normal frame

The reception/transmission gap is always seven slots in RN2.0. Gaps can be created using single or double frame approach (Nokia supports both) Because same data amount is sent in a shorter time more power is needed during CM (both in UE and BTS) => affects WCDMA coverage Fast Power control information might be lost during the gap => higher Eb/No => affects WCDMA capacity Compressed frames may be lost if power control is not set correctly => affects WCDMA quality CM methods are Spreading Factor Halving and Higher Layer Scheduling (both supported in RN2.0)
72 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Measurement Gap
Length of gap: 3, 4, 5, 7 timeslots The The reception/transmission reception/transmission gap gap is is always always 7 7 time time slots slots in in RN2.0 RN2.0..

Single-frame method
TGL

radio frame

radio frame Length of gap: 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, or 14 timeslots

Double-frame method

TGL radio frame Min transmitted TSs per Frame: 8


73 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

radio frame

Measurement Gap

74

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Compressed mode methods


Halving Spreading Factor, SF/2 for RT and NRT services (UL and DL)

Doubles temporarily the physical channel data rate, possible for all services Needs 3 dB more UE power due to halved spreading ratio If new channelization code is available from code tree in DL WCEL: AltScramblingCodeCM/0=used (def), 1=not used

Higher Layer Scheduling, HLS (UL and DL)


Only possible for PS services (RT or NRT) Does not cause extra load to the cell but reduces DCH user data HLS data rate or HLS data rate possible
Double frame is used in case of HLS data rate Single frame is used in case of spreading factor halving and HLS data rate.

75

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Compressed mode parameters


CM can be activated/deactivated by CMmasterSwitch (RNC) /0=in use (def) HLS rate configurable using HLSModeSelection (RNC)/def 0=1/2 HSL , 1=3/4 HSL Maximum number of UEs in CM is controlled through MaxNumbUECMcoverHO (RNC)/16 (range 0..255) The number of UEs in DL CM depends on the PtxTotal value The number of UEs in UL CM depends on the PrxTotal value

76

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

How many UEs in Compressed Mode ?


DL/UL transmission power No new UE can be in CM here

PtxOffset/ PrxOffset PtxTarget/ PrxTarget

One new UE in CM can be allowed if the limit is not reached

New UEs can be switched to CM when: Pxx_Total < Pxx_Target & # of UEs in CM < MaxNumbUECMcoverHO

Load
77 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Compressed Mode
SF/2 SF/2used usedfor forboth bothUL ULand andDL DL Transmission TransmissionGap GapPattern: Pattern: Single Singleframe: frame:7 7slot slotgap, gap, variable variable# #of ofnormal normalframes frames Higher Higherlayer layerscheduling schedulingis isused used for both UL and DL for both UL and DL Transmission TransmissionGap GapPattern: Pattern: Selection Selectionbetween betweenHLS HLS and and HLS HLS Single Singleframe: frame:7 7slot slotgap, gap, # #of ofnormal normalframes frames
78 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements

Selection of the compressed mode method is performed in the following way:


compressed

AMR, AMR,RT RTPS PSor or CS data service CS data service

mode trigger parameters have to be set so that there is room for power increase due to code splitting otherwise power increase is cut and quality of connection gets worse during the compressed frames Usage of alternative scrambling code is possible if RNP parameter AltScramblingCodeCM enables

NRT NRTPS PSdata dataservice service

Double Doubleframe: frame:7 7slot slotgap, gap, # #of ofnormal normalframes frames

Compressed Mode
SF/2 SF/2used usedfor forboth bothUL ULand andDL DL Transmission TransmissionGap GapPattern: Pattern: Single Singleframe: frame:7 7slot slotgap, gap, variable variable# #of ofnormal normalframes frames

Initiate Compressed Mode Configure GSM measurements

Selection of the compressed mode method is performed in the following way:

Multi MultiService Service: :

also

AMR AMR++PS PSdata, data, AMR + CS data, AMR + CS data, PS PSdata data++CS CSdata data

same power and alternative scrambling code aspects as in pure AMR or CS data service cases

Note that same method according to service is used for all Handover triggers Both uplink and downlink gap patterns can be used despite of whether other direction is compressed or not If both directions (UL and DL) are compressed, gap pattern is chosen so that both directions support it E.g. downlink support single frame but uplink double frame, it means that double frame shall be used The number of normal frames between gapped frames is defined with parameters This solution leaves the following problem in certain multi service call Currently UEs of certain vendor do not support in downlink DPCCH and DPDCH slot format #15B (compressed mode code splitting when SF=4) This means that 320 kbps PS data + AMR does not work for these terminals This problem can be partly avoided by denying compressed mode with that high data rate

It can be done in downlink with RNP parameter HHOMaxAllowedBitRateDL

79

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Compressed mode
The normal compressed mode strategy includes fewer combinations of compressed mode configurations The non-configurable RNC parameter CompressedModeStrategy is used to select between the two strategies This parameter is configured to apply the normal strategy The normal strategy has been selected to minimise system complexity while the quantity of field experience is relatively low

CM Method
80 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AMR Speech SF/2

RT Data SF/2

NRT Data or Rate HLS

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


81 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IFHO/ISHO Process Overview


HO HOTriggering TriggeringThresholds Thresholdsset setin inRNC RNC Event EventTriggered TriggeredCoverage/Capacity Coverage/Capacity based HO fulfilled based HO fulfilledin inRNC RNC RNC RNCcommands commandsselected selectedUE(s) UE(s)to tostart start IF/IS measurements IF/IS measurements Measurements Measurementsare aredone donein in Compressed Mode (CM) Compressed Mode (CM) UE UEreports reportsGSM GSMcells cellswith with strongest strongestRSSI RSSIsignals signalsto toRNC RNC RSSI RSSImeasurements measurementsand andBSIC BSIC verification verificationfor forGSM GSMcells cells RNC RNCmakes makesHO HOdecision decisionand and commands UE to target cell commands UE to target cell
82 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

About 25 HO parameters 5 Coverage/Capacity HO Reasons (31 Intra-Freq neighbor s) 48 Inter-Freq neighbor s 32 Inter-System neighbor s can be measured

Max 32 neighbor s could be measured Reporting cells are active set cells (max 3) + max 6 IFHO, max 6 ISHO neighb. Different decision methods for IF HO Only one decision method for IS HO

IFHO/ISHO measurements- difference


IF measurements
IF-HO Measurement Trigger Target Cell found

WCDMA

IF -measurements
IF-HO Decision

IS measurements

IS-HO Measurement Trigger

Target Cell found

IS-HO Decision

WCDMA

RSSI meas.

BSIC verification

BSIC verification required in case neighbor list includes multiple GSM neighbor s using the same RF carrier
83 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


84 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IF/IS Handover Triggering Reasons


1. Low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No, event 1E/1F FMCI: IFHOcauseCPICHEcNo FMCG: GSMcauseCPICHEcNo 3. UE Tx power approaches its maximum allowed power, event 6A/6D FMCI: IFHOcauseTxPwrUL FMCG: GSMcauseTxPwrUL 5. Quality deterioration report from UL outer loop PC FMCI: IFHOcauseUplinkQuality FMCG: GSMcauseUplinkQuality 2 . Low measured absolute CPICH RSCP, events 1E/1F FMCI: IFHOcauseCPICHrscp, FMCG: GSMcauseCPICHrscp

HO trigger

4. DL DPCH approaches its maximum allowed power FMCI: IFHOcauseTxPwrDL FMCG: GSMcauseTxPwrDL 6 . Others (Not implemented in RAN 1.5): e.g. Traffic & load reason IS-HO, etc

Frequency Measuring Control for Inter-Frequency = FMCI Frequency Measuring Control for Inter-System (GSM) = FMCG
85 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1. Measurement trigger CPICH Ec/No


Reporting event: 1E: A P-CPICH exceeds an absolute threshold (triggered if one) 1F: A P-CPICH falls below an absolute threshold (triggered if all)
e.g. P-CPICH Ec/No Cell 1 Cell 2

Cell 3 1E: HHoEcNoCancel 1F: HHoEcNoThreshold

absolute threshold

1E: HHoEcNoCancelTime

time 1F: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis

86

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1. Measurement trigger CPICH Ec/No


