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Intuitively, we think of a function f : R R as continuous if it has a continuous curve. The term continuous curve means that the graph of f can be drawn without jumps, i.e., the graph can be drawn with a continuous motion of the pencil without leaving the paper. Suppose a function f : R R has a discontinuous graph as shown in the following gure.

x0

x0

x0+

Figure 1: Discontinuous Graph The graph is broken at the point (x0 , f (x0 )), i.e., the function f is discontinuous at x0 . Hence whenever x is close to x0 from the right, f (x) does not get close to f (x0 ). (The idea of getting close has already been discussed while dealing with convergent sequences). As shown in the gure, we can choose a neighbourhood (f (x0 ) 0 , f (x0 ) + 0 ), 0 > 0, at f (x0 ) such that if we take any neighbourhood (x0 , x0 + ), > 0, then the image of the interval (x0 , x0 + ) does not lie inside (f (x0 ) 0 , f (x0 ) + 0 ). In formal terms, there exists > 0 such that for all > 0, |x x0 | < |f (x) f (x0 ) < . Hence if a function f is not continuous at x0 , we have the above condition. We will now give the formal denition of continuity of a function at a point (in the - language). Denition A function f : R R is said to be continuous at a point x0 R if for every there is a > 0 such that |f (x) f (x0 )| < whenever |x xo | < . > 0,

Using the (visible) discontinuity in the above example, we were able to nd some for which it was not possible to nd any as in the denition. Roughly, f is continuous at x0 if whenever x approaches x0 , f (x) approaches f (x0 ). In some cases when f is not continuous at x0 , there may be a number A such that whenever x approaches x0 , f (x) approaches A. In this case we call such a number A the limit of f at x0 . Formally, we have: Denition : A number A is called the limit of a function f at a point x0 if for every > 0, there exists > 0 such that |f (x) A| < whenever 0 < |x x0 | < . If such a number A exists then it is unique. In this case we write lim f (x) = A. It is clear that f (x0 ) is the limit of f at x0 if f is

xx0

2 continuous at x0 . The reader is advised to see the strong analogy between the denition of limit point and the denition of convergence of sequence. Let us now characterize the continuity of a function at a point in terms of sequences. Theorem 4.1 : A real valued function f is continuous at x0 R if and only if whenever a sequence of real numbers (xn ) converges to x0 , then the sequence (f (xn )) converges to f (x0 ). Proof: Suppose f is continuous at x0 and xn x0 . Let us show that f (xn ) f (x0 ). Let > 0 be given. We must nd N such that |f (xn ) f (x0 )| < for all n N . Since f is continuous at x0 , there exists > 0 such that |f (x) f (x0 )| < whenever |x x0 | < . Since xn x0 , there exists N such that |xn x0 | < for all n N . This N serves our purpose. To prove the converse, let us assume the contrary that f is not continuous at x0 . Then for some 1 > 0 and for each n, there is an element xn such that |xn x0 | < n but |f (xn ) f (x0 )| . This contradicts the fact that xn x0 implies f (xn ) f (x0 ). Remark : To dene the continuity of a function f at a point x0 , the function f has to be dened at x0 . But even if the function is not dened at x0 , one can dene the limit of a function at x0 . The proof of the following theorem is similar to the proof of the previous theorem. Theorem 4.2:

xx0

lim f (x) = A if and only if whenever a sequence of real numbers (xn ) converges

1 Examples : 1. Dene a function f (x) such that f (x) = 2xsin( x ) when x = 0 and f (0) = 0. We will show that f is continuous at 0 using rst by the denition and then by the sequential characterization.

Using the denition : Remember that for a given > 0, we have to nd a > 0 (not the other way!). Note that here x0 = 0 and 1 | f (x) f (x0 ) | = | 2xsin( ) 0 | | 2x | = 2 | x x0 | . x

Suppose that is given. Choose any > 0 such that 2 . Then we have

| x x0 |< .

