This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1 Atha yoga-anushashanam Now the exposition of yoga is being made. The restraint of the modifications of the mindstuff is Yoga. Then the Seer [Self] abides in His own nature. Edwin F. Bryant Chapter I: Meditative Absorption Geshe Michael Roach First Cornerstone The Chapter on Meditation I will now review for you how we become whole. We become whole by stopping how the mind turns. Chip Hartranft I. Integration
Now, the teachings of yoga [are presented]. Yoga is the stilling of the changing states of the mind.
Now, the teachings on Yoga.
Yogash chitta virtti nirodhah
Yoga is stilling the patterns of consciousness.
Tada drashtuh svarupevasthanam.
When that is accomplished, the seer abides in its own true nature. Otherwise, at other times, [the seer] is absorbed in the changing states [of the mind].
On that day the seer comes to dwell within their own real nature. Otherwise it follows the form of the turning.
Then, pure awareness can abide in its very nature.
Virtti sarupyam itaratra.
At other times [the Self appears to] assume the forms of the mental modifications. There are five kinds of mental modifications which are either painful or painless.
Otherwise, awareness takes itself to be the patterns of consciousness.
Virttayah panchatayyah klishta-aklishtah.
There are five kinds of changing states of the mind, and they are either detrimental or nondetrimental [to the practice of yoga]. [These five vrttis are] right knowledge, error, imagination, sleep, and memory.
The mind turns things around in five different ways. They can be involved with afflictions or free of them.
There are five types of patterns, including both hurtful and benign.
Pramana viparyaya vikalpa nidra smirtayah.
They are right knowledge, misconception, verbal delusion, sleep, and memory. The sources of right knowledge are direct perception, inference and scriptural testimony.
The five are correct perceptions, mistaken perceptions, imagination, sleep, and memories. The different types of correct perception are those which are direct; deductive; or based on authority.
They are right perception, misperception, conceptualization, deep sleep, and remembering. Right perception arises from direct observation, inference, or the words of others.
Right knowledge consists of sense perceptions, logic, and verbal testimony.
and is devoid of any concrete basis. Constant practice means striving to be there. And this practice becomes firmly rooted when it is cultivated skillfully and continuously for a long time. Of these two. Practice becomes firmly grounded when well attended to for a long time. Both practice and non-reaction are required to still the patterning of consciousness. That mental modification supported by cognition of nothingness is sleep. When a mental modification of an object previously experienced and not forgotten comes back to consciousness. Chip Hartranft Misperception is false knowledge. 1. 1. [The vrtti states of mind] are stilled by practice and dispassion. Sleep is a case where the mind turns without any object at all to help it grow. Imagination is a mental impression that follows a word. and giving up your attachments. effort toward steadiness of mind is practice. Edwin F. .12 Abhyasa vairagyabhyam tan nirodhah.13 Tatra sthitau yatnobhyasah. without break and in all earnestness. From these. Practice becomes firmly established when it has been cultivated uninterruptedly and with devotion over a prolonged period of time. Sri Swami Satchidananda Misconception occurs when knowledge of something is not based on its true form. These mental modifications are restrained by practice and non-attachment. Memory is the ability not to forget an object which you have experienced. Stopping it requires constant practice. Memory is the retention of [images of] sense objects that have been experienced.14 Sa tu dirgha kala nairantarya satkara-asevito dirdha bhumih. An image that arises on hearing mere words without any reality [as its basis] is verbal delusion. Remembering is the retention of experiences.8 Viparyayo mithya jnyanam atadrupa prathistham. practice is the effort to be fixed in concentrating the mind. 1. You must cultivate your practice over an extended period of time. Metaphor consists of the usage of words that are devoid of an actual object. Deep sleep is a pattern grounded in the perception that nothing exists.Sanskrit transliteration 1. not contact with real things.10 Abhava-pratyalambana vrittir nidra Deep sleep is that state of mind which is based on an absence [of any content]. Geshe Michael Roach Mistaken perceptions are wrong impressions that are mired in false appearances.11 Anubhutavishayasampramoshah smirtih. and it must be done correctly — for then a firm foundation is laid. 1. Bryant Error is false knowledge stemming from the incorrect apprehension [of something]. 1. without gaps. Practice is the sustained effort to rest in that stillness. 1. Conceptualization derives from linguistic knowledge.9 Shabda jnyaya-anupati vastu shunyo vikalpah. not based on what actually is. it must be steady. that is memory.
whether perceived directly or learned. after one practices steadily to bring all thought to a standstill. Samprajnata [samadhi] consists of [the consecutive] mental stages of absorption with physical awareness. [In this state] only latent impressions remain. the stilling process is accompanied by four kinds of conscious activity: analytical thinking. that is supreme non-attachment. Higher than renunciation is indifference to the gunas [themselves].15 Drishta-anushravika vishaya vitirshnasya vashikara sanjnya vairagyam. Chip Hartranft As for non-reaction. whether these are actually perceived. seen or only heard of. insight. and being in oneself are still the type done consciously. those who are unembodied and those who are merged in matter. Edwin F. Bryant Dispassion is the controlled consciousness of one who is without craving for sense objects. 1. in the factor of becoming. Geshe Michael Roach Giving up your attachments consists of the decision to gain control over your craving for experiences. When there is non-thirst for even the gunas (constituents of Nature) due to the realization of the Purusha (true Self). they are inclined to be reborn. pure awareness can clearly see itself as independent from the fundamental qualities of nature. By the firmly convinced practice of the complete cessation of the mental modifications. For [some]. Later. absorption with bliss. Sri Swami Satchidananda The consciousness of selfmastery in one who is free from craving for objects seen or heard about is nonattachment. Those who merely leave their physical bodies and attain the state of celestial deities. soul. . and these latent impressions are dissolved in nature.Sanskrit transliteration 1. When the ultimate level of non-reaction has been reached. 1. At first. Those who stay in that nature. This stems from perception of the purusa. Noting.17 Vitarka vichara-ananda-asmita rupa-anugamat samprajnyatah. 1. for they lead to that of form.16 Tat param purusha khyater guna vaitirshnyam. The other samadhi [asamprajnata-samadhi] is preceded by cultivating the determination to terminate [all thoughts]. Samprajnata samadhi (distinguished contemplation) is accompanied by reasoning. [the state of samprajnata is characterized] by absorption in [subtle] states of prakrti. take the same gross physical body. examining. but where — because of your previous practice— the factor is suppressed. is the other kind. reflecting. gained by one to whom the true nature of the person has been revealed. or described [in scripture]. have rebirth. deep pleasure. rejoicing and pure I-am-ness. absorption with subtle awareness. In its highest form. leaving only a store of latent impressions in the depth memory.19 Bhava pratyaya videha prakirti layanam. one can recognize that it has been fully achieved when no attachment arises in regard to anything at all. or feeling like a self. and absorption with the sense of Iness. these four kinds of cognition fall away. That type where you still have unripe seeds. bliss. This is the other samadhi [asamprajnata or nondistinguished].18 Virama pratyaya-abhyasa purvah sanskara sheshonya. 1. or those who get merged in Nature. Once the body is gone. it is the freedom from attachment to solid things. the impressions only remain.