RNC starts IF/IS measurement when event 1F occurs for all cells in the active set: A Primary CPICH becomes less than an absolute threshold RNC stops IF/IS measurement when event 1E occurs for at least one cell of the active set : A Primary CPICH becomes better than an absolute threshold Note:IF/IS measurements can be stopped if event 1Fs are cancelled by events 1E only when IFHO/ISHO was not successful and only inside the time between CM measurements, specified by the time InterFreqMinMeasInterval GsmMinMeasInterval/default 10s, recommendation 2s . Filtering applied before event evaluation in the UE: FMCS: EcNoFilterCoefficient/0= 200ms filtering period

87

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

1. Measurement trigger CPICH Ec/No


Event 1E parameters: Triggering conditions: Active set cells Hysteresis: not used in 1F Threshold used frequency: FMCS : HHoEcNoCancel/ -20 dB Time-to-trigger: FMCS: HHoEcNoCancelTime/ 1280 ms Amount of reporting: infinity Reporting interval: not applied Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells Event 1F parameters: Triggering conditions: Active set cells hysteresis: not used in 1F Threshold used frequency: FMCS : HHoEcNoThreshold / - 22 dB (range 0..-24 dB) Time-to-trigger: FMCS: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis / 640 ms (range 0..5000ms) Amount of reporting: infinity Reporting interval: not applied Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells

88

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

2. Measurement trigger CPICH RSCP


UE continually monitors pilot channels of BTSs in AS If RSCP of a Node B falls below threshold, HHoRscpThreshold, UE sends event 1F report RNC starts IF/IS measurements when event 1F occurs for all cells in AS RNC stops IF/IS measurements when event 1E occurs for at least one cell of AS Note:IF/IS measurements can be stopped if event 1Fs are cancelled by events 1E only when IFHO/ISHO was not successful and only inside the time between CM measurements, specified by the time InterFreqMinMeasInterval GsmMinMeasInterval/default 10s, recommendation 2s . UE filtering applied before event evaluation using HHoRscpFilterCoefficient (FMCS) /200ms, range 2001600ms

89

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

2. Measurement trigger CPICH RSCP


Event 1E (A primary CPICH exceeds an absolute threshold) parameters: Triggering conditions: Active set cells hysteresis: not used in 1E Threshold used frequency: (FMCS) : HHoRscpCancel/ - 100 dBm Time-to-trigger: (FMCS): HHoRscpCancelTime/ 1280 ms Amount of reporting: infinity Reporting interval: not applied Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells Event 1F (A primary CPICH falls below an absolute threshold) parameters: Triggering conditions: Active set cells Hysteresis: not used in 1F Threshold used frequency: HHoRscpThreshold (FMCS)/ - 105 dBm Time-to-trigger: HHoRscpTimeHysteresis (FMCS)/ 640 ms Amount of reporting: infinity Reporting interval: not applied Reporting cell status: max 3 active cells
90 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Reporting Events 6A, 6B and 6D


UE Tx Power

6A: The UE Tx power exceeds an absolute threshold 6B: The UE Tx power falls below an absolute threshold 6D: The UE Tx power reaches its maximum value 6D
min(UEtxPowerMaxDPCH, P_MAX)

UE Transmitted Power Tx Threshold

6A 6B

InterfreqUETxPwrTimeHyst GSMUETxPwrTimeHyst
91 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

time to trigger

time

3. Measurement trigger UE Tx Pw (UL Coverage)


RNC orders IF/IS measurements when one of the following event occurs: Event 6A: The UE Tx power becomes larger than an absolute threshold Event 6D: The UE Tx power reaches its maximum value Also GSM measurements could be measured first depending on UE Tx power values in IFHO and ISHO parameters Only lower threshold is send to UE, so either WCDMA or GSM is measured first, but also other RAT could be measured if not good enough neighbor is found In addition, the UL data rate allocated to the user must not exceed WCEL: HHoMaxAllowedBitrateUL/32 kbits/s RNC calls off inter-frequency measurements when event 6B occurs: the UE Tx power becomes less than an absolute threshold. Filtering applied before event evaluation in the UE. FMCI : InterfreqUETxPwrFilterCoeff/8=10ms (range 10..480ms) FMCG: GSMUETxPwrFilterCoeff/8 =10ms (range 10..480ms) NOTE: Not all UE vendors support 6A event
92 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

3. Measurement trigger UE Tx Pw (UL Coverage)


Event 6A parameters: Time-to-trigger: 0s UE Transmitted Power threshold = min (UEtxPowerMaxDPCH, Pmax) UE_TX_POWER_threshold UEtxPowerMaxDPCH is the maximum allowed UL tx power on DPCH in the active cell (range -50..24 dBm, step 1, default 21 dBm), Pmax is the maximum RF output power UE_TX_POWER_Threshold depends on the type of service: FMCI: InterfreqUETxPwrThrAMR/-3 dB (range -10..0, step1) FMCI: InterfreqUETxPwrThrCS/-3 dB (same range and step) FMCI: InterfreqUETxPwrThrNrtPS/-3 dB FMCI: InterfreqUETxPwrThrRtPS/-3 dB FMCG: GSMUETxPwrThrAMR/CS/NrtPS/RtPS -1/-3/-1/-3/ dB Event 6B parameters: time-to-trigger FMCI: InterfreqUETxPwrTimeHyst/1280 ms FMCG: GSMUETxPwrTimeHyst/1280 ms Event 6D parameter: time-to-trigger: 0s
93 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

4. Measurement trigger DL DPCH (DL Coverage)


RNC orders UE to make IF/IS measurements when DL TX power of a single radio link reaches threshold defined as:

DL_code_PWR > Ptx_RL_max + DL_DPCH_TXPWR_Threshold


example: -100dBm > 33dBm+XXX+(-1dB)

DL_CODE_PWR = measured DL code power Ptx_RL_max = CPICH Pwr + MAX_DL_DPCH_ TXPWR


CPICH Pwr = Tx power of the CPICH of an active cell. PtxPrimaryCPICH (serving RNC) or AdjsCPICHTxPwr (drifting RNC)/33 dBm, range -1050 dBm, step 0.1 dBm MAX_DL_DPCH_TXPWR = maximum transmission power level of the DPDCH symbols a base station can use on the DPCH, expressed as a relative value to the CPICH pw FMCI: InterfreqDLTxPwrThrAMR/CS/RtPS/NrtPS -1/-3/-3/-1 dB (range -10 dB..0, step 0.5 dB) FMCG: GSMDLTxPwrThrAMR/CS/RtPS/NrtPS -1/-3/-3/-1 dB (range -10 dB..0, step 0.5 dB)

DL_DPCH_TXPWR_Threshold = depends on the service type


In Addition, the DL data rate allocated to the user must not exceed WCEL: HHoMaxAllowedBitrateDL
NOTE: Either WCDMA or GSM will be measured, not both systems
RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

94

NOKIA

4. Measurement trigger DL DPCH (DL Coverage)


DCH Data Frame e.g. Radio Link Measurement Report
(e.g. Transmitted Code Power Value)

Iub

UE
PO2 Data 1 bits

Node B
TPC TFCI PO1 Data 2 bits
Pilot bits not used

RNC

Max Power on Channel Max Power on DPCH (e.g. 33 dBm)


Example Speech: Power Data Bits > 33dBm + (-3dB) + (-1dB) Power Data Bits > 29 dBm (~1W)

DL_CODE_PWR Ptx_RL_max + DL_DPCH_TXPWR_THRESHOLD HHoMaxAllowedBitrateDL

Serving WCDMA cell


95 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Its time to trigger HO measurements in the UE

time

5. Measurement trigger UL Quality


RNC starts IF/IS measurements based on UL outer-loop power control reports (see Module 3 Outer-loop PC)

Enable reports from Outer-loop Power Control Controller to trigger IF/IS HO, RNC: EnableULQualDetRep/default 0=no, 1=yes Time duration for which BER/BLER target has not been reached, despite SIR target at maximum level, RNC: ULQualDetRepThreshold/0.5 s, 0.5..5, step 0.5s Periodic report, every RNC: ULQualDetRepThreshold seconds, while BLER/BLER target is not reached

In addition, the UL data rate allocated to the user must not exceed WCEL: HHoMaxAllowedBitrateUL (default value: 32 kbits/s)
See See Module Module 3 3 Channels Channels & & PowerControl PowerControl
96 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

5. Measurement trigger UL Quality


HHoMaxAllowedBitrateUL EnableULQualDetRep

RNC

RNC
Target SIR Max SIR target SIR SIR

1st Quality deterioration report from PC to HC inside RNC 2nd Quality deterioration report (while the condition is satisfied the message is periodically repeated) Actual SIR target Min SIR target

