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Goal Setting

Describe the benefits of goal-setting Explain the difference between goals and objectives List the criteria for good goals Explain the 4 steps of the goal setting process Detail the relationship between goals and performance Explain the benefits of mutually-set goals

Benefits of Goal Setting

Provides a tool for assessment Encourages objective appraisals Improves employee performance Sense of accomplishment Increased employee morale Provides direction

Goals vs. Objectives...

Organization goals provide framework Provide guidelines for departments
Set objectives within this framework

More specific What by when statements

Overarching Goals (Aspirations)

Personal Practices

Superordinate Goals (Motives)

Response to Supervision

Personal Practices

Scripts Follower Behavior Self-Messages Corporate Lore

Performance How Aspirations Become Translated into Performance


Vision Reward

Departmental Goals

Work-Group Goals
Individual Goals Feedback

Getting Started...
Discuss purpose of goal setting
i.e. Company wide changes

Explain the process

Employee & manager establish goals Create mutual goals

Explain how goals will be used Provide examples of goals for employee

Specific Measurable Achievable Relevant Timely Effective Reinforcing

Uses specific terms rather than vague, abstract ones Inappropriate: Employees will be empowered Appropriate: Employees will be authorized to make more decisions

Includes some method for objectively measuring their achievement
Inappropriate: Consumers will be delighted Appropriate: We will receive at least 12 unsolicited testimonials from our consumers expressing positive reactions to our services

Is challenging but realistic
Inappropriate: All consumers will be seen by a counselor within 2 days of intake Appropriate: Seventy-five percent of consumers will be seen by a counselor within 2 months of intake

Follows the business strategy of the organization and unit Organization goal: Increase competitive placements by 30 percent Inappropriate: Increase competitive placements by 5 percent Appropriate: Increase competitive placements by 30 percent

Specifies a time period (short-, medium-, or long-term)
Inappropriate: Reduce the size of the waiting list by 10% Appropriate: Reduce the size of the waiting list by 10% during the first two quarters

Focuses on critical factors and avoids trivial ones
Inappropriate: Use fewer paperclips Appropriate: Fully implement agency policy on consumer choice by the end of the year

Subsequent goals in a list reinforce previous goals, and do not contradict them
First goal on a list: Reduce the amount of paperwork in the department Inappropriate second goal: The paperwork reduction committee will distribute copies of its final report to all employees. Appropriate second goal: The paperwork reduction committee will post a one-page summary of its final report on the notice board, and put the full text on the company intranet.

Generating Goals...
Meet to discuss goals
Let employee go first Provide positive reinforcement for goals

Establish a combined set of goals

Increases success of obtaining goals

Monitoring the Process...

Joint agreement
Measuring & monitoring progress
e.g., review placements every 2 weeks and compare to target placement figures

Assess progress toward reaching goal

Make any necessary adjustments

Goal Setting...
Create the need Introduce the process Generate goals Measure & monitor

The effort will pay off!!!

Dangers of Goal-Setting
Goals can be counterproductive, demoralizing, and can engender hostility if they are not
Specific Realistic Mutually determined

Source: Dangot-Simpkin, G. (1993, April). The dangers of goal-setting. Supervisory Management, p. 3.

The relationship between goal difficulty and performance is curvilinear Performance






Goal Difficulty

Employee and Managerial Input in Goal Setting

Is there Employee Input?
No Yes

Is there Manager Input?


No goals

Self-set goals


Assigned goals

Interactive goals