1. integration. Geshe Michael Roach The other ones must first use belief. vigor.Sanskrit transliteration 1. mediocre. . 1. memory. or by any inner impressions of desires. Realization may also come if one is oriented toward the ideal of pure awareness. The time necessary for success further depends on whether the practice is mild. In Him is the complete manifestation of the seed of omniscience. furthermore. [the state where only subconscious impressions remain] is preceded by faith. and discernment.24 Klesha karma vipaka-ashayair aparamirshtah purusha vishesha ishvara. Or. for any length of time. the fructification [of karma]. [this previously mentioned state is attainable] from devotion to the Lord. and wisdom. strength. Sri Swami Satchidananda To the others. and subconscious predispositions. 1. Its independence makes this awareness an incomparable source of omniscience. the seed for knowing all things. effort. a distinction of lesser. utterly independent of cause and effect.25 Tatra niratishayam sarvajnya bijam. their ripening. A master is an extraordinary person who is untouched by mental afflictions. actions. How near depends on whether the practice is mild. Isvara. energy. Isvara was also the teacher of the ancients. in the most excellent way of all. There is.22 Mirdu madhya-adhimatratvat tatopi visheshah. faith. contemplation or by discernment. and highest. In him. The goal is reached by those who act with intense dedication and urgency. Even among these. To the keen and intent practitioner this [samadhi] comes very quickly. And another way is to ask the Master for their blessing. The Lord is a special soul. Or [samadhi is attained] by devotion with total dedication to God [Isvara]. [This state of samprajnata] is near for those who apply themselves intensely. or intense. and wisdom form the path to realization.23 Ishvara pranidhanad va. there is further differentiation [of this intensity into degrees of] mild. Edwin F. 1. Bryant [But] for others. by deeds.21 Tivra samveganam asannah. He is untouched by the obstacles [to the practice of yoga]. because he is not limited by time. medium or intense. Existing beyond time. karma. awareness. Herein lies. the seed of omniscience is unsurpassed. meditation. 1. fruits of actions. and lacking any store of latent impressions. Chip Hartranft For all others. medium.20 Shraddha virya smirti samadhi prajnya purvaka itaresham.26 Sa purvesham api guruh kalena-anavachedat. This teacher is one as well whom those of days gone by never allowed themselves to be separated from. Isvara is the supreme Purusha. 1. Unconditioned by time. and their storing. and ardent. this asamprajnata samadhi could come through faith. mindfulness. Isvara is a distinct. He is the teacher of even the most ancient teachers. Isvara was also the ideal of the ancients. unaffected by any afflictions. incorruptible form of pure awareness. For those who seek liberation wholeheartedly. samadhi absorption. moderate. realization is near. memory.
carelessness. Sickness. unhappy thoughts. lack of progress. the breath falling out of rhythm as it passes in and out. carelessness. When they do. delusion. The practice of concentration on a single subject [or the use of one technique] is the best way to prevent the obstacles and their accompaniments. interiorization develops and obstacles fall away. om.] To repeat it with reflection upon its meaning is an aid. and instability. one may experience distress. carelessness. Practice [of fixing the mind] on one object [should be performed] in order to eliminate these disturbances. Its repetition and the contemplation of its meaning [should be performed]. One can subdue these distractions by working with any one of the following principles of practice. crucial practice for doing so. Sri Swami Satchidananda The word expressive of Isvara is the mystic sound OM. doubt. Then. From this practice all the obstacles disappear and simultaneously dawns knowledge of the inner Self. doubt. [Note: OM is God’s name as well as form.29 Tatah pratyak chetanaadhigamo pyantarya-abhavash cha. failing to reach specific levels. They are distractions for the mind.27 Tasya vachakah pranavah. failure to attain a base for concentration. 1. and to avoid all obstacles. there is one. And if you wish to stop these obstacles. despair. or not being established in them firmly. lack of detachment. dejection. From this comes the realization of the inner consciousness and freedom from all disturbances.31 Duhkha daurmanasya angam ejayatva shvasa prashvasa vikshepa sahabhuvah. The mind flies off.Sanskrit transliteration 1. and disturbed breathing. sloth. and this can be caused by illness. depression. 1. inhalation. and with that come pain in the body. Edwin F. misapprehension. dullness. sensuality.28 Taj japas tad artha bhavanam.these distractions of the mind-stuff are the obstacles. idleness. 1. 1. Suffering. hedonism. failure to reach firm ground and slipping from the ground gained . by stirring up consciousness. laziness. doubt. Bryant The name designating him is the mystical syllable om. and laziness. Accompaniments to the mental distractions include distress. 1. With this you will gain the ability to focus the mind within. trembling. fogginess in the mind. You must repeat this prayer. These disturbances are disease. apathy. and inconstancy are all distractions which. having doubts. Through repetition its meaning becomes clear. or the inability to maintain steadiness of posture or breathing.30 Vyadhi styana sanshaya pramada-alasya avirati bhranti darshana-alabdha bhumikatva-anavasthitatvani chitta vikshepas tentarayah.32 Tat pratisheda-artham eka tattva abhyasah. Geshe Michael Roach Calling upon them is the first of all prayers. and exhalation accompany the distractions. Chip Hartranft Isvara is represented by a sound. Disease. false perception. carelessness. trembling of the body. And by mistaken views of the world which are left uncorrected. shaking in the hands and other parts of your body. laziness. Obstacles occur when the mind is distracted. . act as barriers to stillness. and think well upon its meaning. and only one.