ULQualDetRepThreshold (recommendation 0.5s)


97 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

default 0.5s

time

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


98 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IF HO Parameters
HHoRscpThreshold HHoRscpCancel
L3 filter: Time to trigger: CPICH RSCP (Event 1F) Thresholds: DL DPCH power Threshold: Data rate threshold

InterFreqDLTxPwrThrXX HHOMAxAllowedBitrateDL

HHoEcNoThreshold HHoEcNoCancel
L3 filter: Time to trigger:

CPICH Ec/Io (Event 1F) Thresholds:

HHoRscpFilterCoefficient * HHoRscpTimeHysteresis * HHoRscpCancelTime *


UE Tx Power (Event 6A\6B) Threshold:

EcNoFilterCoefficient * HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis * HHoEcNoCancelTime *

IF HO meas control parameters


InterFreqMaxMeasPeriod * InterFreqMeasRepInterval * InterFreqNcellSearchPeriod * InterFreqMinHoInterval * InterFreqMinMeasInterval * InterFreqMeasAveWindow *

InterFreqUETxPwrThrXX
L3 filter:

ULQualDetRepThreshold
Data rate threshold

Timer:

UL Quality

InterFreqUETxPwrFilterCoeff * InterFreqUETxPwrTimeHyst *
Data rate threshold

Hysteresis margin (time to trigger):

HHOMAxAllowedBitrateUL

HHOMAxAllowedBitrateUL *

Handover Triggering

(XX=AMR,NrtPS,RtPS) (* = parameters already optimised) (in blue = parameters under study)

Decision Algorithm
AdjiPlossMargin AdjiMinEcNo AdjiMinRSCP AdjiTxPwrDPCH AdjiEcNoMargin

1 more IFHO triggers in RAN04:


IMSI basedIFHO
99 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Execution

IFHO measurements
After HO triggering message is sent to RNC, a RRC message Measurement Control is sent to UE containing details of the measurement that the UE must execute. Measurement reporting is periodical. Max 6 IF cells can be reported. No filtering in measurements by UE. 3 neighbor info send to UE:
RRC: Measurement control message ("carrier 2" measurements) UE

RNC

UTRA RF channel, cell individual offset (Ec/No) and primary scrambling code

Upon reception of the measurements reported by the UE, RNC applies a sliding averaging window to the CPICH Ec/No & CPICH RSCP measurements. The averaged levels are used as input to the inter-frequency decision algorithm. From each cell in active set (max=3) also intra-frequency measurements are done at same time
UE

RNC

AdjiMeasRepInterval
(default 0.5s)

RRC: Measurement report RRC: Measurement report

In one measurement report there is both intra-and inter-frequency results, no measurement filtering is used in UE
CPICH Ec/No and CPICH RSCP measurements are reported through Measurement report messages

100

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Measurement Control Parameters: FMCI


InterFreqMeasRepInterval: 0.5 seconds This is the interval between measurement reports, which are sent to BTS InterFreqMinMeasInterval:10 s This is Minimum Measurement Interval, wait time when the following CM starts, In case of an unsuccessful IFHO attempt, the network will deactivate compressed mode for a time period given by this parameter, thus better value will be 2 s to speed up the reactivation of CM. InterFreqMeasAveWindow: 6 This is Measurement Averaging Window size, sliding window is used InterFreqMaxMeasPeriod: 20 reports This is Maximum Measurement Period which determines the maximum allowed duration of the inter-frequency measurement If the RNC is not able to execute an inter-frequency Handover, it shall stop the inter-frequency measurements after the UE has sent the predefined number of measurement reports to the RNC.
101 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Measurement Control Parameters: FMCI


Maximum allowed duration of the inter-frequency measurement is calculated: InterFreqMeasRepInterval * InterFreqMaxMeasPeriod (0.5*20s) =10s, This seems to be too long time, because CM time was noticed to be about 3 seconds, so it makes senses to reduce the value of this parameter to some value about 3 seconds, otherwise, if there is failure, the network will not deactivate compressed mode until the timer of 10 seconds has expired. Thus, decreasing the parameter value will allow the UE/network to initiate a new IFHO attempt. Proposed value for GSMMaxMeasPeriod is 6 This seems to be too long time, because the CM time was noticed to be about 3 s, thus proposed value for InterFreqMaxMeasPeriod is 6 InterFreqNcellSearchPeriod:0 This is neighbor cell search period parameter, IFHO is not allowed until the are enough measurement reports given by this parameter O means that only 1 measurement result is enough for decision making Duration of the cell search period is calculated: InterFreqMeasRepInterval * InterFreqNcellSearchPeriod).
102 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

ISHO parameters
CPICH RSCP (Event 1F) Thresholds: HHoRscpThreshold HHoRscpCancel L3 filter: HHoRscpFilterCoefficient Timers: HHoRscpTimeHysteresis HHoRscpCancelTime UE Tx Power (Event 6A) Threshold: GsmUETxPwrThrXX L3 filter: GsmUETxPwrFilterCoeff Hysteresis margin: GsmUETxPwrTimeHyst Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrateUL DL DPCH power Threshold: GsmDLTxPwrThrXX Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrateDL CPICH Ec/Io (Event 1F) Thresholds: HHoEcNoThreshold HHoEcNoCancel L3 filter: Done already for SHO Timers: HHoEcNoTimeHysteresis HHoEcNoCancelTime UL Quality Timer: ULQualDetRepThreshold Data rate threshold HHOMAxAllowedBitrateUL

GSM measurement reporting


GsmMeasRepInterval GsmNcellSearchPeriod GsmMinMeasInterval GsmMaxMeasPeriod

Handover Triggering
(XX=AMR,CS,NrtPS,RtPS)

Decision Algorithm
AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH AdjgRxLevMinHO (n) GsmMeasAveWindow

2 more ISHO triggers in RAN04:


Emergency ISHO (EMISHO) IMSI basedISHO
103 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Execution

2G-to-3G back prevention


GsmMinHoInterval

ISHO measurements
After HO triggering message is sent to RNC, a RRC message Measurement Control is sent to UE containing details of the measurement that the UE must execute. Measurement reporting is periodical. Max 6 GSM cells could be measured by UE and reported to RNC. No filtering in measurements by UE
RRC: Measurement control message (GSM RSSI measurements) UE

RNC

Upon reception of the measurements reported by the UE, RNC applies a sliding averaging window to the RXLEV measurements. The averaged levels are used as input to the IS-HO decision algorithm.
RNC
The first measurement report has info from the best GSM cell: BCCH freq & RSSI, no filtering used in UE
RXLEV measurements are reported through Measurement report messages

UE

GsmMeasRepInterval (default 0.5s)

RRC: Measurement report RRC: Measurement report

104

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

ISHO Signalling
UE

RNC
ISHO triggered: Event 6A/1F/
RRC: Measurement control with IE TGMP=GSM RSSI RRC: Measurement report RRC: Measurement control with IE TGMP=GSM BSIC

. . . . . RRC: Measurement report : BSIC decoded


Handover from UTRAN

RRC: Measurement report: BSIC no decoded

105

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Measurement Control Parameters: FMCG


GSMMeasRepInterval: 0.5 seconds This is the interval between measurement reports, which are sent to BTS This parameter should be kept to 0.5 seconds. Increasing the reporting interval would increase the IS-HO process delay. GSMMinMeasInterval:10 s This is Minimum Measurement Interval, wait time when the following CM starts. In case of an unsuccessful IS-HO attempt, the network will deactivate compressed mode for a time period given by this parameter, thus better value will be 2 s to speed up the reactivation of CM. GSMMeasAveWindow: 6 This is Measurement Averaging Window size, sliding window is used GSMMaxMeasPeriod: 20 reports This is Maximum Measurement Period which determines the maximum allowed duration of the inter-sytem measurement If the RNC is not able to execute an inter-system Handover, it shall stop the inter-system measurements after the UE has sent the predefined number of measurement reports to the RNC.
106 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Measurement Control Parameters: FMCG


Maximum allowed duration of the inter-system measurement is calculated: GSMMeasRepInterval * GSMMaxMeasPeriod (=0.5*20s) =10s, This seems to be too long time, because based on field measurements BSIC and RSSI delays are about 3 seconds, so it makes senses to reduce the value of this parameter to some value about 3 seconds, otherwise, if the BSIC or RSSI measurements fail or if the IS-HO execution is not possible to due low GSM RSSI levels, the network will not deactivate compressed mode until the timer of 10 seconds has expired. Thus, decreasing the parameter value will allow the UE/network to initiate a new IS-HO attempt. Proposed value for GSMMaxMeasPeriod is 6 GSMNcellSearchPeriod: 0 This is neighbor cell search period parameter, ISHO is not allowed until the are enough measurement reports given by this parameter O means that only 1 measurement result is enough for decision making Duration of the cell search period is calculated: GSMRepInterval * GSMNcellSearchPeriod).

