UNIT: MOTIVATION Reinforcement Theories Content Theories Process Theories

  

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

LESSON – 11 REINFORCEMENT THEORIES
Contents 11.0 Aims and objectives 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Types of reinforcement 11.3 Shaping behavior 11.4 Schedu es of reinforcement 11.! "ehavior modification 11.# Imp ication of reinforcement theory 11.$ %et us Sum &p 11.' %esson()nd Activities 11.* +eferences

11.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
In this esson, S-innerian operant conditioning princip es and reinforcement theories are discussed. The types of reinforcement, schedu es of reinforcement and its imp ication in motivating emp oyees are high ighted. After going through this esson, the students are to be. i/ &nderstand the theoretica princip es of operant condition in reinforcement theory ii/ App y the different types of reinforcement schedu es to motivate the emp oyees iii/ 0esign a comprehensive 1" 2odification program to improve productivity, absenteeism etc. iv/ %earn the concepts of shaping techni3ues in training the emp oyees4 behavior.

11.1 INTRODUCTDION
+einforcement theory is broad y based on earning theory and the 5or-s of ".6.S-inner. The foundation of this approach is on three fundamenta factors. 6irst y, it is be ieved that an individua is basica y passive and mere y mediates the re ationship bet5een the forces acting on him and their output. Second y, reinforcement a so rejects the e7p anation that behavior is based on an individua 4s needs, drives, or goa s because they be ieve that such aspects are unobservab e and hard to measure. The focus of attention is on behavior itse f, 5hich can be observed and measured. 6ina y, reinforcement theorists state that a re ative y permanent change in behavior of an individua resu t from reinforced behavior or e7perience. "y giving a proper reinforcement, the i-e y hood that desired behavior 5i be e7hibited can be increased and the i-e ihood that the undesired behaviors 5i be e7hibited can be reduced or both.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

11.2 TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT
In operant conditioning, the conse3uences of behavior 8re5ards or punishment/ are made to occur contingent on the individua 4s response or fai ure to respond. There are three basic components of operant conditioning. i/ stimu us, ii/ response or performance and iii/ conse3uences or contingencies of reinforcement or re5ards. The conse3uences or types of reinforcement determine the i-e ihood that a given behavior or response, 5i be performed in the future. Thus, to change the behavior of an individua , the conse3uences or reinforcement of the behavior must be changed. There are four types of reinforcement avai ab e to manage or modify an individua 4s behavior. 1. 2. 3. 4. 9ositive +einforcement 9unishment Avoidance %earning )7tinction

1 Pos!t!"e Re!n#o$%e&ent'
The app ication of this type of reinforcement to a given response or behavior increases the i-e ihood that the particu ar behavior by the individua 5i be repeated. 6or e7amp e, an engineer is given the tas- of designing a ne5 piece of e3uipment 8stimu us/. The engineer e7erts a high eve of effort and comp etes the project in time 8response/. The supervisor revie5s the 5or- and not on y praises the engineer for his or her 5or-, but recommends, for e7amp e, a pay increase for the e7ce ent 5or8positive reinforcement/. :egative reinforcement increases the fre3uency and strength of a desired behavior by ma-ing it contingent upon the avoidance of undesirab e conse3uences for the emp oyees. In order to avoid the heavy fine imposed for not 5earing the he met, the riders of t5o 5hee ers are i-e y to 5ear he met continuous y even though such an act is not so p easant and vo untary. In order to avoid the firing of supervisor for ate coming, the emp oyee 5i ensure to report to office on time. ;ust to avoid the unp easantness in the future, the person 5i try to e7hibit the desired 5or- behavior. Thus the negative reinforcement imp ies the mere anticipation of no7ious stimu i from the environment by the emp oyees 5i reinforce the desired behaviors.

2 P(n!s)&ent'
The app ication of punishment is used to decrease the i-e ihood that the undesirab e behavior or response by the individua 5i be repeated. ;ust as positive reinforcement strengthens a particu ar behavior, punishment 5ea-ens it. 6or e7amp e hour y 5or-ers in a p astics p ant are given one hour for unch 8stimu us/. <hen a particu ar

This watermark does not appear in the registered version - http://www.clicktoconvert.com

5or- continua y ta-es an hour and thirty minutes for unch 8response/, the supervisor 5i ca the particu ar 5or-er in his or her office and impose an ha f(a(day sa ary cut for their pro onged absent from 5or- 8punishment/. The use of this punishment 5i hopefu y change this 5or-er4s response bac- to acceptab e behavior. The difference bet5een punishment and negative reinforcement is that in the former case, no7ious conse3uences is app ied to decrease the fre3uency or strength of an undesired behavior, 5here as in the atter, a no7ious conse3uences is 5ithhe d 5hen a desired behavior is e7hibited.

* A"o!+,n%e'
;ust as 5ith positive reinforcement, this type of reinforcement is a method used by managers to strengthen desired behavior. <hen a particu ar reinforcement can prevent the occurrence of an undesired stimu us, it is termed avoidance earning. As the same e7amp e cited above, in order to avoid reprimand and criticism, the 5or-er ma-es a specia effort to ta-e on y an hour for unch. <ith the avoidance earning, the individua 5or-s hard to avoid the undesired conse3uences of the stimu us.

- E.t!n%t!on'
)7tinction is the 5ithho ding of positive reinforcement for a previous y acceptab e response. <ith continued non(reinforcement over time, the response or behavior 5i eventua y disappear or be e iminated. )7tinction invo ves three steps. i/ identifying the behavior that needs to e iminated ii/ identifying the reinforcers 5hich encourage the behavior that is desired to be e iminated and iii/ stopping the reinforcers. "ehavior that is desired to be e iminated in an organi=ationa setting, a company may offer their sa espersons a bonus for every order from a ne5 customer. This resu ts in increased effort on the part of the sa espersons to cu tivate ne5 sa es out ets. After a period of time, the company eva uates this bonus system to be too cost y to maintain, and there fore e iminates it. The sa es force not seeing any further re5ard for e7tra effort in deve oping ne5 sa es, reduces their effort to norma eve s. The company, by removing the reinforcement, caused an e7tinction of the behavior on the part of their sa es persons. An undesirab e behavior can thus be effective y e7tinguished by 5ithho ding the reinforcers.

11.* S),/!n0 Be),"!o$
Shaping behavior is a process of changing an undesirab e behavior to a desirab e behavior by fo o5ing a successive appro7imation of desirab e targeted behavior 5ith proper reinforcement. 6or e7amp e, the manager is interested to increase one of the customer service assistants4 performances from ! cases to 30 cases per day by proper y fo o5ing the reinforcement techni3ues. The managers can reinforce the ne5 emp oyee every time he ma-es incrementa progress. 6or instance, the first time the customer service assistant process 10 cases, the manager can re5ard her through a 5ord of praise 5ith some cash incentive. <hen the customer service assistant started processing 1! cases, he 5ou d be reinforced further 5ith doub e the incentive, and the

there might be considerab e improvement in their performance."!o$' There are four 5ays in 5hich shaping of desirab e behavior can be achieved. The objective of each of the four reinforcement types is to modify an individua 4s behavior so that it 5i benefit the organi=ation. recognition .This watermark does not appear in the registered version . +einforcement 5i either increase the strength of desired behavior or decrease the strength of undesired behavior depending on the organi=ation4s needs and the individua 4s current behavior. punishment and e7tinction. Met)o+s o# S)./!n0 Be).com reinforcement 5i continue every time a ne5 target is achieved 5hich is c oser to the u timate goa . The managers can shape behaviouir by systematica y reinforcing each successive step that moves the individua c oser to the desired response. praise +eprimand by Supervisor :o reprimand 9unishment. The target set for attending 30 cases per day 5i be reached and the desired behavior 5i be shaped. If management re5arded the individua on y 5hen he or she sho5ed desirab e responses. Stimu us ?igh performance is re5arded in the organi=ation 1n y one hour is given for unch each day Individua s 5ho ta-e more than one hour for unch 5i be reprimanded by supervisor 1. T1/es o# Re!n#o$%e&ent Met)o+s' Types of +einforcement 9ositive +einforcement.clicktoconvert. "onus given to sa es person for each ne5 customer order 2. Avoidance )7tinction "onus :o bonus . They are 9ositive +einforcement. :egative reinforcement.http://www. "onus removed for each ne5 customer order +esponse Individua performance at a high eve 8desired behavior/ Individua continua y ta-es more than one hour for unch Individua s ta-e on y one hour for unch Sa es person 5or-ed hard to get ne5 orders Sa es persons e7ert on y nomina effort to get ne5 orders >onse3uenc es or +e5ard 9ay increase.