compassion for the unhappy. Or by meditating on anything one chooses that is elevating. Or [the mind can become steady when it has] the knowledge attained from sleep and dreams as its support. Or by concentrating on the supreme.36 Vishoka va jyotishmati. Or when experiencing thoughts that are luminous and free of sorrow.Sanskrit transliteration 1. and equanimity. It gives the same effect as releasing. Or [stability of mind is gained] by exhaling and retaining the breath. then storing. It also makes your heart carefree. lucidity arises in the mind. and radiant like starlight. the wind of the breath. and disregard toward the wicked. compassion toward those in distress. Or by concentrating on a great soul’s mind which is totally freed from attachment to sense objects. Sri Swami Satchidananda By cultivating attitudes of friendliness toward the happy. 1. Or by concentrating on an experience had during dream or deep sleep.37 Vita raga vishayam va chittam. Or [the mind becomes steady when it has] one who is free from desire as its object. It brings you to the same exhilaration as deep meditation does. compassion. focus on a sense object arises. Or by steadily observing as new sensations materialize. Or [steadiness of mind is gained when] the mind is pain free and luminous. Or the concentration on subtle sense perceptions can cause steadiness of mind. Chip Hartranft One can subdue these distractions by working with any one of the following principles of practice.34 Prachardana vidharanabhyam va pranasya.39 Yatha-abhimata dhyanad va. Or [steadiness of mind is attained] from meditation upon anything of one’s inclination. 1. 1. Edwin F. 1.33 Maitri karuna muditopekshanam sukha duhkha punya-apunya vishayanam bhavanatash chitta prasadanam. whether something is enjoyable. And it frees your mind from wanting things. and equanimity toward those who are nonvirtuous. Bryant By cultivating an attitude of friendship toward those who are happy. joy toward those who are virtuous. It moreover enables you to be conscious in your dreamlife.38 Svapna nidra jnyanaalambanam va. Or else. the mind-stuff retains its undisturbed calmness. Or by pausing after breath flows in or out. compassion. as you sleep. Geshe Michael Roach You must use kindness. whether pleasant or painful.35 Vishayavati va pravirttir utpanna manasah sthiti nibhandani. Learn to keep your feelings in balance. delight in the virtuous. It also helps us control the tendency that we have. good or bad. and this causes steadiness of the mind. Consciousness settles as one radiates friendliness. and equanimity toward all things. whether something feels good or whether it hurts. . Or by reflecting on insights culled from sleep and dreaming. delight. This practice makes the mind bright and clear as pure water. Or through meditative absorption in any desired object. of thoughts constantly arising about outer objects of experience. 1. joy. Or that calm is retained by the controlled exhalation or retention of the breath. ever-blissful Light within. Or by focusing on things that do not inspire attachment. or distasteful. 1.
saturates consciousness. When you grasp this with images. a transparent way of seeing. occurs when the mind becomes just like a transparent jewel. so the Yogi’s mind.whether subject. objects cease to be colored by memory. called coalescence beyond thought.43 Smirti parishuddhau svarupa shunyeva-artha matra nirbhasa nirvitarka. and the holding itself as well. This is nirvitarka samadhi. The samadhi in which name. like a jewel. Samapatti. form and knowledge of them is mixed is called savitarka samadhi. Chip Hartranft One can become fully absorbed in any object. the instrument of knowledge. or samadhi without deliberation. Edwin F. complete absorption of the mind when it is free from its vrttis. with its totally weakened modifications. At the next stage. whether vast or infinitesimal. and what it holds. Those extraordinary people who shatter the way the mind turns things around use a balanced meditation. which is fixed and clear on its object. only their essential nature shines forth. called coalescence. In this state. taking the form of whatever object is placed before it. 1. of its own [reflective] nature. 1. with the one that holds it. And the object is like a crystal.41 Kshina virtter abhijatasyeva maner grahitir girhana grahyeshu tat stha tat anjanata samapattih. becomes clear and balanced and attains the state devoid of differentiation between knower. Just as the naturally pure crystal assumes shapes and colors of objects placed near it. and galaxies as well. the knowledge of the object of concentration shines alone. it is called coalescence with thought. savitarka-samapatti. it reflects equally whatever lies before it . As the patterning of consciousness subsides. one’s mastery in concentration extends from the primal atom to the greatest magnitude. “samadhi absorption with physical awareness” is intermixed with the notions of word.40 Parama-anu parama mahattvantosya vashi kara. that single most important thing: things are empty of being what they are by themselves. When the memory is well purified. 1. or samadhi with deliberation. Now only the object [of meditation] shines forth [in its own right]. So long as conceptual or linguistic knowledge pervades this transparency. This culmination of meditation is samadhi. Bryant The yogi’s mastery extends from the smallest particle of matter to the totality of matter. Stay in that one pure thought. and never forget it. meaning. mixing up the word and the object.42 Tatra shabda-artha jnyana vikalpaih sankirna savitarka samapattih. Geshe Michael Roach You gain mastery over the tiniest atoms. Sri Swami Satchidananda Gradually. Nirvitarka [samapatti]. devoid of the distinction of name and quality. knowable.” occurs when memory has been purged and the mind is empty. as it were. This is the clear light. . and idea. or act of perceiving. object. beyond all conceptual thought. and knowledge.Sanskrit transliteration 1. then that is the type of balanced meditation which uses concepts. or the object of knowledge. “absorption without conceptualization. whether the object be the knower. now formless.