107

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

ISHO: BSIC Verification


After the selection of the target GSM cell, the RNC sends to UE the RRC message "Measurement control which includes details to measure BSIC . UE stops RSSI measurements and updates the transmission gap pattern to the pattern used for BSIC decoding. The measurement reports are sent periodically to RNC. If the UE is unable to decode the BSIC during the given period, the BSIC measurement operation is aborted.
IS-HO trigger Target Cell found IS-HO command

WCDMA
RRC: Measurement control message (BSIC decoding)

RSSI meas.
TRSSI depends on
Numbers

BSIC verification
TBSIC depends on :
Transmission

RNC

of GSM cells in the neighbor cell list Reporting interval Sliding averaging window Transmission gap pattern for RSSI measurements

gap pattern for BSIC decoding

108

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Tuning


RNC Triggering Details about the measurements GsmMeasRepInterval
(default 0.5s)
RRC: Measurement report RRC: Measurement Control

The first measurement report has info from the best GSM cell: BCCH freq & RSSI, no filtering used in UE

RRC: Measurement report RRC: Measurement report

GSMMaxMeasPeriod
Max 6 GSM cells reported

RRC: Measurement report Handover Command Handover Complete Handover Failure

Inter-system measurement stops if RNC has not been able to perform intersystem handover after GSMMaxMeasPeriod (value 10, default =20, 120, step 1 meas report) RNC could not initiate inter-system measurements if: The UE has recently performed an inter-system HO: GSMMinHoInterval / 10s, 060, step 1s An inter-system HO recently fails for this UE: GSMMinMeasInterval / 10s, 060, step 1s

109

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

AMR ISHO Inter System Handover 3G -> 2G Tuning


There is a large number of parameters to optimize However, part of the inter-system handover optimization was done empirically, based on verification measurements done previously

2. GSM Measurement reporting process GsmMeasRepInterval (default value=0.5 seconds) The GSM measurement reporting interval given by this parameter should be kept to 0.5 seconds (default value) Increasing the reporting interval would increase the IS-HO process delay Besides, accuracy requirements related to the GSM measurements in compressed mode are given for a reporting interval of 0.5 seconds (480ms TS 25.133) GsmMaxMeasPeriod ( default value = 20 measurement reports) This parameter controls the maximum compressed mode duration time for each GSM RSSI and BSIC decoding measurement process. The duration of this parameters in seconds is given by:
max_meas_time (s) = GsmMaxMeasPeriod x GsmMeasRepInterval + 4 x GsmMeasRepInterval

Thus, the default value of max_meas_time in seconds is 12sec

it was found (based on field measurements) that BSIC and RSSI delays are below 3 seconds, it makes senses to reduce the value of this parameter to some value about 3 seconds, otherwise, if the BSIC or RSSI measurements fail or if the IS-HO execution is not possible to due low GSM RSSI levels, the network will not deactivate compressed mode until the timer of 12 seconds has expired Thus, decreasing the parameter value will allow the UE/network to initiate a new IS-HO attempt

110

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


111 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

It is not sufficient to have triggers, which detect that a Handover has to be done. Criteria are required to decide, whether to carry out an intra-frequency, inter-frequency, or inter-RAT Handover if there is the possibility for a Handover at all! Conditions shown here have to be satisfied, before an inter-frequency Handover can be conducted. The best neighbor ing cell must fulfil following criteria (best according to Ec/No): Quality Criterion in case trigger was DL DPCH Power or CPICH Ec/No: AVE_RSCP_NCELL (n) > AdjiMinRSCP(n) + max(0, AdjiTxPwrDPCH(n) - P_MAX) Signal level from new cell > required Signal level in new cell + adjustment due to allowed power AVE_EcNo_NCELL (n) > AVE_CPICH_EcNo + AdjiEcNoMargin(n) EcNo on new cell better than EcNo in old cell + margin Pathloss Criterion in case trigger was UE Tx Power, CPICH RSCP or UL DPCH Quality: AVE_EcNo_NCELL (n) > AdjiMinEcNo(n) EcNo on new cell better than required EcNo in new cell (default 14 dB) CPICH_POWER - AVE_CPICH_RSCP > CPICH_POWER_NCELL (n) - AVE_RSCP_NCELL (n) + AdjiPlossMargin(n) PathLoss in old cell > PathLoss in new cell + Margin (default 2 dB) (continued)
112 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IFHO Decision

IF HO Signalling
There is bad quality conditions in the link .. ISHO triggered: Event 6A\1F.
UE RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT (Event 6A\1F..) RRC: MEASUREMENT CONTROL (IF meas details) RRC: MEASUREMENT CONTROL (CFN, TGPS)

RNC

RNC commands IF measurements and Compressed Mode

Compressed Mode Activation Periodic IF meas Reporting


RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT (CFN, TGPS)

Radio Link Setup


RRC: PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION (Timing Indication) RRC: PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG COMPLETE

. .

Handover Decision With the information

gotten, the RNC assess the best cell, and decides to attempt a IFHO to it

113

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Inter-frequency HO Quality Criteria


a)
AVE_EcNo_NCELL(n) > AVE_CPICH_EcNo + AdjiEcNoMargin(n) HO?

AVE_EcNo_NCELL (n)

b)
AdjiEcNoMargin(n) AdjiMinRSCP(n)

AdjiMinEcNo(n) max(0, AdjiTxPwrDPCH(n) - P_MAX)

a) b)
114

AVE_RSCP_NCELL (n) > AdjiMinRSCP(n) + max(0, AdjiTxPwrDPCH(n) P_MAX) AVE_EcNo_NCELL (n) > AVE_CPICH_EcNo + AdjiEcNoMargin(n)
NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Inter-frequency HO Pathloss Criteria


a)
AVE_EcNo_NCELL (n) > AdjiMinEcNo(n)

b)
best inter-frequency cell best active set cell

AdjiMinEcNo(n)

AdjiPlossMargin(n)

a) b)

AVE_EcNo_NCELL(n) > AdjiMinEcNo(n) CPICH_POWER - AVE_CPICH_RSCP > CPICH_POWER_NCELL(n) - AVE_RSCP_NCELL(n) + AdjiPlossMargin(n)

115

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


116 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

ISHO Decision
AVE_RXLEV_NCell(n) > AdjgRxLevMinHO(n) + max(0, AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH(n) - P_max)
GSM cell

AdjgRxLevMinHO(n)

max(0, AdjgTxPwrMaxTCH(n) - P_max)


117 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


118 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Load based Handover GSM -> WCDMA


Load of GSM cell
100% Load reason Handovers for speech Speech Speechto toWCDMA WCDMA only with high only with highGSM GSMload load More Morecapacity capacity for speech for speech

80%

Packet PacketData Datato toWCDMA WCDMA regardless of GSM regardless of GSMload load

Higher Higherbit bitrates rates for data users for data users

Packet PacketBCCH BCCHparameters parameterscan canbe beused used to push GPRS mobiles to WCDMA to push GPRS mobiles to WCDMA 0%
119 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Load and Coverage Reason Handover


GSM high loaded
Load Loadreason reason Handover Handoverfor forspeech speech and for HSCSD and for HSCSD

WCDMA low loaded

WCDMA WCDMAcan canbe beused used to torelieve relieveGSM GSMoverload overload GSM GSMcan canbe beused usedto toextend extend WCDMA WCDMAcoverage coveragearea area