Using the sequential characterization : Note that | f (x) | 2 | x | . Therefore, f (xn ) f (0) whenever xn 0. This proves that f is continuous at 0. 2. The function f (x) = sin(1/x) is dened for all x = 0. This function has no limit as x 0 because if we take xn = 2/{ (2n + 1)} for n = 1, 2, . . ., then xn 0 but f (xn ) = (1)n which does not tend to any limit as n . 3. Let f (x) = 0 when x is rational and f (x) = x when x is irrational. We will see that this function is continuous only at x = 0. Let (xn ) be any sequence such that xn 0. Because, | f (xn ) | | xn |, f (xn ) f (0). Therefore f is continuous at 0. Suppose x0 = 0 and it is rational. We will show that f is not continuous at x0 . Choose (xn ) such that xn x0 and all xn s are irrational numbers. Then f (xn ) = xn x0 = f (x0 ).This proves that f is not continuous at x0 . When x0 is irrational, the proof is similar.

3 Remark : In order to show that a function is not continuous at a point x0 it is sucient to produce one sequence (xn ) such that xn x0 but f (xn ) f (x0 ). However, to show a function is continuous at x0 , we have to show that f (xn ) f (x0 ) whenever xn x0 i.e, for every (xn ) such that xn x0 . Continuous function on a subset of R: Let S be a subset of R and x0 S , we say that f is continuous at x0 , if for every > 0, there exists a > 0 such that whenever x S with |x x0 | < we have |f (x) f (x0 )| < . Moreover, if f is continuous at each x S , then we say that f is continuous on S . Limits at Innity : Let f : R R. We say that lim f (x) = A if for every N > 0 such that whenever x N , we have |f (x) A| < . Let x0 R. We say that lim f (x) = if for every M, there exists > 0 such that whenever |x x0 | < we have f (x) > M .

xx0 x

Problem 1: Let f : R R be such that for every x, y R, | f (x) f (y ) | | x y | . Show that f is continuous. Solution : Let x0 R and xn x0 . Since | f (xn ) f (x0 ) | | xn x0 |, f (xn ) f (x0 ). Therefore f is continuous at x0 . Since x0 is arbitrary, f is continuous everywhere. Problem 2: Let f : (1, 1) R be a continuous function such that in every neighborhood of 0, there exists a point where f takes the value 0. Show that f (0) = 0.

1 1 Solution : For every n, there exists xn ( n , n ) such that f (xn ) = 0. Since f is continuous at 0 and xn 0, we have f (xn ) f (0). Therefore, f (0) = 0.

Problem 3: Let f : R R satisfy f (x + y ) = f (x) + f (y ) for all x, y R. If f is continuous at 0, show that f is continuous at every point c R. Solution : First note that f (0) = 0, f (x) = f (x) and f (x y ) = f (x) f (y ). Let x0 R and xn x0 . Then f (xn ) f (x0 ) = f (xn x0 ) f (0) = 0 as f is continuous at 0 and xn x0 0. Properties of Continuous Functions on a Closed Interval : Denition : Let S R and f : S R. We say that f is bounded on S if the set f (S ) := {f (x) : x S } is a bounded subset of R. We will now see some properties of continuous functions on a closed interval. Theorem 4.3 : If a function f is continuous on [a, b] then it is bounded on [a, b]. Proof: Suppose that f is not bounded on [a, b]. Then for each natural number n there is a point xn [a, b] such that |f (xn )| > n. Since (xn ) is a bounded sequence, by Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem it has a convergent subsequence, say xnk x0 [a, b]. By the continuity of f , we have f (xnk ) f (x0 ). This contradicts the assumption that |f (xn )| > n for all n. Hence f is bounded on [a, b]. We remark that if a function is continuous on an open interval (a, b) or on a semi-open interval of the type (a, b] or [a, b), then it is not necessary that the function has to be bounded. For example, 1 consider the continuous function x on (0, 1].

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