savichara (reflective) and nirvichara (super or non-reflective) samadhs. 1. And this is still what is called “Deep meditation where we still have the seeds. These four kinds of coalescence . 1. Subtle objects can be traced back to their origin in undifferentiated nature.Sanskrit transliteration 1. The mental seed thus created cuts off all other seeds. because it has the particularity of things as its object.with thought.” moreover.are called integration that bears seeds of latent impressions.49 Shrutanumana prajnyabhyam anya vishaya visheshaarthatvat.46 Ta eva sabijah samadhih. there is truthbearing wisdom. The subtle nature of things extends all the way up to prakrti. The impression produced by this samadhi wipes out all other impressions. All these samadhis are sabija (with seed). The wisdom that arises in that lucidity is unerring. You experience a completely different object than with the wisdoms of hearing and reasoning. This is ritambhara prajna. Unlike insights acquired through inference or teachings. 1. coalesced contemplation of subtle objects is described as reflective or reflection-free. The subtlety of possible objects of concentration ends only at the undefinable. It [seedless samadhi] has a different focus from that of inference and sacred scripture. the nature of the self becomes clear. reflection-free contemplation.” Chip Hartranft In the same way. because what you see is far beyond. which are practiced upon subtle objects. Sri Swami Satchidananda In the same way.44 Etayaiva savichara nirvichara cha sukshma vishaya vyakhyata. has to do with the relative subtlety of the object. 1. That object which is subtle to the ultimate is the one where there are no signs.48 Irtambhara tatra prajnya. The samskaras born out of that [truth-bearing wisdom] obstruct other samskaras [from emerging]. In the lucidity of coalesced. In that state.45 Sukshma vishayatvam chaalinga paryavasanam.” 1. Geshe Michael Roach The distinction between what we refer to as being “involved with examining” or “not being involved with examining. Bryant The states of samadhi with “subtle awareness” and without “subtle awareness. or the absolute true consciousness. Upon attaining the clarity of nirvicara-samadhi. are explained. you reach inner bliss. wisdom becomes vast and awakened. When you gain the fearlessness of going beyond all examining. These above mentioned samapatti states are [known as] samadhi meditative absorption “with seed. 1.” whose objects of focus are the subtle nature [of things]. study of scripture or inference. reflective. Edwin F. At that point. this wisdom has as its object the actual distinction between pure awareness and consciousness. beyond thought. the supreme Self shines. there is lucidity of the inner self. which could bring one back into bondage or mental disturbance. . In the purity of nirvichara samadhi. are explained in the same manner. It generates latent impressions that prevent the activation of other impressions. reflection-free . This special truth is totally different from knowledge gained by hearing.50 Taj-jah sanskaro-nya sanskara pratibandhi.47 Nirvichara vaisharadyedyatma prasadah.
Sri Swami Satchidananda When even this impression is wiped out. attachment. The Path To Realization 2 Chapter II: Practice Dvitiya sadhana-pada 2. interrupted. selfstudy. hatred. Its purposes are to disarm the causes of suffering and achieve integration. and dedication to the Lord. Ignorance is the breeding ground of the other klesas. and surrender to the Supreme Being constitute Yoga in practice. whether they are in a dormant. and grasping. Geshe Michael Roach And when mental seeds are stopped in this way. Bryant Upon the cessation of even those [truth-bearing samskaras].51 Tasya-api nirodhe sarva nirodhan nirbijah samadhih.3 Avidya-asmita raga dveshaabhiniveshah pancha kleshah. selfness. study. the sense of ‘I’. activated. Yogic action has three components . ego. whether dormant. and clinging to life. or flourishing. Ignorance is the field for the ones that come after it. egoism. Kriya-yoga. desire. attachment. dwindling. aversion. and orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness.discipline. Ignorance. Ignorance is the field for the others mentioned after it. weak. Undertaking difficult spiritual practices. the path of action. Edwin F. . The causes of suffering are not seeing things as they are. and prayers to the Master are ways of becoming whole which are activities. II. whether they are dormant. or sustained. study of spiritual books. disliking. aversion. or fully activated state. and clinging to life.” Second Cornerstone The Chapter on the Way Chip Hartranft When even these cease to arise. whether they be dormant. intercepted. intercepted. [The yoga of action] is for bringing about samadhi and for weakening the impediments [to yoga]. They help us minimize obstacles and attain samadhi. or weakened.Sanskrit transliteration 1. and clinging to life are the five obstacles. every impression is totally wiped out and there is nirbija [seedless] samadhi. 2. and the patterning of consciousness is completely stilled. intermittent. 2. Accepting pain as help for purification. seedless meditative absorption. integration bears no further seeds. Thus it is known as “deep meditation where we no longer have the seeds. regular study. ensues.4 Avidya kshetram uttaresham prasupta tanu vichinnodaranam. 2. consists of self-discipline.1 Tapah svadhyayeshvara pranidhanani kriya yogah. everything is stopped. feeble. Not seeing things as they are is the field where the other causes of suffering germinate. Now the whole purpose of meditation is to make our negative thoughts dwindle away. liking. The impediments [to samadhi] are nescience. The five negative thoughts are ignorance.2 Samadhi bhavana-artha klesha tanu karana-arthash cha. nirbija-samadhi.