GSM GSM

GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMA

GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA

GSM GSM

GSM GSM Load reason Handover


120 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

GSM GSM Coverage reason Handover

Mobile moving

Load based Handover Process: GSM-> WCDMA


Handover HandoverTriggering TriggeringThresholds Thresholdsset setin inBSC BSC Inter-RAT Inter-RATmeasurements measurementsstarts startsin incase case The RXLEV of the serving cell is above The RXLEV of the serving cell is aboveor or below the given threshold Qsearch_C below the given threshold Qsearch_C Handover HandoverDecision Decisionis isdone donein incase caseof of Load Loadof ofthe theserving servingcell cell> >Load_Threshold Load_Threshold and andCPICH CPICHEc/No> Ec/No>min minEc/No Ec/NoThreshold Threshold MS MSselects selectsthe thetarget targetUTRAN UTRANcell cellbased based on measurement results on measurement results Handover Handovercommand commandis issend sendto toMSC MSC Parameters are sent from the BSC to the mobile in the Measurement Information message In the S10.5 MS is measuring the UTRAN cells continuously if they are defined as a neighbor , The number of GSM neighbor reported could be 3-6 depending on the set value of parameter FDD_MULTIRAT_REPORT (0,1,2=def,3). The load is measured in the cell level by comparing the occupied TCHs to the available TCHs (20 s interval used) Load Threshold for Speech Calls or Transparent Data inter-RAT Handover: utranHoThScTpdc (Min Traffic Load TDHO), default = 80% minEcnoThreshold (Min CPICH EC/NO Threshold), default 15 dB

121

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


122 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Emergency ISHO (EMISHO)


Directed Emergency Call Inter-system Handover directs emergency calls from UTRAN to GSM network in order to allow more accurate than Cell ID and RTT based location service. It is an optional feature and designed for US market to support FCC requirements.
Route of call before handover Route of call after handover

PSAP
2. 8. Location Lo Source ca Establishment Request t ion UMTS RAN Re qu 3G MSC es t 7. Location 3. Handover to GSM

1. Emergency Call

9. Location

5.

Po sit

GMLC
ion ing

Target GSM BSS

eque R n o i cat 4. Lo n catio o L . 6

st

2G MSC

123

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

EMISHO Call-Flow
SMLC

Report Area IE: Geographical Area Client Type IE: Emergency Call

Radio Bearer setup


NBAP: Dedicated Measurement Init Req RRC: Measurement Control UE Tx-Rx NBAP: Dedicated Measurement Init Resp RRC: Measurement Report Tx-Rx

RANAP: Location Reporting Control

ISHO measurements & HO to GSM

Location Calculation based on CId and RTT In case ISHO to GSM fails, RNC keeps location based on CI+RTT in mind and sends RANAP:Location Report

Case a) ISHO to GSM is successful, no response to MSS Case b) ISHO to GSM is not successful: RANAP: Location Report

124

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


125 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Forced Handover for AMR Voice Call


AMR voice call setup in 3G

Feature can be used to push 3G AMR calls to 2G Extreme parameter setting for ISHO trigger cause UE Tx power (event 6A)
FMCG: GSMcauseTxPwrUL FMCG: GsmUETxPwrThrAMR UE immediately answers with Measurement Report
push means Handover, not Directed-Retry !
126 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

WCDMA forced handover to GSM GSM

UE

[..]

RNC
RRC: RadioBearerSetup RRC: RadioBearerSetupComplete RRC: MeasurementControl RRC: MeasurementReport (event 6A)

ISHO measurements & HO to GSM

Forced Handover for AMR Voice Call


GSMcauseTxPwrUL

Range and step: 0 (False), 1 (True) Indicates whether a handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power level is enabled. The handover is enabled when the value of the parameter is "Used To enable feature, setting must be 1 (True) Range and step: -60..0 dB This parameter determines the UE TX power threshold for a CS voice connection. If the handover to GSM caused by high UE TX power level is enabled, the RNC starts inter-RAT (GSM) measurements when the UE TX power reaches this threshold. The UE TX power threshold is relative to the maximum TX power level an UE can use on the DPCH in the cell (or the maximum RF output power capability of the UE, whichever is lower To enable feature, setting must be 60 dB
RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

GsmUETxPwrThrAMR

127

NOKIA

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


128 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Cell Reselection 2G -> 3G


Cell Reselection L ist BCCH: FDD_Qmin , FDD_Qoffset
GSM MS starts WCDMA measurements if : RLA_C< F(Qsearch_I) for 0<Qsearch_I<=7 or RLA_C> F(Qsearch_I) for 7<Qsearch_I<=15

at least every 5 s

check

Measurement Updates: RLC_C value of the serving cell + least 6 strongest non serving GSM cells
Fdd_Qoffset: select allways (value is infinity)

no priorities between WCDMA neighbor s

If, for suitable UMTS cell & for a period of 5 s: CPICH RSCP > RLA_C + FDD_Qoffset and CPICH Ec/No FDD_Qmin

WCDMA cell reselection


FDD_Qmin= -13 dB

129

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Cell Reselection 2G -> 3G


Re-selection measurements are controlled by the parameter threshold to search WCDMA RAN cells (QSRI) The parameter defines a threshold and also indicates whether these measurements are performed when RLA_C (a running average of received signal level) of the serving GSM cell is below or above the threshold GSM MS starts WCDMA measurements in case
RLA_C # Qsearch _I (Non GPRS)

running average signal (RLA_C) level is below or above certain threshold:

130

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Cell Re-selection Parameters


Qsearch_I and Qsearch_P define the threshold for non-GPRS/GPRS (respectively)

capable UEs to measure 3G neighbour cells when a running average of the received downlink signal level (RLA_C) of the serving cell is below (0-7) or above (8-15) the threshold Value 0 1 6 7 8 9 10 14 15 dBm -98 -94 -74 Always -78 -74 -70
UE always measures 3G cells

-54

Never

If RLA_C>-94 UE starts 3G measurements

FDD_Qoffset and FDD_GPRS_Offset the non-GPRS/GPRS (respectively) capable UEs

add this offset to the RLA_C of the GSM cells. After that the UE compares the measured RSCP values of 3G cells with signal levels of the GSM cells Value dBm 0 -always 1 -28 2 -24 3 -20 8 0 14 24 15 28

Always select irrespective of RSCP value RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim 131 NOKIA

Reselect in case RSCP > GSM RXLev (RLA_C) +28dB

Cell Re-selection Parameters


FDD_Qmin, defines minimum Ec/No threshold that a 3G cell must exceed, in order the UE makes a cell reselection from 2G to 3G. This is the new mapping table
Fdd_Qmin mapping Aif parameter 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Fdd_Qmin (old) [dB] -20 -19 -18 -17 -16 -15 -14 -13 Fdd_Qmin (new) [dB] -20 -6 -18 -8 -16 -10 -14 -12

FDD_REP_QUANT defines the reporting quantity for UTRAN cell (1=Ec/No or 0=RSCP, default 1). This parameter is hidden and it can not be tuned 3G_Search_PRIO parameter allows to extend the BSIC reporting interval from 10 s to 13s by checking the BSICs from non-serving BCCH carriers and also make WCDMA measurements as often as possible. Range is 0=no, 1=yes, default value .This parameter is hidden and it can not be tuned

Defined in the SI2quater and PSI3quater if PBCCH is allocated


3G_search_ 3G_search_ PRIO PRIO

FDD_(GPRS) FDD_(GPRS) FDD_REP_ FDD_REP_ Parameter Qsearch_I Qsearch_P Qsearch_P FDD_QMin Parameter Qsearch_I Qsearch_P Qsearch_P FDD_QMin Qoffset QUANT Qoffset QUANT Name for Name for 2quater 2quater 2ter 2quater 2ter 2quater 2quater 3quater 3quater 2ter 2quater 2ter Sys Info (SI) Sys Info (SI)
132 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

2(3)quarter 2(3)quarter (PBCCH) (PBCCH)

Cell Re-selection Example-Weaker WCDMA


Non GPRS case
RSCP/ RLA_C Ec/No Cell re-selection to WCDMA

Serving GSM Cell

RLA_C

Qsearch_I=0 (-98 dBm) FDD_Qoffset =6 (-8 dB)

Measurements starts (serving cell)

Neighbour WCDMA Cell

RSCP Ec/N0

FDD_Qmin=0 (-20 dB)

Minimum Quality Requirement for WCDMA


5 sec.

133

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Cell Re-selection Example-Weaker WCDMA


GPRS case
RSCP/ RLA_C Ec/No RLA_P Cell re-selection to WCDMA

Serving GSM Cell (Best)

FDD_GPRS_Qoffset =10 (8 dB) Qsearch_P=0 (-98 dBm) RSCP

Measurements starts (serving cell)


FDD_Qmin =-20 dB Neighbour WCDMA Cell Ec/N0

Minimum Quality Requirement for WCDMA


t 5 sec.