Some type of reinforcement is necessary to reproduce a change in behavior. Some types or categories of re5ards are more effective for use in organi=ation than are others.The impact of reinforcement on organi=ationa behavior can be summari=ed as fo o5s. 1. 2. .

4 S%)e+(2es o# Re!n#o$%e&ent' +einforcement 5or-s effective 5hen they fo o5 some schedu es or pattern. V. The speed 5ith 5hich earning ta-es p ace and ho5 asting its effects 5i be determined by the timing of the reinforcement. It is i-e a gamb ing house @ po-er machine in 5hich peop e 5i continue to p ay even 5hen they -no5 the chances of 5inning is one in ten or hundred times.com 3. 11. An e7amp e of this schedu e of . >ontinuous reinforcement he ps to direct behaviors to5ard desired goa s 3uic. There are four types of intermittent reinforcement schedu e based on the intermittent interva s and intermittent behaviora responses.y. F!. month y and so on. 6or e7amp e.http://www.2 S%)e+(2e 6i7ed interva schedu e refers to the interva of time 5hen behaviors 5i be re5arded. "ehaviors reinforced through a continuous reinforcement schedu e are a so i-e y to 5ea-en very rapid y once the reinforcements are stopped. once in a ten days or fortnight y 5ithout a fi7ed time frame.$t!.y. ?o5ever. 5ee.clicktoconvert.32e Inte$". Intermittent schedu es of reinforcement tend to be s o5 in estab ishing the desired behaviors. The t5o main types of reinforcement schedu es are continuous or partia 8intermittent/ 1 Cont!n(o(s Re!n#o$%e&ent' This schedu e reinforces the desired behavior each and every time it is demonstrated. the behaviors a so tend to be sustained after the reinforcements are stopped. it is more e7pensive to administer. organi=ations reinforce desired behaviors in emp oyees by paying their sa aries on a month y basis. a manager praises his emp oyees occasiona y. Instead of praising every day. dai y. These are reinforcements based on a fi7ed interva schedu e. It cou d be hour y.2 Re!n#o$%e&ent' In this type of reinforcement not every instance of the desirab e behavior is reinforced. "ut once estab ished. especia y if monetary re5ards are used as reinforcement.2 S%)e+(2e' A variab e interva schedu e re5ards desired behaviors at random interva s of time. but reinforcement is given often enough to ma-e the behavior 5orth repeating.for a good day4s pay. Intermittent reinforcement can be based on either a time frame or behavior response pattern. >ontractors pay dai y 5ages to emp oyees and other staff members by reinforcement their behaviors of doing a good day4s 5or. 2 Inte$&!ttent o$ P.$!.e+ Inte$n.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .

but reinforce it once again in the si7th time he stays bac. a manager may reinforce an emp oyee 5ho is staying bac. In this step."!o$ Mo+!#!%.http://www. The approach recommended by proponents of behavior modification is that of positive reinforcement."!o$s.$%) <ee. St.at office to comp ete the re3uired 5or-.$+s' S%)e+(2es o# Re!n#o$%e&ent 6i7ed Interva 6i7ed +atio Bariab e Interva Bariab e +atio E. S%)e+(2es o# Re!n#o$%e&ent #o$ Monet. In such cases. 6or e7amp e.5Be). V.y or month y paychec9iece(rate pay system based on number of units produced or sa es commission 9raise.2 Be). the managers has to identify the critica behaviors that ma-e a significant impact on the emp oyee4s job .t!o S%)e+(2e' A fi7ed ratio schedu e is fo o5ed 5hen reinforcement are given every nth time 8at a fi7ed ratio/ a desired behavior occurs.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . F!. 11.&/2es o# Rese.32e R.$!.to comp ete his job the first time the person stays ate. "ehavior ( modification programs in organi=ations genera y fo o5 at east five stages of deve opment.com reinforcement is a manager patting a good emp oyee 5henever he ta-es unschedu ed visits to the shop f oor.clicktoconvert. An e7amp e of this 5i be suggestion scheme department giving a certificate of commendationA after every fifth suggestion accepted by the department from an emp oyee. This -ind of reinforcement is easy to administer and the desired behaviors are a so sustained over time.0es I' I+ent!#1!n0 C$!t!%.and again in fifteenth time he stays bac.e+ R.and so on. or promotion a5arded at variab e time periods 2onitory bonuses for e7ce ent performance a5arded in sma sums at various time periods. and not reinforce the same behavior for the ne7t four or five times.t!o S%)e+(2e' A variab e ratio reinforcement schedu e is fo o5ed 5hen behaviors are re5arded random y in terms of the number of times they occur. some times emp oyees are re3uired to stay bac.t!on An approach to motivation in organi=ation that uses operant conditioning as its foundation is ca ed behavior modification. It is reported that positive reinforcers are more effective than negative reinforcers in achieving asting changes in behavior.$1 Re4.. recognition.

comp iments or praise strengthens the desired behaviorD 5ithho ding of such reinforcement shou d he p ma-e the emp oyee a5are of certain deficiencies in his or performance.' This step re3uires the manager to deve op some base ine performance data. This may be a difficu t step for companies that use non(job re ated factors to measure performance 8eg. as determined by the goa s set in Stage T5o and recorded in Stage Three. These are those ! to 10 percent of behaviors that may account for up to $0 or '0 per cent of each emp oyee4s performance.mechanism St.te01' The manager revie5s the emp oyee4s performance record and then re5ards the positive aspects of the performance.clicktoconvert. This is obtained by determining the number of times the identified behavior is occurring under present condition. The emp oyee -eeps a record of his or her dai y 5or-. %o5ering the absenteeism by 10 per cent is a typica e7amp e.0e V' E". I+ent!#1!n0 Be).t. +einforcing 5ith recognition.0e II' De"e2o/!n0 . absenteeism.0e III. and subse3uent y the imp ementation . auditing of the effectiveness of this program is assessed 1" 2odification has been used by a number of organi=ations to improve emp oyee productivity and to reduce errors.se2!ne D.2(. Coa s may concern such aspects as productivity improvement. 11.com performance. B. St.ife. the emp oyees tend to decrease their performance and motivation. specific goa s for each emp oyee are estab ished.t!ons o# Re!n#o$%e&ent T)eo$1' The reinforcement of the re ationship bet5een behavior and re5ards is very important for maintaining motivated behavior on the part of the individua .0e IV' De"e2o/!n0 . tardiness and accident rates and to improve friend iness to5ards customers. decreased absenteeism and so on St. )mp oyees react positive y 5hen they perceive that re5ards are contingent on good performance. >ooperativeness. This step is to perform a functiona ana ysis to identify the behaviora contingencies or conse3uences of performance.2 Conse6(en%es. It 5ou d be a good idea for manager to reinforce an emp oyee on a continuous basis in the initia stages and after a 5hi e. The imp ications of these resu ts have direct app ication to the re5ard system used by organi=ations."!o$. and other subjective measure/.7 I&/2!%.n !nte$"ent!on st$. the mangers must s5itch over to other types of schedu es such as fi7ed interva or fi7ed ratio.http://www.n%e I&/$o"e&ent' 6ina y. The schedu es of reinforcement are found to be very effective in sustaining motivated behavior and ma-e them high productive in their 5or.n+ !&/2e&ent!n0 . In this stage. St.t!n0 Pe$#o$&. <hen individua s are re5arded continua y for their good performance.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . friend iness. This acts ass a se f( feedbac.