Cutting off their flow requires the elimination of very subtle problems. Sri Swami Satchidananda Ignorance is regarding the impermanent as permanent. and the non-Self as the Self. 2. unclean. one mistakes that which is impermanent. we begin to like things. even for those who understand. Aversion stems from [experiences] of pain. the painful as pleasant. happiness.10 Te pratiprasava heyah sukshmah These klesas are subtle. pure. and very much themselves. Edwin F. Grasping is a thought that comes all on its own.Sanskrit transliteration 2. Egoism is the identification. flowing by its own potency [due to past experience]. and self. as it were. . and which are not themselves. Selfness is where the wrong impression of someone seeing something and the something someone sees makes it seem as if each one were itself. these causes of suffering are subdued by seeing where they come from. which is joyful. things which are unclean. 2.8 Duhkha-anushayi dveshah. we begin to dislike things. Attachment is a residue of pleasant experience. and painful. [The tendency of] clinging to life affects even the wise. even for the wise. impure.5 Anitya-ashuchi duhkhaanatmasu nitya shuchi sukha-atma khyatir avidya. Ego is [to consider] the nature of the seer and the nature of the instrumental power of seeing to be the same thing.6 Dirg darshana shaktyor ekaatmateva-asmita. exists even in the wise. The sense of ‘I’ ascribes selfhood to pure awareness by identifying it with the senses. and eternal. Geshe Michael Roach In ignorance we misunderstand our world: things that cannot last. of the power of the Seer (Purusha) with that of the instrument of seeing [body-mind].7 Sukha-anushayi ragah. Attachment stems from [experiences] of happiness. and temporary. In their subtle form. purity. the impure as pure. Attachment is that which follows identification with pleasurable experiences. In subtle form. Chip Hartranft Lacking this wisdom. to be the nonself. seem to us as if they will last. they are destroyed when [the mind] dissolves back into its original matrix. it is an inherent tendency. Aversion is a residue of suffering. Bryant Ignorance is the notion that takes the self. Aversion is that which follows identification with painful experiences. distressing. 2. these obstacles can be destroyed by resolving them back into their primal cause [the ego]. 2. Assailed by what feels bad. and then grows ever stronger. 2. Clinging to life. Clinging to life is instinctive and self-perpetuating. and as if they are clean.9 Svarasa vahi vidushopi tatha rudhobhiniveshah. which is painful. . or empty of self for permanence. and pleasant. Assailed by what feels good.
14 Te hlada paritapa phalah punya-apunya hetutvat. The karmas bear fruits of pleasure and pain caused by merits and demerits. the births of different species of life. And then we experience things. With the existence of the root. These negative thoughts are the very root of the storehouse. depending on whether you have done good to others. and life experience] bear the fruits of pleasure and pain. . So long as this root source exists. and life experience [of an individual]. as patterns of consciousness. 2. planted by the things we do. and experience. and the karmas bring experiences in the seen [present] or in the unseen [future] births. These [the type of birth. Bryant The states of mind produced by these klesas are eliminated by meditation. Sri Swami Satchidananda In the active state. The stock of karma has the klesas as its root.Sanskrit transliteration 2. Geshe Michael Roach These ways that the mind turns are eliminated by deep meditation. Edwin F. it fructifies as type of birth. As long as the root [of klesas] exists. a life.11 Dhyana heyas tad virttayah. as a result of [the performance of] virtue and vice. each action deposits latent impressions deep in the mind. The causes of suffering are the root source of actions. they are subdued through meditative absorption. It is experienced in present or future lives. namely. There is a connection of cause and effect: the seeds ripen into experiences refreshingly pleasant or painful in their torment. to be activated and experienced later in this birth. and experiences. 2. or done them wrong instead. in lifetimes we see or not 2. span of life. span of life. its contents will ripen into a birth. there will be fruits also. they can be destroyed by meditation.12 Klesha mulah karma ashayo dirshta-adirshta janma vedaniyah The womb of karmas (actions and reactions) has its root in these obstacles. or lie hidden awaiting a future one. This life will be marked by delight or anguish. Chip Hartranft In their gross form. As long as this root is still there. in proportion to those good or bad actions that created its store of latent impressions. then we will experience the ripening of these actions in our lives to come.13 Sati mule tad vipako jatyayur bhogah. their life spans.
18 Prakasha kriya sthiti shilam bhutendriya-atmakam bhogaapavarga-artham dirshyam. activity and inertia. everything is painful indeed. and tamas]. or from latent impressions laden with suffering. and inertia. every part of our lives is suffering. activity. or from incessant conflict as the fundamental qualities of nature vie for ascendancy. The pain that we are ridding ourselves of that would have come to us in the future. 2. or Nature). and. What awareness regards. rajas. due to its consequences. activity. which control the mind. and exists for the purpose of [providing] either liberation or experience [to purusha]. And what we see. Geshe Michael Roach The torment of change is caused by those same seeds of suffering. Sri Swami Satchidananda To one of discrimination. it includes oneself. and by the samskaras. It consists of the senses and the elements. and consists of the elements and the sense organs. a combination of the elements and the powers. as well as on account of the suffering resulting from the turmoil of the vrttis due to the gunas. by pain [itself].15 Parinama tapa sanskara duhkhair guna virtti virodhach cha duhkham eva sarvam vivekinah. The seen is the nature of the gunas: illumination. 2. embodies the qualities of luminosity. the anxiety and fear over losing what is gained. everything is suffering on account of the suffering produced by the consequences [of action]. Bryant For one who has discrimination. and inertia [sattva. . But suffering that has not yet arisen can be prevented. Suffering that has yet to manifest is to be avoided. The conjunction between the seer and that which is seen is the cause [of suffering] to be avoided. the resulting impressions left in the mind to create renewed cravings. The preventable cause of all this suffering is the apparent indivisibility of pure awareness and what it regards. truly. or to use for our liberation. composed of both elements and the senses. The cause to be eliminated is the interaction between the seer and what they see. what appears to us. and stopping how the mind turns things around to have qualities of their own allows us to discern how. is the state of all things: they are either working or standing — ourselves. something to consume. Edwin F. The cause of that avoidable pain is the union of Seer (Purusha) and seen (Prakriti.Sanskrit transliteration 2.16 Heyam duhkam anagatam Pain that has not yet come is avoidable. and the constant conflict among the three gunas. 2. whether from the anguish of impermanence. it is the ground for both sensual experience and liberation.17 Drashtir dirshyayo sanyogo heya hetuh. That which is knowable has the nature of illumination. namely the phenomenal world. Chip Hartranft The wise see suffering in all experience. whose purpose is to provide both experiences and liberation to the Purusha.