134

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G


Whilst camping in a 3G cell the UE performs intra-frequency, interfrequency, and inter-system measurements based on the measured CPICH EcNo of the serving cell according to the following rules:

Serving cell parameters Sintrasearch, Sintersearch and SsearchRAT are compared with Squal (CPICH Ec/No - Qqualmin) in S-criteria for cell re-selection UE will measure neighbor cells depending on how parameters are set & send (if parameters are not sent UE shall measure all cells)

1 - None (Squal > Sintrasearch ) 2 - WCDMA intra-frequency (Sintersearch < Squal Sintrasearch) 3 - WCDMA intra- and inter- frequency, no inter-RAT cells (SsearchRAT < Squal Sintersearch) 4 - WCDMA intra- and inter-frequency and inter-RAT cells (Squal SsearchRAT )

Sintrasearch Sintersearch SsearchRAT

1 WCDMA CELL

135

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G


CPICH EcNo

UE starts GSM measurements if CPICH Ec/No < qQualMin + sSearchRAT First ranking of all the cells based on CPICH RSCP (WCDMA) and RSSI (GSM) Rs = CPICH RSCP + Qhyst1 Rn= Rxlev(n) - Qoffset1 Serving WCDMA cell calculation, with hysteresis parameter Neighbour WCDMA or GSM cell calculation with offset parameter
Yes

SintraSearch

SinterSearch SsearchRAT qQualMin


No

Rn (GSM) > Rs (WCDMA) And Rxlev (GSM) >QrxlevMin

Second ranking only for WCDMA cells based on CPICH Ec/No Rs = CPICH Ec/No + Qhyst2 Rn=CPICH_Ec/No(n)-Qoffset2
136 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Cell re-selection to GSM Cell re-selection to WCDMA cell of highest R value

Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G


UE ranks the serving cell and the measured neighboring cells to find out if reselection should be made All the measured suitable cells (S-criteria) are included in the ranking. Criteria for a suitable cell (S-criteria) is defined as

WCDMA intra-frequency neighbor cell: WCDMA inter-frequency cell: GSM cell:

CPICH Ec/No > AdjsQqualmin and CPICH RSCP > AdjsQrexlevmin CPICH Ec/No > AdjiQqualmin and CPICH RSCP > AdjiQrexlevmin Rxlev > Qrxlevmin

Ranking is done using Criteria R, and the UE reselects to the cell with highest R-criteria. R-criteria is defined as:

For serving cell: Rs = Qmeas,s + Qhysts For neighboring cell Rn = Qmeas,n Qoffsetts,n

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Qmeas is CPICH Ec/No for WCDMA cell and RxLev for GSM cell

137

NOKIA

Cell Reselection 3G -> 2G


There is no timer defined how long the GSM should be fulfilling the reselection criteria However there is running average of 4 GSM measurements which provides some protection against ping pong (time vice based on DRX cycle length and as sliding window average) In case additional protection is needed it can be arranged by using the Qhyst1 parameter (for WCDMA serving cell RSCP) or AdjgQoffset1 (for GSM neighbor ing cell RxLev)
First ranking of all the cells based on CPICH RSCP (WCDMA) and RSSI (GSM) Rs = CPICH RSCP + Qhyst1 Rn= Rxlev(n) - Qoffset1

138

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

How to avoid ping pong ?


When phone is camped on 3G, GSM measurements can start when CPICH Ec/Io of serving cell is below Ssearch_RAT + QqualMin. When phone is camped on GSM, cell reselection to 3G is possible if CPICH Ec/Io of the candidate is above FDD_Qmin. Therefore, to avoid ping pongs between 3G and GSM the following condition should be met: FDD_Qmin >= QqualMin+Ssearch_RAT
CPICH Ec/Io

FDD_Qmin >= -12 dB


QqualMin +Ssearch_RAT
Ssearch_RAT=4 dB

QqualMin=-18 dB

Camping on 3G

Camping on GSM

Camping on 3G t

139

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


140 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Inter-RNC Mobility
Most of the times the UE hands over among WBTS belonging to the same RNC (IntraRNC Handovers) However, what happens when the target WBTS is under a different WBTS?? 3GPP gives two different options to handle inter-RNC mobility in WCDMA

Anchoring: the UE will be connected to the CN via the old RNC. It is required Iur connection between the RNCs involved SRNS relocation: the UE will be connected to the CN via the new RNC. It is the Nokia implemented method
SRNS relocation *)
CN CN

Anchoring
CN CN

Iu
RNC

Iu Iur
RNC

Iu
RNC

Iu Iur
RNC

Iu
RNC

Iu Iur
RNC

Iu
RNC

Iu Iur
RNC

*) SRNS relocation needs core network support; UE support mandatory in 3GPP


141 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SRNS Relocation
SRNS Relocation
SRNS Relocation SRNS Relocation SRNS Relocation

RNC

RNC

SRNS Anchoring
SRNC anchored

RNC

RNC

RNC RNC RNC RNC Call will drop RNC RNC

Anchor RNC (SRNC)

142

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SRNC Relocation
The SRNC relocation is used for moving the SRNC functionality from one RNC to another RNC, that is, closer to where the UE has moved during the communication. Both the radio access network and the core network are involved There are the following types of relocations Relocation for circuit-switched services Relocation for NRT PS services Relocation for NRT services started by the Cell/Ura Update message from target RNC(CELL_FACH state relocation) Relocation for RT PS services An inter-RNC Hard Handover can be associated to the SRNS relocation, if so the relocation is UE involved, since the UE is ordered to switch to another carrier or to replace the whole active by sending s HHO command to the UE during the relocation procedure. An inter-RNC Hard Handover can be due to: Inter frequency HHO is needed, and the target cell is located in the DRNS No resources (mainly Iur capacity) available between the involved RNCs (so no inter-RNC SHO possible) No Iur interface configured between the neighbour RNCs

143

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

NrncRelocationSupport =1
Source RNC

UE not involved SRNC Relocation for RT


RelocationSupport =1
CN Target RNC UE RANAP:Relocation Request

SRNC Relocation Decision RANAP:Relocation Required

Start RelocPrep

Start RelocOverall
RANAP:Relocation Request Ack

Stop RelocPrep
RANAP:Relocation Command

User plane set -up

Start RelocOverall
RNSAP:Relocation Commit SRNC operation started RANAP:Relocation Detect UP switching RRC:UTRAN Mobility Information RRC:UTRAN Mobility Information Confirm

Stop RelocOverall
RANAP:Iu Release

RANAP:Relocation complete

Stop RelocOverall
RANAP:Iu Release Complete

SRNC Relocation is initiated in the Serving RNC when all the cells of the active set belong to a different RNC. The SRNC sends a Relocation Required The CN evaluates if the relocation is possible and in that case, it sends a Relocation Request to the target RNC with parameters for the bearer establishment Relocation Command sent from CN to Source RNC with UTRAN information and bearer parameters After that, the Source RNC sends Relocation Commit message over Iur to the Target RNC When target RNC starts to act as Serving RNC, it sends a Relocation Detect message to CN. This message has no parameters At the same time UTRAN Mobility Information is sent to the UE, to inform that the relocation is performed and should use the new RLs After the confirm, the target RNC informs CN with Relocation Complete message that the relocation procedure was successful and Iu is released from source RNC

User plane release

144

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

NrncRelocationSupport =1
Source RNC

UE involved: Combined SRNC Relocation and inter-RNC HHO for RT


RelocationSupport =1
CN Target RNC UE RANAP:Relocation Required RANAP:Relocation Request

SRNC Relocation Decision

Start RelocPrep

Start RelocOverall
RANAP:Relocation Request Ack

Because there is no Iur interface, combined SRNS relocation and HHO are done before the UE is completely under the target RNC The procedure is quite similar to the not UE involved case until Relocation Command The only difference in the Relocation Required message, the Relocation Type IE is set to "UE involved in relocation of SRNS" Instead of Relocation Commit via Iur, the serving RNC sends a Physical CH Reconfiguration, after which the UE stops transmitting and receiving on the old radio links and starts on the new radio link

Stop RelocPrep
RANAP:Relocation Command

User plane set -up

Start RelocOverall

Physical Channel Reconfiguration L1 sync. Established between BTS and UE RANAP:Relocation Detect UP switching

Physical Ch Reconfig Complete

RANAP:Relocation complete

Stop RelocOverall
RANAP:Iu Release

Stop RelocOverall
RANAP:Iu Release Complete

User plane release

145

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

UE reconfiguration
SRNS r

lo : Re P A d RAN olve v n i UE

d uire q e on R cati

eloca tion

Im involved in relocation procedure Whole AS will change..

