# Code No:NR-211501 II B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003.

DISCRETE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES (Computer Science and Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a)

Set No.

1

b)

From the formulas given below, select those which are well formed formulas and indicate which ones are tautologies or contradictions. i) ( ( P → (¬P ) ) → ¬P ) ii) ( ( P → (Q → R ) ) → ( P → Q ) → ( P → R )) ) iii) ( ( P ∧ Q ) ⇔ P ) iv) ( ¬P → Q ) → ( Q → P )) ) Obtain disjunctive normal forms of the following i) P ∧ ( P → Q ) ii) ¬( P ∨ Q ) ⇔ ( P ∧ Q ) Show that the following sets of premises are in consistent i) P → Q; P → R, Q → ¬R, P ii) A → ( B → C ) , D → ( B ∧ ¬C ), A ∧ D hence show that P → Q,P → R, Q → ¬R, P ⇔ m and A → ( B → C ), D → ( B ∧ ¬C ), A ∧ D ⇒ P Show that ( x)( P ( x) → Q( x)) ∧ ( x)(Q( x ) → R ( x)) ⇒ ( x)( P ( x) → R ( x)) Describe different logic programming techniques Describe the theorem proving with resolution with suitable illustrations. Show that A ⊆ B ⇔ A ∪ B = B . What are venn diagrams? Describe different ways of writing venn diagrams. Draw the venn diagram for A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) = ( A ∩ B ) ∩ ( A ∩ C ). Prove that every equivalence relation on a set generates a unique partition of the set. The blocks of this partition correspond to the R-equivalence classes. List all possible functions from X = { a,b,c} to Y = { 0, 1} and indicate in each case whether the function is one-to-one, is onto, and is one-to-one onto. Contd……2

2.a)

b)

3.a) b) 4.a) b)

5.a) b)

Code No:NR-211501 6.a)

-2-

Set No:1

b) 7.a) b)

Let g : Ι ΧΙ → Ι where I is the set of integers and g x, y = x * y = x + y − xy Show that the binary operation * is commutative and associative. Find the identity element and indicate the inverse of each element. Show that R x R has the power of the continuum. Show that the intersection of any two congruence relations on a set is also a congruence relation. Write a recursive routine which will recognize if a particular expression is wellformed reverse polish. Assume that the expression consists of single-letter variable names and the four basic arithmetic operators. Show that there are 15 partitions of a set of four elements. Draw the diagram of the corresponding lattice. Find the complements of every element of the lattice S n , D for n = 75.

8.a) b)

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Code No:NR-211501 II B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003. DISCRETE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES (Computer Science and Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --Construct the truth tables for the following formulas: (i) ( ¬P ∧ (¬Q ∧ R ) ∨ (Q ∧ R ) ∨ ( P ∧ R ) (ii) P ∧ (Q ∧ P ) (iii) ( P ∧ Q) ∨ (¬P ∧ Q) ∨ ( P ∧ ¬Q) ∨ (¬P ∧ ¬Q) (iv) ¬(¬P ∨ ¬Q) (i) Show that the formula: Q ∨ ( P ∧ ¬Q) ∨ (¬P ∧ ¬Q) is a tautology. (ii) Obtain a conjunctive normal form of the following formula. P ∧ ( P → Q ) ⇄ P ∧ ( ¬P ∨ Q )

Set No.

2

1.a)

b)

2.

Show the validity of the following arguments, for which premises are given on the left and the conclusion on the right: (a) ¬( P ∧ ¬Q), ¬Q ∨ R, ¬R ¬P (b) ( A → B ) ∧ ( A → C ), ¬( B ∧ C ), D ∨ A D ¬P ∨ ¬Q (c) ( P ∧ Q) → R, ¬R ∨ S , ¬S G∨H (d) B ∧ C , ( B ⇄ C ) → ( H ∨ G ) With the help of suitable example, explain the resolution technique. What is unification? Describe the need and importance of unification with the help of suitable examples. Show that A ⊆ A ∪ B and A ∩ B ⊆ A . How do you convert set algebra notations in to statement algebra? Give as many illustrative examples as possible. If R is a partial ordering relation on a set X and A ⊆ X , show that R ∩ ( A × A) is a partial ordering relation on A. If X and Y are finite sets, find a necessary condition for the existence of one-to-one mappings from X to Y.

3.a) b) 4.a) b) 5.a) b)

Code No:NR-211501

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Contd……2 Set No:2

6.a) b) 7.a) b) 8.a) b)

Show that x∗ y=xy is a binary operation on the pet of positive integers. Determine whether ∗ is commutative or associative. If two sets A1 and A2 are both denumerable, then show that A1xA2 is also denumerable. Show that the composition of two congruence relations on a set is not necessarily a congruence relation. Prove that every row or column in the composition table of a group ‹G, ∗ › is a permutation of the elements of G. Show that a lattice with three or fewer elements is a chain. Show that in a lattice with two or more elements, no element is its own complement. ---

Code No:NR-211501 II B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003. DISCRETE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES (Computer Science and Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a)

Set No.