it usually appears to operate through the perceiving mind.24 Tasya hetur avidya. Bryant The different stages of the gunas qualities consist of the particularized.Sanskrit transliteration 2. it has not ceased to exist altogether. . This thing belongs only to a person who has seen. The seer is merely the power of seeing. The cause of conjunction is ignorance. Although destroyed for him who has attained liberation. The cause of this union is ignorance.are manifestations of the fundamental qualities of nature. although pure. and the indistinctive. the phenomenal world no longer appears as such. 2. The Seer is nothing but the power of seeing whch. Geshe Michael Roach The phases that things exhibit are the following: differentiated. 2. since it is common to other [not-liberated] purusas. The seen exists only for the sake of the Seer. And its cause is the misunderstanding. non-specific. What is destroyed for one who has reached this goal is not. Although the seen ceases to exists for one whose purpose is accomplished [the liberated purusha]. appears to see through the mind. differentiated. Once that happens.23 Sva svami shaktyoh svarupopalabdhi hetuh sanyogah. Chip Hartranft All orders of being undifferentiated. [however. The cause of this.21 Tad artha eva dirshyasyaatma. but then later again sees objects.20 Drashta dirshi matrah shuddhopi pratyayaanupashya. The seer. It is by virtue of the apparent indivisibility of the phenomenal world and pure awareness that the former seems to possess the latter’s powers. however. being common to them. destroyed for others — for they still possess the foundation. due to a belief in a master and servant. or beyond all signs.] although pure. indistinct. experiences purity. the unparticularized. it continues to exist as a common reality for everyone else. it [the seen] still exists for others. The union of Owner (Purusha) and owned (Prakriti) causes the recognition of the nature and powers of them both. 2. 2.22 Kirta-artha prati nashtam apyanashtam tad anya saadharanatvat. simply by seeing. [The notion of] conjunction is the means of understanding the real nature of the powers of the possessed and of the possessor. the phenomenal world exists to reveal this truth. Pure awareness is just seeing.19 Vishesha-avishesha linga matra alingani guna parvani. the distinctive. mere signs. 2. itself. though. The essential nature of that which is seen is exclusively for the sake of the seer. is a state of mind that perceives some real nature. Edwin F. and undefinable. defined. the interaction. In essence. undifferentiated. he witnesses the images of mind. Not seeing things as they are is the cause of this phenomenon. distinct . although pure. Sri Swami Satchidananda The stages of the gunas are specific.
Yama niyama-asana pranayama pratyahara dharana dhyana samadhayoshtava-angani. the interaction is stopped: it is destroyed for one who sees. People possessed of discrimination which comes from the revelation are no longer at a loss: they now have a method to accomplish this destruction. conjunction is removed. 2. 3) desire to gain anything new. 6) fear.27 Tasya saptadha pranta bhumih prajnya. then. as they reach absolute purity. Sri Swami Satchidananda Without this ignorance.Sanskrit transliteration 2. When the components of yoga are practiced. the lamp of knowledge arises. 2. the impurities dwindle away and there dawns the light of wisdom. Upon the destruction of impurities as a result of the practice of yoga. all your impurities will be destroyed. and then you will gain the light of wisdom. Chip Hartranft With realization. This is the absolute freedom of the seer. . 4) desire to do anything. 2) desire to stay away from anything. Bryant By the removal of ignorance. This is the independence of the Seer. revealing that awareness is free and untouched by phenomena. 2. Edwin F. a revelation beyond even discrimination. illuminating the way to discriminative awareness. At the ultimate level of discrimination.28 Yoga-anga-anushthanad ashuddhi kshaye jnyana diptir aviveka khyateh. [One experiences the end of 1)desire to know anything more. Geshe Michael Roach When that is stopped. Theirs is the wisdom that carries one up to the end of the seventh level. wisdom extends to all seven aspects of nature. impurities dwindle.] By the practice of the limbs of Yoga. leading to discriminative discernment.25 Tad abhavat sanyoga-abhavo hanam tad dirsheh kaivalyam. One’s wisdom in the final stage is sevenfold. the light of understanding can shine forth. 5) sorrow. 7) delusion. The yogi’s true insight has seven ultimate stages. The apparent indivisibility of seeing and the seen can be eradicated by cultivating uninterrupted discrimination between awareness and what it regards. no such union occurs. This culminates in discriminative discernment.26 Viveka khyatir aviplava hanopayah Uninterrupted discriminative discernment is the method for its removal. If you engage earnestly in the various practices of making yourself whole. The means to liberation is uninterrupted discriminative discernment. the appearance of indivisibility vanishes.