not for the factors that are nonperformance based. 6or the manager. 3. 5e have earnt about the reinforcement theories and the four types of reinforcement. <hat are the five steps in behavior modificationE 11.com of variab e schedu es such as variab e interva and variab e ratio 5i be of much he p to sustain the earned behavior firm y.ife situation.* Re#e$en%es . 4.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 2anagers must earn ho5 to design and imp ement effective reinforcement programs that 5i enab e emp oyees to be productive and satisfied 5ith their 5or-. )7p ain four types of reinforcement.clicktoconvert. <hat is meant by ShapingE Cive an e7amp e of shaping by giving some 5orife e7amp es. Is punishment usefu as reinforcement techni3uesE 2.' Lesson En+ A%t!"!t!es 1.http://www. 11. 11. 0escribe the four types of schedu es of reinforcement and its app ication in 5or. the most important factor in the app ication of operant conditioning is that emp oyees shou d be re5arded contingent on their performance.8 Let (s S(& U/ In this unit.

2.3 2cCregor4s theory 7 and theory y 12. 6urther. )ffort.2 ?er=berg4s t5o factor mode 12. E##o$t' It refers to an individua 4s intensity in reaching the stated goa .http://www. 12. the comparison of these theories by high ighting the simi arities and differences among the theories 5i be of much he p to imp ement the appropriate mode s in different situations.2 >ontent theories of motivation 12. Coa s and :eeds.1 INTRODUCTION 2otivation is defined as individua 4s intention or 5i ingness to put ma7imum effort in hisFher 5or.0 Aims and 1bjectives 12.ife situations ii/ )7p ain the meaning of various motivationa theories and its app ication in organi=ations iii/ 0istinguish the -ey components of different motivationa mode s and ab e to use in different conte7ts.to reach organi=ationa goa s and enhance ones abi ity to satisfy some individua needs. i/ &nderstand the meaning of motivation concept and its dynamics in 5or.! +eferences 12. iv/ Identify the need eve s of individua s and its re evance in motivating emp oyees.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES In this esson.2. the five major content theories of motivation are discussed 5ith its app ication in 5or.com LESSON – 12 CONTENT THEORIES OF MOTIVATION Contents 12. After the comp etion of this esson.2. The intensity varies from individua to individua and a so depends upon the e7tent to 5hich individua assigns .1 Introduction 12.4 %esson()nd Activities 12.2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .clicktoconvert.1 2a o54s need hierarchy 12.ife.2. The cyc ic process of motivation starts from &nsatisfied needsà Tensionà 0rivesà Search "ehaviorà Satisfied :eedà to end 5ith +educed Tension.3 %et us Sum &p 12.! 2c> e and4s need theory 12. There are three major e ements re ated to motivation.4 A derfer4s erg theory 12. the students are ab e to.

$%)1 o# Nee+s Abraham 2as o5 formu ated one of the most popu ar theories of human motivation.2 CONTENT THEOREIS OF MOTIVATION 12. it no onger motivates behavior The needs are interdependent and over apping 2as o54s theory of motivation e7p ains five eve s of needs. If these efforts are channe ed in proper direction consistent 5ith organi=ationa goa s. If the goa is attained the organism 5i satisfy the need and reduce the tension. 1nce the desired goa is satisfied. An effective 5ay to set goa s is to fo o5 the S2A+T approach. the emp oyee 5i have a highest eve of motivation. 12. Nee+' It refers to some interna state that ma-es certain outcomes appear attractive.clicktoconvert. ranging from the o5est need to highest need eve A needs are never fu y satisfied 1nce a need is fair y 5e satisfied. 5hich states that goa s shou d meet five characteristics.2. It is a so a state of deficiency and the organism tries to restore this deficiency to ma-e it as e3ui ibrium. +e evant !.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 1.com importance to various goa s. the organi=ation 5i ma7imi=e its profit and reach a state of e7ce ence in their fie d. Time y or Time %imited If the chosen goa has these characteristics. individua s 5i a 5ays restate the goa s or oo. These drives direct the individua in different directions or searching in different p aces to find a particu ar goa . Specific 2. 2easurab e 3.s2o4:s H!e$. Achievab e 4. An unsatisfied need creates tension that stimu ates drives 5ithin an individua . 9o. .1 M.http://www. • G G G The needs are arranged in a hierarchy of importance.for other goa s to get sastisfied. 2as o54s theory is based on the fo o5ing propositions. managers must ensure to set a goa in such a 5ay 5hich stimu ates him or her to put more effort in their 5or-. Coa s 5i a 5ays be changing from one eve to another. In order to motivate an individua .2s' ?uman behavior is a 5ays goa directed.

it may not motivate peop e. security and peace. 2as o5 argued that each eve in the hierarchy must be substantia y satisfied before the ne7t eve is activated. anima s and peop e.n+ Be2on0!n0 Nee+s These needs cover the need of re ationships.t!on Nee+s These are the need for fu deve opment of one4s potentia . company sports and socia c ubs. In terms of motivation.activities.#et1 Nee+s The safety needs inc ude the need for freedom from threat caused by the environment. respect and prestige. At 5or. outings. recognition. safe 5or-ing conditions etc. giving and receiving ove and sense of be onging. food.eve . achievement. subsidi=ed housing. . At 5oreve . free catering etc. this need can be met by providing private hea th insurance cover.2!<. S. The managers can provide regu ar positive feedbac-. 5hich are basic to human surviva .%t(. attractive pension provisions. photographs in company ne5s etter.clicktoconvert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . prestigious job tit es. permission for informa activities. The ne7t eve in the hierarchy 5i be dominant on y after the fu fi ment satisfaction eve . This theory has a ot of imp ication for managers. appreciation. As a manager if you 5ant to motivate an emp oyee. are ca ed physio ogica needs. >ha enging job assignments. and that once a need is fu y satisfied. promotion opportunities and encouraging creativity can fu fi these needs. promotions etc. 5ater and others. affection. attractive 5age or sa ary. and encouraging open communication Se2# Estee& Nee+s It is a so -no5n as ego needs. first try to understand 5hat eve that person is on in the hierarchy and focus on satisfying those needs at or just above the eve . this need can be met through by providing good 5or-ing conditions.http://www. discretion over 5or.com P)1s!o2o0!%.. Se2#. It a so inc udes the need for she ter. The manager can provide the fo o5ing faci ities to ta-e care of these needs. se7. barbe3ues.2 Nee+s The need for sun ight. Lo"e . 5hich fu fi the need for strength. office parties.