3

b)

Write the following statements in symbolic form. i) If either Jerry takes calculator or Ken takes Social text book, then Larry will take English guide. ii) The crop will be destroyed if there is a flood. Obtain the principal disjunctive normal forms of: i) ¬PvQ ii) (P∧Q)∨(P∧R) ∨ (Q∧R) " If there was a ball game, then travelling was difficult. If they arrived on time, then travelling was not difficult. They arrived on time. Therefore, there was no ball game". Show that these statements constitute a valid argument. Show that P(x) ∧ (x) Q(x) => ( ∃ x ) (P(x) ∧ Q(x)) Compare and contrast the differences between mathematical logic and computational logic . Explain the resolution technique in predicate logic. Show that ( R ⊆ S ) ∧ ( S ⊂ Q) ⇒ R ⊂ Q Is it correct to replace R ⊂ QbyR ⊆ Q ? Explain your answer. With the help of suitable examples, explain the basics of set algebra. Let R denote a relation on the set of ordered pairs of positive integers such that < x, y > R < u , v > iff xv = yu .Show that R is an equivalence relation. Show that there exists a one -to -one mapping from AxB to BxA. Is it also onto? How many distinct binary operations are there on the set {0,l}? Give their composition tables and indicate which ones are commutative or associative? Can you determine the number of distinct binary operations on any finite set? Show that S(n) = 1+2+ ………….+n =n(n + 1)/2 Contd……2

2.a) b) 3.a) b) 4.a)

b) 5.a) b) 6.a)

b)

Code No:NR-211501 7.a) b) 8.a)

-2-

Set No:3

Show that the set of all the invertible elements of a monoid from a group under the same operation as that of the monoid. Show that if every element in a group is its own inverse, then the group must be abelian. Explain why the partially ordered sets given in the following figure are not lattices.

b)

Show that a chain of three or more elements is not complemented.

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Code No:NR-211501 II B.Tech. I-Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003. DISCRETE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES (Computer Science and Systems Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --Construct the truth tables of the following formulas: (i) ¬( ( P ∨ Q) ∧ ( P ∨ R ) ) ⇄ ( ( P ∨ Q) ∧ ( P ∨ R ) ) (ii) (P⇄Q) ⇄ ( ( P ∧ Q) ∨ (¬P ∧ ¬Q) ) Show that, the following are equivalent formulas: (i) P ∨ ( P ∧ Q) ⇔ P (ii) P ∨ (¬P ∧ Q) ⇔ P ∨ Q.

Set No.

4

1.a)

b)

2.a) b)

If A works hard, then either B or C will enjoy themselves. If B enjoys himself, then A will not work hard. If D enjoys himself, then C will not. Prove that, If A works hard, D will not enjoy himself. Negate the following statements: (i) Ottawa is a small town in Canada. (ii) Every town in Canada is clean. Describe the importance and limitations of automatic reasoning. Describe the unification algorithm with suitable illustrations. Given S={a1, a2, ……., as}. what subsets are represented by B17 and B31? Also, how will you designate the subsets {a2, a6, a7} and (a1, a8}? Draw the venn diagrams for the following equations: (i) ( A ∩ B ) ∪ ( A ∩ C ) = A ∩ ( B ∪ C ) (ii) A ∪ ( B ∩ C ) = ( A ∪ B ) ∩ ( A ∪ C ) Given a set S={1,2,3,4,5}, find the equivalence relation on S which generates the partition 1,2, 3, 4,5 . Draw the graph of the relation. If A={1,2,…..,n}, show that any function from A to A which is one-to-one must also be onto and conversely.

3.a) b) 4.a) b)

5.a) b)

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Contd…..2

Code No:NR-211501 6.a) b)

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Set No:4

Show that f:X→ Y is one-to-one. If any proper subsets of X are mapped into proper subsets of Y; that is, if A ⊂ B ⊆ X , then f(A) ⊂ f ( B ) ⊆ Y . Show that: 1 1 1 n + + ........ + = 1× 2 2 × 3 n( n + 1) (n + 1) Construct a regular grammar which will generate all strings of 0s and 1s having both an odd number of 0s and an odd number of 1s. 2 Obtain a context-sensitive grammar for the language a m | m ≥ 1 .

7.a) b) 8.a) b)

{

}

Show that the operations of meet and join on a lattice are commutative, associative and idempotent. Show that in a bounded distributive lattice, the elements which have complements form a sublattice.

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