and devotion to God. breath control. they go beyond the borders between countries. to embrace hardships for higher goals. withdrawal of the senses. The observances are cleanliness. and non-greed. they go beyond the various creeds and convictions. keeping sexual purity. to be contented with whatever we have. The commitments are to be clean. contentment. truthfulness. or old. The different forms of selfcontrol are avoiding harm to anyone. Sri Swami Satchidananda The eight limbs of Yoga are: 1) yama (abstinence) 2) niyama (observance) 3) asana (posture) 4) pranayama (breath control) 5) pratyahara (sense withdrawl) 6) dharana (concentration) 7) dhyana (meditation) 8) samadhi (contemplation. focus.29 Yama niyama-asana pranayama pratyahara dharana dhyana samadhayoshtava-angani. posture. meditative absorption. era. and renunciation of [unnecessary] possessions. These Great Vows are universal. disengagement of the senses. celibacy. Niyama consists of purity. nonstealing. study of spiritual books and worship of God [self-surrender]. absorption. accepting but not causing pain.31 Jati desha kala samayaanavachinnah sarva bhauma mahavratam. control of the breath. truthfulness. They are universal These universals.30 Ahinsa satya-asteya brahmacharya-aparigraha yamah The yamas are nonviolence. and overcoming possessiveness. breath regulation. and not being acquisitive. concentration. posture. place. austerity. internal discipline. always telling the truth. constitute the great vow of yoga. continence. selfstudy. sense withdrawal. the physical poses. Edwin F. celibacy. or circumstance. These forms of self-control are mighty codes of conduct meant for people at every stage of their personal development. time. The five external disciplines are not harming. Chip Hartranft The eight components of yoga are external discipline. commitments. time. observances. They are not exempted by one’s class. They go beyond differences in race or social status. they go beyond what is modern. transcending birth.Sanskrit transliteration 2. and to seek our Master’s blessings. truthfulness. place. concentration. The five internal disciplines are bodily purification. [These yamas] are considered the great vow. and absorption. . 2. and orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness. or circumstance. Geshe Michael Roach The eight limbs are self-control.32 Saucha santosha tapah swvadhyayeshvara pranidhanani niyamah. contentment. and integration. or circumstance. never stealing from another. fixation. 2. refrainment from stealing. study [of scripture]. intensity. Bryant The eight limbs are abstentions. meditation. and perfect meditation. not limited by class. to engage in regular study. place. 2. contentment. or superconscious state) Yama consists of nonviolence. not stealing.
or what I was glad to hear that others had done. all jewels manifest. then anything you undertake will have a successful result. If you make it a way of life never to hurt others. This is why one must cultivate wholesome thoughts. Say to yourself then. or greater power. The images—people who hurt me or the like — come from what I did myself. If you make it a way of life always to tell the truth. all wealth comes.33 Vitarka badhane pratipaksha bhavanam. or authorized by oneself. enmity is abandoned. anger. or extreme. unwholesome thoughts may arise from greed. In the presence of one who is established in nonviolence. 2. actions and their results become subservient.35 Ahinsa pratishthayam tat sannidhau vaira tyagah In the presence of one firmly established in non-violence. Bryant Upon being harassed by negative thoughts. etc. For those who have no inclination to steal. When negative thoughts or acts such as violence. such as wanting to harm someone. To one established in nonstealing. Edwin F. When one is established in refrainment from stealing. they may be mild. moderate. performed on one’s behalf by another. all hostilities cease. For those grounded in truthfulness. or extreme in intensity. 2. every action and its consequences are imbued with truth. or delusion. We ourselves may act upon unwholesome thoughts. or delusion. Reflecting thus is also pratipaksha bhavana. And what came before them was either craving. Negative thoughts are violence. or medium. the truly precious is at hand. or even approved of. They may be [personally] performed. One should cultivate counteracting thoughts. They are of lesser.Sanskrit transliteration 2. then in your presence all conflict come to an end. namely.37 Asteya pratishthayam sarva ratnopasthanam.36 Satya pratishthayam kriya phala shrayatvam. then there will come a time when people just come to you and offer you all the money you need. 2. Sri Swami Satchidananda When disturbed by negative thoughts. that the end results [of negative thoughts] are ongoing suffering and ignorance. When one is established in truthfulness.34 Vitarka hinsa-adayah kirta karita-anumodita lobha krodha moha purvaka. Geshe Michael Roach When the images start to hurt you. If you make it a way of life never to steal from another. To one established in truthfulness. moderate. anger. medium. they may be triggered by greed. and they may be slight. anger. or dark ignorance. “Who knows what pain I have planted for myself?” Sit down and work out the antidote. Chip Hartranft Unwholesome thoughts can be neutralized by cultivating wholesome ones. Mirdu madhya adhimatra duhkhaanjyana-anta phala iti pratipaksha bhavanam. one should cultivate counteracting thoughts. or infatuation. sit down and work out the antidote. or hating. Being firmly grounded in nonviolence creates an atmosphere in which others can let go of their hostility. or we may cause or condone them in others. or got others to do for me. etc. whether incited by greed. they are based on ignorance and bring certain pain. or extreme intensity. . 2. but they never cease to ripen into ignorance and suffering. one ensures the fruition of actions. whether indulged in with mild. opposite [positive] ones should be thought of. This is pratipaksha bhavana. are done. caused to be done.