. 4.clicktoconvert. Cenera Sa ary Increases 4 .s2o4:s Nee+ H!e$. "ase Sa ary 3 . 2. +ecognition Status Se f(esteem Se f(respect )go. 2.com M. 1. 3. 1. 6ringe "enefits 3 . ?eat and conditioning 2 . . 4 . >ha enging 5or2 . 2.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 2 . 3. 3. organi=ation 4 .ob Security 1 . >reativity 3 Advancement in . 1 . Cro5th Achievement Advancement :eed %eve Se f( Actua i=ation 1rgani=ationa Specific 6actors 1 . Achievement in <or1 . Status and )steem 1.http://www. ! . >ompanionshi p Affection 6riendship Safety Security >ompetence Stabi ity Air 6ood She ter Se7 Socia Safety and Security 9hysio ogica 1 Safe <or-ing >onditions 2. 2. 3. 2. 2 . 3 . >afeteria 4 .s2o4:s #$. 3.Itse f +esponsibi ity Hua ity of Supervision >ompatib e <or. <or-ing >onditions M.&e4o$=' It is based on three fundamenta assumptions . 4.ob Tit e 2erit 9ay Increase 9eerFSupervisory +ecognition <or.$%)1 Cenera 6actors 1.Croup 9rofessiona 6riendship 1. 4. 3 .

6ood and she ter/ the comp e7 8eg. se f actua i=ation needs 5ere described as higher order needs. )go and achievement/ 3. That is. 2as o5 c assified these five needs into t5o broad categories as higher order needs and o5er order needs. 5here as se f esteem. from the basic 8eg. 1n y unsatisfied needs can inf uence behaviorD satisfied needs do not act as motivator 2. The distinction bet5een these t5o categories 5as made based on a sing e premise 5hether a person assigns much . or hierarchy. or from basic to comp e7 needs. on y 5hen the o5er need is at east minima y satisfied. Individua s are goa s oriented 5hose needs can inf uence their behavior. The basic needs such as physio ogica needs. safety needs and ove and be onging needs 5ere c assified as o5er order needs. The person advances to the ne7t eve of the hierarchy. A person4s needs are arranged in an order of importance.1. the individua 5or-er 5i first focus on satisfying a need for safe 5or-ing conditions before motivated behavior is directed to5ard satisfying a need for achieving the successfu accomp ishment of a tas-.

security.//$o. se f(esteem. 2as o54s theory is bui t on the frame5or. An emp oyee may rationa i=e a sma pay increase by attributing it to poor supervision or inade3uate resources. 9hysica aggression can ta-e the form of such things as stea ing or e3uipment sabotage.t!on' It is defensive behavior that ta-es the form of such activities as p acing the b ame on other or having a Jta-e ir or eave itA attitude. If a person gives much importance to the e7terna factors such as sa ary.a +e/$!". it then ceases to be a motivator of behavior. serve to cause such behaviora responses as frustration.%) to need satisfaction. 1n the other hand. Co&/ens.clicktoconvert. object or the organi=ationa . 5ho accepted 2as o54s hierarchy attempted to change their organi=ations and management practices so that emp oyees4 needs cou d be satisfied.t!on. if a person assigns cha enging assignments.t!on. organi=ationa and persona factors. conf ict and stress. conf ict and stress differs from individua to individua depending upon environmenta . 2. he contended that an unfu fi ed or deprived need 5ou d activate a person to engage in behaviouir that 5ou d satisfy or gratify that need. the higher order needs are very dominant in him. )mp oyees.t!#!%. Individua 4s reaction to frustration. A00$ess!on' It is a physica or verba defensive behavior that can be directed to5ard a person. Through training programs or part(time studies. 2as o5 too. the ne7t eve of needs 5i emerge as the deprived needs see-ing to be gratified. 6or e7amp e. 1nce one eve of need is gratified. particu ar y among practicing managers but it ac-s empirica support substantia y. 3. R. the o5er order needs are very dominant in him.t!on .that unsatisfied needs serve as factors arouse peop e to behavior. 2as o54s need theory received 5ide recognition. as assemb y ine 5or-er may have a desire or need to become a supervisor.com importance to the interna factors or the e7terna factors. The need to become a supervisor no onger e7ists.0$. and therefore. 2anagers. 5hen in fact it 5as the particu ar individua 4s unsatisfactory performance that caused the sma pay increase. company po icy. the behavior of the individua is a tered to a ne5 situating.http://www. These reactions to need deficiency ta-e the form of at east four different Idefensive behaviors4 1. fringe benefits etc. A person 5hose . 5ho are 5or-ing in government organi=ation i-e y to have fu fi ed the basic needs. or needs that have gone unsatisfied for ong period of time. this emp oyee can be promoted to a supervisory ro e in the factory in due course of time. <hen a need has been minima y fu fi ed.t!on' It concerns the behavior of a person going overboard in one area to ma-e up for prob ems or need deficiency in another area. Berba aggression can be the emotiona outburst of an emp oyee directed to5ard the supervisor concerning unsafe 5or-ing conditions. recognition.2!<.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . An important point for managers to consider is that high y deficient needs. That is.

2.$%)1 o# Nee+s T)eo$1 This mode he ps the managers to understand and dea 5ith issues of emp oyee motivation at the 5or-p ace.http://www. the head cashier may change her behavior from being friend y and open to being tense.g. satisfiers and dissatisfiers. doing good 5or.s2o4:s H!e$. 5hen you fee e7ceptiona y good about your jobA Simi ar y. and mangers can motivate emp oyees by giving appropriate organi=ationa support 5hich 5i gratify individua 4s needs.oriented or temperamenta . the emp oyees ove and be onging needs can be fu y satisfied by organi=ing year y dinner and dance program. that is.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and it4s the responsibi ity of the manager to understand the cause. in detai . These defensive behaviors can resu t from the inabi ity of an emp oyee to satisfy a persona y important need. ?er=berg resu ted in t5o specific conc usions. Thus.F. They are 2otivating factors and ?ygiene factors.com need for interaction 5ith fe o5 emp oyee4s goes unsatisfied during norma 5or-ing hours may compensate by being e7treme y active in company re ated socia . 12. 2as o54s theory offers managers a good techni3ue on understanding the motives or needs of individua s and ho5 to motivate organi=ationa members. 6or instance. creating recreation c ubs or socia c ubs etc. and if resources are avai ab e.t!on ?er=berg4s t5o(factor theory of motivation suggests that there are t5o sets of factors 5hich either ed to job satisfaction or dissatisfaction. despite its dra5bac-s. >an you describe. sa ary and 5or-ing condition/ This study revea ed t5o distinct types of motivationa factors. 2anagers 5ho understand the need patterns of their staff can he p the emp oyees to engage in the -inds of 5or. After being turned do5n for promotion to the position of a oan officer.clicktoconvert.or a fee ing of accomp ishment and cha enge/.end parties.. bad fee ings about the job 5ere associated 5ith conte7t factors.itse f 8e. These behaviors are rea ties in any organi=ationa setting. . 5hen you fee e7ceptiona y bad about your jobE Cood fee ings about the job 5ere ref ected in comments concerning the content and e7periences of the job 8e. in detai .t!ons o# M. those surrounding but not direct invo ving in the 5or. office 5ee. recreationa or civic activities. the 5or-p ace has the potentia to offer need gratification for severa different types of needs.activities and provide the types of 5orenvironment that 5i satisfy their needs at 5or-.2 He$<3e$0 T4o. high y tas. This mode can be app ied to motivate peop e at a eve s in the organi=ation. 6ortunate y. ?er=berg co ected data from 200 accountants and engineers as-ing a simp e 3uestion such as J>an you describe. 4.g. Re0$ess!on' It is defense that significant y a ters the individua 4s behavior.%to$ T)eo$1 o# Mot!". I&/2!%. provide a so ution to correct defensive behavior.