UE moving
RRC: TRANSPORT CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION RRC: TRANSPORT CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE or: RRC: PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION RRC: PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION COMPLETE

Change during HO: User Plane, Bitrate Spreading factor Rate matching

Change during HO: Scrambling Code

146

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

SRNC Relocation Parameters


TRelocPrep : range = 1 ... 16 s, step 1 s, default = 6s Specifies the maximum time for Relocation Preparation procedure in the source RNC. The timer is set when a Relocation Required message is sent. The timer is stopped when a Relocation Command or a Relocation Preparation Failure message is received TRelocOverall : range = 1 ... 16 s, step 1 s, default = 8s This timer is used in both source and target RNC. In the source RNC specifies the maximum time for the protection of overall Relocation procedure. It is set in the source RNC when a Relocation Command message is received; and it is stopped when an Iu Release Command is received, or the relocation procedure is cancelled. The timer is set in the target RNC when a Relocation Request Acknowledge message is sent. The timer is stopped when a Relocation Complete message is sent, or the relocation procedure is cancelled T_Reloc_Inhibit_NRT : fixed to 5s The timer is started in source RNC when a SRNC relocation procedure is triggered for a NRT RAB(s) in a Cell_DCH state. The SRNC relocation procedure is inhibited as long as a DCH is used for the NRT RAB(s) or this timer expires TDataFwd : fixed to 4s The timer is set when a SRNS Data Forward Command message (or a Relocation Command message) is received from the PS CN. The timer is internally stopped in the SRNC when the SRNS Data Forwarding procedure has been completed
147 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Parameters
IuPSrelWait3G2GMultiServ : range = 0 (10s), 1 (20s), 2 (30s), 3 (60s), 4 (120s), 5 (180s), 6 (300s), 7 (600s), default value= 4 This RNC object parameter, controls the release of the Iu-PS connection after the 3G/2G inter-system handover with CS+PS multi-service. When the UE does not immediately after switching to the 2G-service initiate a routing area update procedure towards the PS-CN, the RNC can keep the Iu-PS connection and wait for the RAU and the release of the CS-service in the 2G-side When the timer expires, the RNC sends the Iu release request to the SGSN RelocationSupport : range = 0 (Not supported), 1 (Supported), default value = 1 RNC object parameter, identifies whether the Core Network supports the relocation of SRNC or not NrncRelocationSupport : range = 0 (Not supported), 1 (Supported), default = 1 RNC object parameter, identifies whether a neighbouring RNC supports relocation of SRNC or not

148

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Handover Types Intra-Frequency Handover:


Handover Control

Parameters Mapping SHO Events and Measurements Hard Handover & RRC Connection Release

Traffic Balancing Compressed-Mode Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Handover:


GSM ISHO

Measurement triggering Inter-Frequency & Inter-System Measurements Inter-Frequency HO decision Inter-System HO decision Load Based Handover to WCDMA Emergency Inter-System Handover to GSM Forced AMR voice call handover to GSM Cell Reselection

SRNS Relocation IMSI Based Handover


149 NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IMSI Based Handover Solution Overview


IMSI based Handover is optional RAN04 feature The purpose of the IMSI specific Handover feature is that a mobile subscriber in a visited network can be commanded to measure selectively only specified PLMN cells and to make Handover accordingly to those specified (home or authorised) PLMNs. The input for the selective measurement control is the PLMN id that is included in the IMSI of the subscriber.
IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN MCC+MNC =PLMN ID
IMSI MCC MNC MSIN PLMN International Mobile Subscriber Identity Mobile Country Code Mobile Network Code Mobile Subscriber Identification Number Public Land Mobile Network

There are four kind of IMSI based Handover: IMSI based Intra-frequency HO IMSI based Inter-frequency HO IMSI based Inter-system HO Immediate IMSI based inter-frequency/intra-frequency HO
150 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IMSI Based HO
There is two new Management object class related to IMSI based HO
WANE-WCDMA authorised networks Authorized network identifier (AuthorisedNetworkId) List of authorized networks (AuthorisedNetworkList) Authorised network PLMN (AuthorisedNetworkPLMN) Technology used in the authorised network (Technology) WANE name (WANEName) WSG-WCDMA Subscriber group Subscriber home PLMN (HomePLMN) Name of subscriber home PLMN (OperatorName) Subscriber Group identifier (SubscriberGroupID) Identifier of the authorised network (WSGAuthorisedNetworkId) GSM roaming allowed (GSM roaming) WANE set contains PLMN ids where the UE is allowed to make Handovers WSG object maps the subscriber (PLMN id) to certain WANE set with a WANE id. A WSG object should be created for every subscriber (PLMN id) visiting the network. Max Number of WANEs is 10 and max number of WSGs is 128

151 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

WSG Selecting the list of Authorised PLMNs


The RNC shall select the desired list of authorised PLMNs for the selective measurement control on the basis of the PLMN Id that is included in the IMSI of the subscriber The RNC links the PLMN ID of the subscriber with the desired list of authorised PLMNs by means of an index table Each IMSI has hard
IMSI 24207XXX PLMN 24207

WSG id 0 1 7 8 127

PLMN id
24305 (Op F 3G, border country) 24201 (Op B Shared 3G) 24207 (Op A 3G) 24208 (Op B 3G)

List id 1 4 2 3

coded the PLMN that belongs to. The WSG associates one list number (WANE ID) to each PLMN

PLMN 242 07 PLMN 242 08


IMSI 24208XXX PLMN 24208

MCC MNC

Authorised PLMN list #2 Authorised PLMN list #3

152

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

WANE - Structure of the Authorised PLMN lists


A list of authorised PLMNs shall contain the maximum of six PLMN identifiers The radio network database shall have ten separate authorised PLMN lists (WANEs) It is not necessary to add the home PLMN Id of the subscriber to the list of authorised PLMNs

List # #1 #2 #3 #4 #0
24210 (Op D 3G) 24206 (Op A GSM 24209 (Op B GSM) 24208 (Op B 3G) All

Authorised PLMNs (max. 6)


24200 (Op C 3G 24201 (Op B Sh 3G) 24209 (Op B GSM) 24201 (Op C GSM) 24210 (Op D 3G) 24305 (Op F 3G, border country) 24306 (Op G 3G, border country)

'All' in the list #0 indicates that all PLMNs are considered authorised PLMNs (RNC shall combine the neighbour cell list for the inter-frequency or inter-RAT (GSM) measurement from all neighbouring cells regardless of their PLMN identifiers)
153 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Types of IMSI Based handover


There are five kind of IMSI based Handover: IMSI based Intra-frequency HO (IMSIBasedSHO=enabled) IMSI based Inter-frequency HO (IMSIBasedIFHO= enabled) IMSI based Inter-system HO (IMSIBasedGsmHO= enabled) Immediate IMSI based Inter-frequency HO (IMSIBasedIFHO=immediate) Immediate IMSI based Inter-system HO (IMSIBasedGsmHO=immediate)

154

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IMSI based Intra Frequency HO


If at least one of the AS cells has IMSIbasedSHO enabled, then Intra Frequency HO is possible only if the PLMN ID of the monitored cell, which needs to be added, is the same as either the home PLMN ID of the subscriber or the authorized PLMNs or an AS cell's PLMN If none of the AS cells has IMSIbasedSHO enabled, then the monitored cell is added into the active set regardless of the PLMN IDs The IMSI based Intra Frequency HO does not affect the intra frequency measurement procedure: the RNC makes the neighbour cell lists for the intra-frequency measurements regardless of the PLMN IDs of the neighbour cells When a cell triggers the events 1A or 1C, the RNC checks whether fulfils the PLMN requirements, in that case it is added to the AS If a cell, that triggers the events 1A or 1C, does not fulfil the PLMN requirements and becomes the strongest (increases the interference), the RNC may release the RRC connection

155

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Example: IMSI based Intra Frequency HO


RNC 1 (Shared Op A - Op B) Example 1
The RNC shall be able to perform inter-PLMN handovers (SHO and IFHO) within the RNC (otherwise it will not be possible to add the green operator cell to the active set)

f1

f1

f1

Op A Country X

Op B Border Country

Example 2
The IMSI Intra Frequency HO is between different PLMNs -> Intra Frequency Hard Handover (there is no Iur between those RNCs)
f1 f1 f1