the perfection of the senses and the body manifests. likewise contact with others. Contentment brings unsurpassed joy. then you will always have strength. 2. 2. mastery over the senses. Geshe Michael Roach If you make it a way of life always to keep sexual purity. If you stay clean. then you will never find yourself in crowds of the filthy. From austerity. 2. Purification also brings about clarity.43 Kayendriya siddhir ashuddhi kshayat tapasah. If you engage in regular study. If you persevere in overcoming possessiveness. Edwin F. the highest happiness is attained. one-pointedness. By study of spiritual books comes communion with one’s chosen deity. When non-greed is confirmed. and fitness for Self-realization. single-pointedness. Embracing spiritual hardships destroys your impurities. By austerity. then you come to be with the Angel of your deepest dreams. With bodily purification. you will be able to see your other lifetimes. By contentment. Sri Swami Satchidananda By one established in continence. sweet thoughts. supreme joy is gained. allowing you to master both body and senses. Chip Hartranft The chaste acquire vitality. 2. power is attained. By cleanliness. 2. impurities of body and senses are destroyed and occult powers gained. If you stay contented. concentration. purity. and capacity for selfawareness. As intense discipline burns up impurities. happiness. mastery of the senses. From contentment.42 Santoshad anuttamah sukha labhah. and fitness to perceive the self. a connection with one’s deity of choice is established. Freedom from wanting unlocks the real purpose of existence. cheerfulness of mind. one’s body ceases to be compelling. vigor is gained. Bryant Upon the establishment of celibacy.41 Sattva shuddhi saumanasyaikagryendriya jaya-atma darshana yogyatvani cha. Truth. 2. and mastery of ones senses are all qualities that make you suitable for seeing your true self. From study [of scripture].40 Shauchat svanga jugupsa parair asansargah By purification arises disgust for one’s own body and for contact with other bodies. the body and its senses become supremely refined. Upon the purification of the mind. one [develops] distaste for one’s body and the cessation of contact with others. then you achieve happiness which is unsurpassed. on account of the removal of impurities. sense control. one-pointedness. Movreover. knowledge of the whys and wherefores of births manifests. [one attains] cheerfulness. one gains purity of sattva. Self-study deepens communion with one’s personal deity. a thorough illumination of the how and why of one’s birth comes.38 Brahmacharya pratishthayam virya labhah. .39 Aparigraha sthairye janma katha-anta sambodhah.44 Svadhyayad ishtadevata samprayogah.Sanskrit transliteration 2. When refrainment from covetousness becomes firmly established.
[Such posture should be attained] by the relaxation of effort and by absorption in the infinite. exhalation.inhalation. From this.50 Bahya-abhyantara stambha virttih desha kala sankhyabhih paridirshto dirgha sukshmah.49 Tasmin sati shvasa prashvasayor gati vichedah pranayamah. the flow of inhalation and exhalation can be brought to a standstill. Chip Hartranft Through orientation toward the ideal of pure awareness. That [firm posture] being acquired. Keep a close watch on the breath. time and number and are either long or short. paused or being exchanged. and number. 2. Thereafter. posture is mastered. the passing of your breath in and out simply stops.are observed as to duration. one is undisturbed by the dualities. samadhi is attained. Observe too the place in the body. This occurs as all effort relaxes and coalescence arises. lull . And there will come a time when differences no longer harass you. This consists of the regulation of the incoming and outgoing breaths. this is called breath regulation. the duration. revealing that the body and the infinite universe are indivisible. Edwin F. [Pranayama] manifests as external. . internal. internal or stationary. These are drawn out and subtle in accordance to place. Posture should be steady and comfortable. breath control. Bryant From submission to God comes the perfection of samadhi.47 Prayatna shaithilya-anata samapattibhyam. They are to be regulated by space. number. The postures of meditation should embody steadiness and ease. 2. pranayama. one can achieve integration. [follows]. outside or inside. one is not afflicted by the dualities of the opposites. When that [asana] is accomplished. This is pranayama. The poses bring a feeling of wellbeing which stays with you. Geshe Michael Roach If you seek your Master’s blessing. The breath is controlled when. the movements of the inhalation and exhalation should be controlled. and area of focus. you attain final meditation. By lessening the natural tendency for restlessness and by meditating on the infinite. 2. 2. As the movement patterns of each breath . as you remain there. one is no longer disturbed by the play of opposites. comfortable posture. Sri Swami Satchidananda By total surrender to God. Asana is a steady. and through endless forms of balanced meditation.45 Samadhi siddhir ishvara pranidhanat.Sanskrit transliteration 2. time.46 Sthira sukham asanam. With effort relaxing. They do so through a balance of effort and relaxation. breath becomes spacious and subtle. Then. The modifications of the lifebreath are either external. 2. Long and fine.48 Tato dvandva-anabhighatah. and the count. and restrained movements [of breath].
as it were. withdrawal from the sense objects. Then. occurs when the senses do not come into contact with their respective sense objects. as it were. 2. the mind can arrive at its own real nature. Chip Hartranft As realization dawns. the covering of the illumination [of knowledge] is weakened. And the mind becomes fit for concentration. As its result. freed from its ties to outer objects. Learn to withdraw the mind from your physical senses. And the mind’s potential for concentration is realized. Edwin F. Then the senses reside utterly in the service of realization. this is called withdrawal of the senses. It corresponds. this is pratyahara.54 Svavishaya-asamprayoge chittasya svarupa-anukara ivendriyanam pratyahara.55 Tatah parama vashyatendriyanam. The mind is fit for focus. From this comes the highest control of the senses. And then one can destroy the veil that covers the light.51 Bahya-abhyantara vishaya kshepi chaturthah. . 2. the distinction between breathing in and out falls away. you attain the highest control of the senses. Bryant The forth [type of pranayama] surpasses the limits of the external and the internal. Geshe Michael Roach The fourth state is where one has given up outside. Additionally. the mind becomes fit for concentration. 2. the veil over the inner Light is destroyed. to the nature of the mind [when it is withdrawn from the sense objects]. And with that. Then follows supreme mastery over the senses. the nature of the mind-stuff. Then the veil lifts from the mind’s luminosity. Pratyahara. When consciousness interiorizes by uncoupling from external objects. the senses do likewise. inside.52 Tatah kshiyate prakashaavaranam. Iti Thus ends the second chapter on sadhana in the Yoga Sutras composed by Patanjali. and the experience itself.Sanskrit transliteration 2. Sri Swami Satchidananda There is a fourth kind of pranayama that occurs during concentration on an internal or external object. When the senses withdraw themselves from the objects and imitate. 2.53 Dharanasu cha yogyata manasah.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.