These set of aspects are re ated to the content of the job and are ca ed satisfiers. 5hich eads to dissatisfaction. These conditions are the dissatisfiers or hygiene factors because they are needed to maintain at east a eve of no dissatisfaction. security and 5or-ing conditions. +esponsibi ity e. job security b. the managers must ensure to provide the hygiene factors and then fo o5 the motivating factors.itse f.t!ons #o$ M. supervision g.0e$s' In order to motivate emp oyees. 5hen not present. sa ary c. 6ringe benefits 2. status e. company po icies f. this does not necessari y motivate emp oyees. a. achievement. If these conditions are present.t!n0 F. company po icy. they do not resu t in dissatisfaction. is the hygiene factors such as sa ary.clicktoconvert. Advancement f. A set of intrinsic job conditions e7ist that he p to bui d eve s of motivation. 5hich can resu t in good job performance. resu t in dissatisfaction among emp oyees. 9ersona gro5th and deve opment Mot!". recognition.itse f d. These factors are re ated to the conte7t of the job and are ca ed dissatisfiers. If these conditions are not present. They are.n. These motivating factors are re ating to the 5or. I&/2!%. gro5th and the 5or. +ecognition c.com 1. These inc ude. These hygiene factors are re ating to the 5or. There is a set of e7trinsic job conditions that. <or. status. responsibi ity. ?ert=berg4s motivation(hygiene theory proposes .conte7tua factors. a.http://www. Interpersona supervision h.content factors. ?er=berg argued that improvement in the hygiene factors 5ou d on y minimi=e dissatisfaction but not increase satisfaction and motivation.%to$s The other set. H10!ene F. advancement. 5or-ing condition d. supervision. Achievement b.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .%to$s The presence of motivating factors a 5ays ensures job satisfaction and happiness among the emp oyees. These inc ude.

it is suggested to give much importance on those job content factors such as opportunities for persona gro5th. 2anagers shou d uti i=e the s-i s. the 5or. They 5i be in neutra state. In other 5ords. and achievement. "ased on these assumptions. 5hereas e7trinsic factors are associated 5ith job dissatisfaction. "ecause they do not motivate emp oyees. <hen these factors are ade3uate.http://www. advancement. . The t5o(factor theory 5ou d predict that improvements in motivation 5ou d on y appear 5hen manageria action focused not on y the factors surrounding the job but on the inherent in most assemb y ine jobs and deve oping jobs that can provide increased eve s of cha enge and opportunities for a sense of achievement. 12. 5hich has resu ted in bringing individua to the theoretica J=ero pointA of motivation. 2cCregor proposed t5o sets of theories as Theory K 8negative assumptions/ and Theory L 8positive assumptions/. peop e 5i not be dissatisfiedD but at the same time they may not be fu y satisfied. According to ?er=berg. abi ities. Therefore. responsibi ity. In genera .through effective job designing.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . These are the characteristics that peop e find intrinsica y re5arding.2. In ?er=berg4s frame5or-. G The average human being has an inherent dis i-e of 5or. emp oyees 5i not be motivated. If 5e 5ant to motivate peop e on their jobs.clicktoconvert.and 5i avoid it if he can.n+ T)eo$1 Y 2cCregor4s theory is based on ho5 a manager fee s about human nature. these manageria reactions have focused primari y on the hygiene factors surrounding the job.com that intrinsic factors are re ated to job satisfaction and motivation. ?er=berg mode sensiti=es that mere y treating the emp oyees 5e through the good company po icies is not sufficient to them motivated.given to emp oyees shou d be cha enging and e7citing and offer them a sense of achievement.* M%9$e0o$:s T)eo$1 > . and ta ents of the peop e at 5or. &n ess these characteristics are present in the job. T)eo$1 > Theory K represents the traditiona approach to managing and is characteri=ed by the fo o5ing basic assumption about human beings. the e7trinsic factors that create job dissatisfaction 5ere ca ed hygiene factors. recognition. manages 5ho sought to e iminate factors that created job dissatisfaction cou d bring about 5or-p ace harmony but not necessari y motivation. gro5th and persona deve opment. peop e tend to have either positive or negative assumptions about human nature. recognition. the factors that ed to job satisfaction 5ere separate and distinct from those that ed to job dissatisfaction. and gro5th.

most peop e must be coerced. distributed in the popu ation.t!ons o# > T)eo$1' The imp ication for a manger 5or-ing in an organi=ation 5ith these premises is that the group 5i be strict y contro ed and supervised. and threatened 5ith punishment to get them to put forth ade3uate effort to5ards the achievement of organi=ationa objectives. 0ecisions 5i be made arge y by the manager and communicated in 5riting or verba y in a forma situation.http://www. T)eo$1 Y Theory L is more peop e oriented. conse3uent y. and 5ants security above a . not on y to accept but to see. I&/2!%. Theory K usua y operates in traditiona . G G >ontro measures or strict supervision are proper y e7ercised to get resu ts from them Such contro can be achieved by the appropriate use of re5ards and punishment. >ommitment to objectives is a function of re5ards associated 5ith their achievement. The capacity to e7ercise a re ative y high degree of imagination. &nder the conditions of modern industria ife. high y centra i=ed organi=ations. G G G G G G The e7penditure of physica and menta effort is as natura as p ay or rest.clicktoconvert. contro ed. . they 5i adopt the fo o5ing strategies to inf uence them. 5ishes to avoid responsibi ity. The average human beings earn. the inte ectua potentia ities of the average human being are on y partia y uti i=ed. under proper condition. It is based on the fo o5ing assumptions. 9eop e 5i e7ercise se f(direction and se f(contro in the services of objectives to 5hich they are committed. )7terna contro and threat of punishment are not the on y means for bringing about effort to5ard organi=ationa objectives. has re ative y itt e ambition. not narro5 y. and creativity in the so ution of organi=ationa prob ems is 5ide y.responsibi ity. 2embers of the group 5i rare y be invo ved in determining their o5n tas-s. The average human being prefers to be directed. The fo o5ing are some of the assumptions of Theory L.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . It refers to 2as o54s hierarchy of needs. 1nce the team eaders tend to have the above( mentioned negative assumptions about their members. directed. particu ar y the higher(order needs and the motivation to fi these needs at 5or-. ingenuity.com G G "ecause of human characteristic of dis i-e of 5or-.

Satisfaction of gro5th needs resu ts from an individua engaging in tas-s that not on y re3uire the person4s fu use of his or her capabi ities.se+ (/on t)$ee &. ii/ en arging and enriching jobs of 5or-ers by ma-ing them ess repetitive. Re2..2. benefits. +e atedness and Cro5th 8)+C/. >ommunication bet5een the group and the eader 5i be t5o of the members of the group.!sten%e Nee+s' These needs are a the various forms of physio ogica and materia desires.te+ness Nee+s' These needs inc ude a those that invo ve interpersona re ationships 5ith others in the 5or-p ace. thirst and she ter. A so the strategies evo ved based on Theory L may be successfu in one organi=ation and may not be successfu in another. encouraged managers to begin practicing such activities as i/ de egating authority for many decision. iii/ increasing the variety of activities and responsibi ities and iv/ improving the free f o5 of communication 5ithin the organi=ation. 5ith its tenets of participation and concern for 5or-er mora e.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .http://www. but a so may re3uire the deve opment of ne5 capabi ities. the need for pay. The major criticisms are that too much emphasis 5as put on informa group process 5ith -no5 edge of the comp e7ities of group dynamics.?o$ /$o/os!t!ons' . ER9 t)eo$1 !s 3. socia and certain ego(esteem needs. This category is comparab e to 2as o54s physio ogica and certain safety needs. This category is simi ar to 2as o54s safety.clicktoconvert.com I&/2!%. and physica 5or-ing conditions are a so inc uded in this category.5ithout strict supervision. A derfer4s )+C refers to three groups of core needs @ )7istence. 9$o4t) Nee+s' These needs invo ve a person4s efforts to5ard creative or persona gro5th on the job. The acceptance of the Theory L approach. In organi=ationa settings. E.t!ons o# Y T)eo$1' %eaders operating under these assumptions 5i be more i-e y to consu t the group.ER9 T)eo$1' A derfer proposed a modified version of 2as o54s need hierarchy and abe ed as )+C theory. 2as o54s se f(actua i=ation and certain of his ego( esteem needs are comparab e to those gro5th needs. This types of need in individua s depends on the process of sharing and mutua ity of fee ings bet5een others to attain satisfaction. such as hunger. 12. encourage members to contribute to decision ma-ing and 5or.