156

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IMSI based Inter Frequency/ Inter System HO


If at least one of the AS cells has IMSIbasedIFHO/ IMSIbasedISHO enabled, then Inter Frequency / Inter System HO is possible only if the PLMN ID of the monitored cell, which needs to be added, is the same as either the home PLMN ID of the subscriber or the authorized PLMNs Unlike IMSI based Intra Frequency HO, the measurement list sent by the RNC in IMSI based IF/IS HO only includes the IF/IS HO cells which fulfil the PLMN requirement The procedure is the same for IF/IS HO causes
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

DL DPCH approaches its maximum allowed power Quality deterioration report from UL outer loop PC Low measured absolute CPICH Ec/No UE Tx power approaches its maximum allowed power Low measured absolute CPICH RSCP

157

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IMSI IF HO Signalling
There is bad quality conditions in the link ..
ISHO triggered UE RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT (Trigger Event ) RRC: MEASUREMENT CONTROL (IF meas details) RRC: MEASUREMENT CONTROL (CFN, TGPS)

RNC
RNC commands measurements of the authorized IF cells

Compressed Mode Activation


Periodic IF meas Reporting RRC: MEASUREMENT REPORT (CFN, TGPS) Handover Decision With the information gotten, the RNC assess Radio Link Setup the best cell, and decides to attempt a IFHO to it RRC: PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIGURATION (Timing Indication) RRC: PHYSICAL CHANNEL RECONFIG COMPLETE

. .

158

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Immediate IMSI based Inter Frequency/ Inter System HO


It is new cause that triggers the Inter Frequency or Inter System HO If at least one of the AS cells has IMSIbasedSHO enabled and IMSIbasedIFHO/ IMSIbasedISHO is set to immediate, then RNC starts a Immediate IMSI IF/IS HO in case the RNC cannot add a cell, which triggers the event 1A or 1C, into the AS, due to it does not fulfil the requirement of home/authorised/active set PLMNs It is possible to monitor a cell which does not fulfil the PLMN requirements because the RNC provides information about all the intra frequency cells, regardless of the PLMN IDs The compress mode is started and the RNC sends in a MEASUREMENT CONTROL message only information about the inter-frequency or inter-system cells whose PLMN is the same as either the home PLMN ID of the subscriber or the authorized PLMNs The IF HO/ISHO takes place normally

159

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Example 1 : IMSI Based IFHO Activated


IMSI parameters in all RNC 1 cells
IMSIbasedGsmHO=disabled IMSIbasedSHO=disabled IMSIbasedIFHO=enabled

RNC 1 (Shared Op A - Op B)
Notice that an Op B IMSI would behave differently in the very same scenario!!!

RNC 2 (Op A)

IMSI Objects in RNC 1


WSG id 0 1 2 3 PLMN id 10010 10020 10011 10021 List id 1 3 8 2

f2 f1 f1 f1

f2

Op A

Op A
Op A IMSI

Op A

Op B
One of the IFSO causes reaches its threshold, so IMSI IFHO triggered (IMSIbasedIFHO=enabled) and RNC sends the list of the allowed cells-> IFHO to Op A Op B own cell (PLMN 10010) Op B controlled cell shared RNC (PLMN 10021)

Authorised PLMNs

RNC reports all the intra-freq cells. There is no PLMN analysis since IMSIbasedSHO=disabled, so -> Intra Freq HO to Op B cell Op A own cell (PLMN 10010) Op A controlled cell shared RNC(PLMN 10011)

#1 #2 160 #3

10011 10010
NOKIA

10020RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Immediate IMSI HO cause conditions


1. 2.

3.

If at least one of the AS cells has IMSIbasedSHO=enabled and IMSIbasedIFHO/ IMSIbasedISHO=immediate The AS cell in question has one or more inter-frequency/intersystem neighbour cells whose PLMN ID equals either the home PLMN ID of the subscriber or a PLMN ID in the authorised list The PLMN ID of a monitored cell (that has triggered the reporting event 1A or 1C) does not fulfil the requirement of the home/authorised/active set PLMNs (that is why IMSIbasedSHO=enabled is needed , otherwise it wouldnt be possible to detect that the cell does not fulfil the PLMN requirement)

161

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Summarizing .
IMSI Based Intra Freq HO Settings in an active set cell
IMSIbasedSHO=enabled

Immediate IMSI Based IMSI Based IFHO/ISHO IFHO/ISHO


IMSIbasedGsmHO= enabled / IMSIbasedIFHO= enabled IMSIbasedSHO= enabled AND (IMSIbasedGsmHO=immediate / IMSIbasedIFHO= immediate)

PLMN criteria

(IMSI HO trigger)

Home\ Authorised \Active set

Home\Authorised

An IMSI Intra-Freq attempt to a cell that does not fulfil the Intra Freq PLMN criteria

Neighbour list sent by the RNC

All the Intra Freq cells

Only the If/IS HO cells that fulfil the PLMN criteria

Only the If/IS HO cells that fulfil the PLMN criteria

PLMN criteria applied by RNC only over a cell which is candidate to be added in the active set
162 NOKIA

It is not required for these cells to have the IMSI feature enabled, in order to be included in the neighbour list. Just to have the proper PLMN ID

Notice the Immediate IMSI HO involves 2 cell lists: (1) To fulfil the (IMSI Intra Freq) PLMN criteria (2)Once the Immediate IMSI is triggered, the allowed PLMN IF/IS cells where the subscriber can hand over to

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

IMSI Based Handover


Example Cases

IMSI-based Handover can be used in different network sharing cases case 1: geographical sharing case 2: common shared RAN with gateway core case 3: mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) Based on IMSI, users of each operator can be handed over to their home or authorised WCDMA network from the shared area, when coverage becomes available (cases 1 and 2) Based on IMSI, inter-system Handovers to the users home or authorised GSM network can be performed in the shared area (all cases)
IMSI-based Handovers from the shared area: - inter-frequency HO to home or authorised WCDMA cell - inter-system HO to home or authorised GSM network Different neighbor cell definitions in RNC for different IMSI ranges

163

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Separate neighbor lists for different IMSI ranges (different PLMN users)
GSM WCDMA GSM WCDMA GSM WCDMA GSM GSM WCDMA GSM GSM

Case 1: IMSI Based Handover and Geographical Sharing

WCDMA GSM Based on IMSI, operator B user is handed over to its own WCDMA network when coverage becomes available GSM GSM

WCDMA GSM

WCDMA GSM

WCDMA GSM GSM

Based on IMSI, load and service-based intersystem HOs to their own GSM network in shared area

Based on IMSI, operator A user is handed over to its own WCDMA network when coverage becomes available Operator B GSM cell

Based on IMSI, users are handed over to their own GSM networks when WCDMA coverage ends

Operator A GSM cell Operator A own WCDMA cell Operator A controlled shared WCDMA cell Operator A user path
164 NOKIA RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Operator B own WCDMA cell Operator B controlled shared WCDMA cell Operator B user path

Separate neighbor lists for different IMSI ranges (different PLMN users)
GSM GSM GSM WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA WCDMA GSM Based on IMSI, operator B user is handed over to its own WCDMA network when coverage becomes available GSM GSM GSM Based on IMSI, operator A user is handed over to its own WCDMA network when coverage becomes available Operator B GSM cell Operator B own WCDMA cell Operator B user path GSM Based on IMSI, users are handed over to their own GSM networks when WCDMA coverage ends WCDMA GSM GSM

Case 2: IMSI Based Handover and Common Shared RAN

Based on IMSI, load and service-based intersystem HOs to their own GSM network in shared area Operator A GSM cell Operator A own WCDMA cell Operator A user path Common shared WCDMA cell

165

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim

Separate neighbor lists for different IMSI ranges (different PLMN users)
GSM GSM GSM

Case 3: IMSI Based Handover and Mobile Virtual Network Operator

WCDMA

WCDMA

GSM

GSM

GSM Based on IMSI, users are handed over to their own GSM networks when WCDMA coverage ends

Based on IMSI, load and service-based intersystem HOs to their own GSM network in shared area

Operator A GSM cell Operator A controlled WCDMA cell Operator A user path

Operator B GSM cell Operator B user path

166

NOKIA

RANPAR Version 2.0 / 09.02.2006 / rlim