need frustration/ for e7amp e. )+C theory argues that satisfied o5er(order needs ead to the desire to satisfy higher(order needsD but mu tip e needs can be operating as motivators at the same time and frustration in attempting to satisfy a higher( eve need can resu t in regression to a o5er( eve need.e. . Satisfaction(progression is simi ar to 2as o54s mode in 5hich once an individua 4s basic needs are satisfied. D!##e$en%e 3et4een A2+e$#e$:s ER9 . "ecause of the frustration( regression approach component. 8a/ A derfer high ighted that once an individua 4s higher eve need is not fu y satisfied or encounters difficu ty in fu fi ing these needs resu ting in frustrations and disappointment. In other 5ords. )+C theory provides a more 5or-ab e approach to motivation in organi=ation... the more re atedness needs 5i be desired 8satisfying interpersona re ationships/. A derfer proposed yet another vie5 of individua 4s aspirations and fu fi ment. The more o5er eve needs have been satisfied. individua s may be 5or-ing to5ards fu fi ing both their re atedness needs and gro5th needs or their e7istence and re ated needs simu taneous y.com i/ ii/ iii/ The ess each eve of need has been satisfied. their ne7t o5er eve needs 5i re(emerge and they 5i regress to the o5er eve to satisfy more basic needs. it provides the manager 5ith the opportunity of directing emp oyee behavior in a constructive manner even though higher order needs are temporari y frustrated.n+ M. heFshe 5i progress to the ne7t eve to satisfy the succeeding higher eve to have them satisfied. desire strength/ 6or e7amp e. 8b/ A derfer further stated that an individua may have an intention to fu fi more than one need at the same time. the more they 5i be desired. I&/2!%. the greater the desire for higher eve needs 8i. the ess e7istence needs 8pay/ have been satisfied on the job.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . 6or manages. the greater the desire for re atedness needs 8satisfying interpersona re ationships/ The ess the higher eve need have been satisfied.t!ons o# ER9 T)eo$1' A derfer has proposed t5o sets of vie5s on individua 4s aspirations and fu fi ment. the more it 5i be desired 8need satisfaction/.s2o4:s Nee+ H!e$. 6or e7amp e.http://www. the person 5i e7hibit a strong desire to regress to a o5er eve needs 5here heFshe finds more comfort and satisfaction. If peop e eventua y become frustrated in trying to satisfy their needs at one eve .clicktoconvert.$%)1' )+C theory differs from 2as o54s need hierarchy in t5o aspects.e. the more the o5er eve needs 5i be desired 8i. This is ca ed as frustration(regression. the ess gro5th needs have been satisfied 8cha enging 5or-/. In summary. the more e7istence needs have been satisfied for the individua 5or-er 8pay/. 1ne is satisfaction(progression and other frustration(regression.

I&/2!%. They are motivated and prefer the cha enge of 5or-ing at a prob ems and accepting the persona responsibi ity for success or fai ure. Individua s high in persona po5er i-e to inspire subordinates and e7pect that atter to respect and obey them. received rapid and unambiguous feedbac.5 M%C2e2.t!ons #o$ Nee+ #o$ A%)!e"e&ent T)eo$1' Too itt e cha enge 5i bore them since there is no opportunity to satisfy their urge to achieve. That is.on jobs that are so cha enging that successfu tas. high achievers avoid very easy or very difficu t tas-s instead they sho5 5i ingness to ta-e a moderate eve of difficu ty 5hich 5i have much cha enge in accomp ishing them. :eed for 9o5er and :eed for Affi iation. Individua s high in :eed for 9o5er enjoy being Iin(charge4. They i-e to set goa s that re3uire stretching themse ves a bit. to achieve in re ation to a set of standards and to strive to succeed. This refers to the need to ma-e others behave in a 5ay that they 5ou d not have behaved other5ise.This watermark does not appear in the registered version . and prefer to be in competitive and status oriented situations.http://www. Since their need for achievement and accomp ishment are high. 9eop e 5ith a high need for achievement are striving for persona achievement rather than for trappings and re5ards of success. tend to e7ert authority and inf uence so as to achieve the goa s of the organi=ation rather than to gain any persona ego satisfaction. 2c> e and distinguished t5o types of po5er @ 9ersona 9o5er and Institutiona 9o5er. Nee+ #o$ Po4e$.com 12. 5ho are high in institutiona po5er. high :eed for Achievement individua s 5i not try to 5or. A so.2.clicktoconvert. in 5hich they can.accomp ishment become doubtfu . they dis i-e succeeding by chance. Nee+ #o$ A%)!e"e&ent' This refers to the drive to e7ce . 2anagers. ?igh achievers are not gamb ers. Institutiona po5er managers are said to be very effective since they are . They are :eed for Achievement.ife. Such behaviors gratify their o5n need for po5er in a persona sense.n+s THREE – NEEDS THEORY 2c> e and proposed three types of needs common in 5or.on their performance in order to te 5hether they are improving or not and in 5hich they can set moderate y cha enging goa s. strive for inf uence over others. and too much cha enge 5ou d mean that the job is difficu t and hence 5i induce the fear of fai ure in them. They prefer jobs that offer persona responsibi ity for finding so utions to prob ems. 2c> e and describes the institutiona po5er managers as Jorgani=ation( mindedA and getting things done in the interest of the organi=ation. the institutiona po5er manager e7ercises po5er in the interests and 5e fare of the organi=ation. They have a desire to do something better or more efficient y than it has been done before.

!.http://www. Team 5or-. >ompare and contrast 2as o54s :eed hierarchy 5ith ?er=berg4s t5o factor theory of motivation 3. 12.system. I&/2!%.harder. )7p ain the major contributions of 2cCregor in motivating emp oyeesE 1ut ine the major assumptions of Theory L and its imp ications for managers.com 5i ing to some5hat sacrifice their o5n interests for the organi=ation4s overa 5e (being. Individua s high in :eed for Affi iation i-e to interact 5ith co eagues in the organi=ation.5ith others in a friend y atmosphere. and joint prob em(so ving sessions. co(operative efforts. Thus.This watermark does not appear in the registered version .*Let (s S(& U/ In this unit.4 Lesson en+ A%t!"!t!es 1.clicktoconvert.t!on' 9eop e high in need for affi iation are said to perform better in their jobs 5hen they are given supportive feedbac-. <hat are the simi arities and differences bet5een 2as o54s :eed hierarchies. they have needs to deve op affinity and 5arm re ationships 5ith peop e in the 5or. )7p ain the 2c> e and4s trio needs and its imp ications for managers. 4. <hat does theory K mean and e7p ain its manageria imp ications. I&/2!%. They i-e to ta-e charge and be in contro of situations. . They are usua y gregarious by nature and i-e to 5or. 9 acing such individua s in high eve positions 5i he p them to gratify their o5n needs as 5e as get many of the organi=ation4s po icies and orders fo o5ed and carried out by emp oyees.t!on' This refers to the desire for friend y and c ose interpersona re ationships. goa s and needs and the content theories of motivation.t!ons #o$ Nee+ #o$ A##!2!. #. 5e have discussed about three major e ements of motivation name y effort. A derfer4s )+C theoryE 2. and committee assignments are a suited for those high in :eed for Affi iation. They have a strong desire for approva and reassurance from others and they are 5i ing to conform to the norms of groups to 5hich they be ong. 2c> e and fee s that institutiona or socia po5er is good for the organi=ation and persona po5er is detrimenta to the overa interests of the organi=ation. 12. <hat is :eed for Achievement and ho5 does it fit 5ith 2as o54s and ?er=berg4s theories. friend y manages and supervisors can inf uence individua s high in :eed for Affi iation and motivate them to 5or. Nee+ #o$ A##!2!. In effect.t!ons #o$ Nee+ #o$ Po4e$' 9ersons 5ith high need for po5er 5ou d natura y be turned on by ho ding positions of authority and inf uence in the organi=ation.

2 9r oc es s th eo ri es of .clicktocon vert.1 In tr o d uc ti o n 13.This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www.com LESSON – 1* PROCESS THEORIE S OF MOTIVATI ON C o n te n ts 13.0 A i m s an d o bj ec ti ve s 13.

1 )3uit y theor y of moti vatio n 13.m ot iv ati o n 13.2.4 % es so n( ) n d A cti vi tie s 13.2.3 9orte r and a5 e r mod e 13.2 Broo m4s e7pe ctanc y mod e 13.3 % et us S u m & p 13.2.! + ef er e n c e .

s 1 *. 0 A I M S A N D O B J E C T I V E S T he va ri o us pr oc es s th eo ri es of m ot iv ati o n ar e .

hi g h ig ht ed in th is e ss o n 5 it h its i m p ic ati o n in 5 or if e. " y g oi n g th ro u g h th es e th eo ri es . .

i/ th e st u de nt s ar e ab e to & n d e r st a n d t h e d y n a m i c s o f p r o c e s s t h e o ri e s s u c .

h a s A d a m s e 3 u it y m o d e . 0 e v e o p t h e n o 5 ii/ . ) 7 p e c t a n c y m o d e e t c .

e d g e o f t h e r o e o f i n d i v i d u a s 4 m e n t a p r o c e s s i n d e c i d i n g v a ri .

iii/ o u s o p ti o n s i n r e a c h i n g t h e g o a . 0 e si g n s u it a b e c o m p r e h e n si v e m o .

ti v a ti o n a d e si g n b y c o n si d e ri n g t h e i n d i v i d u a s c o g n it i v e a s p e c ts . .

1 I N T R O D U C T I O N T he co nt en t th eo ri es of m ot iv ati o n pr o vi de d m an ag er s 5 it h a be tte r u .13.

n de rs ta n di n g of th e pa rti cu a r 5 or -( re at ed fa ct or s th at ar o us e e m p o ye es to m ot iv at e e m p o ye es 4 .

? o 5 ev er. th es e th eo ri es pr o vi de ve ry it te u n de rs ta n di n g of 5 h y pe o p e ch o os e a pa rti cu a .be ha vi or .

T he pr oc es s th eo ri es 5 i he p u n de rs ta n d th e d y na m ic s .r be ha vi or a pa tte rn to ac co m p is h 5 or g oa s.

of co g ni ti ve as pe ct s su ch as co m pa ri so n. ) 7 pe ct an cy th eo ry an d e3 . pr o ba bi it y of m a7 i m i=i n g be ne fit s et c.

ui ty th eo ri es ar e th e t 5 o m aj or th eo ri es th at co nc er n th is ap pr oa ch to m ot iv ati o n in or ga ni =a ti o n. > o g ni .

ti ve m o de s of m ot iv ati o n ar e ba se d o n th e n ot io n th at in di vi d ua m ae co ns ci o us de ci si o n ab o ut th .

T h us u n de rs ta n di n g th e pr oc es s b y 5 hi ch in di vi d ua m ae de ci si o n ab o ut h o .ei r jo b be ha vi or .

13.5 m uc h ef fo rt th ey 5 i p ut o n th e jo b 5 i he p m an ag es to m ot iv at e pe o p e be tte r.2 P R O C E S S T H .

E O R I E S O F M O T I V A T I O N 13.1 E 6 ( !t 1 T ) e o $ 1 ' A da m s pr o p os es e3 ui ty th eo ry of .2.

m ot iv ati o n ba se d o n th e pr o p os iti o n th at ev er y o ne te n d to co m pa re th e ra ti o of hi sF he r in p ut an d .

o ut co m e 5 it h in p ut ( o ut co m e ra ti o of ot he r pe rs o n. . T he co m pa ri so n pr oc es s is hi g h y in ev ita b e.

T he re fe re nc e pe rs o n or co m pa ri so n pe rs o n 5 i a 5 ay s be in th e sa m e gr o u p. ca te g or y et . ag e. c as s.

a m an ag er .c. 6 or e7 a m p e.

This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www.clicktocon vert. A 5 or -e r 5 i a 5 ay .com 5 i a 5 ay s co m pa re hi m se fF he rs e f 5 it h ot he r fe o 5 m an ag es .

In th e co m pa ri so n pr oc es s. if a pe rs o n fe e s th .s co m pa re 5 it h ot he r 5 or -e r in th e sa m e or ga ni =a ti o n.

at hi s ra ti o of in p ut ( o ut co m e is m or e or e ss e3 ua to th at of hi s co m pa ri so n pe rs o n4 s ra ti o of in p ut ( .

If a pe rs o n pe rc ei ve s th . T he n he pe rc ei ve s th e sit ua ti o n as ju st an d fa ir. a st at e of e3 ui ty e7 ist s.o ut co m e.

In e3 ui ty e7 ist s u n de r . he 5 i e7 pe ri en ce in e3 ui ty th at 5 i e ad to te ns io n an d st re ss .e ra ti o as u ne 3 ua .

1. 5 he n he ha s be en re 5 ar de d e ss fo r hi s ef fo rt .t 5 o co n di ti o ns . th e pe rs o n fe e s a ne ga ti ve in e3 ui ty.

5 he n he fi n ds hi m se f re 5 ar de d m or e th . T he pe rs o n e7 pe ri en ce s a p os iti ve in e3 ui ty.s th an an ot he r an d 2.

" ot h -i n ds 4 of in e3 ui tie s pr o d uc e co g ni ti ve di ss o na nc e or in te .an an ot he r fo r a si m ia r de gr ee of ef fo rt.

rn a te ns io ns an d pr o pe pe o p e to ac ti o n in or de r to re d uc e th e di ss o na nc e. S e2 e %t !o n o # R e# .

e $ e n % e P e $ s o n o $ C o & / . $! s o n P e $ s o n ' T he se e cti o n of co m pa ri so n .

pe rs o n ad ds to th e co m p e7 it y of e3 ui ty th eo ry . + es ea rc h st u di es re ve a th at th e ty pe of re fe re nc e pe .

rs o n ch os en p ay s an i m p or ta nt ro e in e3 ui ty th eo ry . T he re ar e fo ur re fe re nt co m pa ri so ns th at an e m .

p o ye e ca n us e. S e f ( i n si d e . A n e m p o y e e 4s e 7 p e ri e n c e s i n a d if f e r e . 1.

n t p o si ti o n i n si d e h is o r h e r p r e s e n t o r g a n i = a ti o n . . S e f ( o u ts i d e . 2.

A n e m p o y e e 4s e 7 p e ri e n c e s i n a si t u a ti o n o r p o si ti o n o u ts i d e h is o r h e r .

p r e s e n t o r g a n i = a ti o n . A n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a o r g r o . 1 t h e r( i n si d e . 3.

u p o f i n d i v i d u a s i n si d e t h e e m p o y e e 4s o r g a n i = a ti o n 4. 1 t h e r( o u ts i d .

e . A n o t h e r i n d i v i d u a o r g r o u p s o f i n d i v i d u a s o u ts i d e t h e e m p o y e .

ne ig h b or s. co ( . ) m p o ye es m ig ht co m pa re th e m se v es 5 it h ot he r fri en ds .e 4s o r g a n i = a ti o n .

co e ag ue s in ot he r or ga ni =a ti o ns .5 or -e rs. T he ty pe of re fe re nc e pe rs o n or co m pa ri so n pe rs o n an e m p o .

as 5 e as b y th .ye e ch o os es 5 i be in f ue nc ed b y th e in fo r m ati o n th e e m p o ye e h o ds ab o ut re fe re nt s.

T he re ar e m an y fa ct or s 5 hi ch m o de ra te th e se e cti o n of re fe re nc e pe rs o .e att ra cti ve ne ss of th e re fe re nt .

n su ch as ag e. T he p os iti ve an d ne ga ti ve in e3 ui tie s ca n be de n ot ed as . na tu re of jo b et c. te n ur e. se 7. ed uc ati o n.

9ositive Ine3uity 1utcomes for 9erson Inputs of 9erson 1utcomes for 1ther Inputs of 1ther M :egative Ine3uity 1utcomes for 9erson Inputs of 9erson N 1utcomes for 1ther Inputs of 1ther .fo o 5 s.

clicktocon vert.com " as ed o n e3 ui ty th eo ry .This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www. th e e m p o ye es 5 h o pe rc ei ve in e3 ui ty in th e oc cu pa ti o n m ay ha ve .

m an y o pt io ns to ch o os e to re st or e ba a nc e 1. > h a n g i n g t h e ir i n p u t b y p u tt i n g m o r

e e ff o rt i n t h e ir j o b , u p d a ti n g s i s , n o 5 e d g e o r t a e n ts e t c .

2. > h a n g i n g t h e ir o u t c o m e s b y i n c r e a si n g t h e ir o u t p u t s u c h a s p r o d u c

i n g m o r e v o u m e o f o u t p u t, h i g h 3 u a i t y o f o u t p u t, c o n s e r v i n g m o r e

3.r e s o u r c e s. m i n i m i = i n g d o 5 n ti m e e t c . S a v i n g m o r e ti m e . 0 is t o rt i n g s .

e f p e r c e p ti o n b y r a ti o n a i = i n g c e rt a i n t h i n g s s u c h a s d u e t o si c n e s .

s t h e a m o u n t o f e ff o rt p u t i n is v e r y o 5 o r a c 3 u is it i o n o f s o m e d e g r e e .

s o r c e rt if i c a t e s 5 i m a e a p e r s o n f e e t h a t I a m 5 o r i n g h a r d e r t .

0 is t o rt i n g p e r c e p ti o n o f t h e r e f e r e n c e p e r s o n b y .h a n a n y o n e e s e . 4.

a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e p e r s o n h a s m o r e c o n t a c ts 5 it h i n f u e n ti a s u p e ri .

> h o o si n g a d if f e r e n t r e f e r e n t p e r s o n a n .o r s a n d g e ts m o r e b e n e fi ts . !.

6 o r i n st a n c e .d s e e i n g c o m f o rt 5 it h t h a t p e r s o n . if A u s e d " a s h e r c o .

m p a ri s o n p o i n t ti n o 5 . s h e m i g h t a ft e r f e e i n g n e g a ti v e i n e 3 u it y. c h a .

n g e h e r c o m p a ri s o n p o i n t t o > b y p e r s u a d i n g h e r s e f t h a t " is n o 5 b o .

u n d t o e n j o y s p e c i a f a v o r s si n c e s h e h a s m a rr i e d t h e b o s s4 s n e p h e 5 .

#. T he re ar e t 5 o ty pe s of ju sti ce e m p ha si =e d in e3 . % e a v i n g t h e fi e d o n c e f o r a ..

u sti ce an d 9r oc ed ur a ju sti ce .ui ty th eo ry su ch as 0 ist ri b ut iv e . D !s t$ !3 (t !" e J (s t! %e ' It re fe rs to .

P $o %e + .th e pe rc ei ve d fa ir ne ss of th e a m o u nt an d a oc ati o n of re 5 ar ds a m o n g in di vi d ua s.

2 J (s t! %e ' It re fe rs to th e pe rc ei ve d fa ir ne ss of th e pr oc es s us ed to de te r m in e th e di st ri b .( $.

ut io n of re 5 ar ds . + es ea rc h re su ts in di ca te th at di st ri b ut iv e ju sti ce ha s a gr at er in f ue nc e o n e .

5 hi e pr oc ed ur a ju sti ce te n ds to af fe ct e m p o ye es or ga .m p o ye e sa tis fa cti o n th an pr oc ed ur a ju sti ce .

tr us t in th ei r b os s an d in te nt io n to 3 ui t. t! o n s o # .ni =a ti o na co m m it m en t. I & / 2! % .

E 6 ( !t 1 T ) e o $ 1 ' ) 3 ui ty th eo ry se ns iti =e s m an ag er s to th e fa ct th at in di vi d ua s of te n m a- .

e e3 ui ty co m pa ri so ns an d th at so m eti m es th e re 5 ar ds gi ve n b y m an ag er s m ay ha ve co ns e3 ue nc es 5 hi ch m ig .

ht be re f ec te d in su b or di na te s4 be ha vi or s. T hi s is es pe ci a y tr ue 5 he n vi si b e re 5 ar ds su ch as pr o m ot io .

pa y in cr ea se s an d b o n us es ar e gi ve n to e m p o ye es .ns . 2 an ag er s m us t an tic ip at e 5 he n th e e m p .

o ye es e7 pe ri en ce in e3 ui tie s an d tr y to ad ju st th e be ha vi or in su ch a 5 ay b y co m m u ni ca ti n g th e pe rf or m an .

T he pr o pe r e7 p an ati o n of h o 5 th e pe rf or m an ce ap pr ai sa pr .ce ap pr ai sa pr oc es s to th ei r e m p o ye es .

6 ur th er.oc es s is be in g ca rri ed o ut m us t be e7 p ai ne d to a th e e m p o ye es . th e ty pe s of re 5 ar ds di sp en se d .

an d cr ea ti n g a 5 e es ta b is he d sy st e m 5 hi ch ta -e s ca re of th e an o m ai es in th e re 5 ar d sy st e m s ar e es .

6 et in e3 ui tie s . .se nt ia in m ai nt ai ni n g in e3 ui ty in th e or ga ni =a ti o n.

clicktocon vert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www.com ar e co m m o n in a or ga ni =a ti o ns an d he nc e it is i m p or ta nt fo r m an ag er s to m an ag .

e e3 ui ty d y na m ic s in te i ge nt y an d ca re fu y . 2 an ag er s sh o u d co ns id er o pe n y sh ar in g in fo r m .

fo o 5 in g co ns ist en t an d u n bi as ed pr oc ed ur es an d en ga .ati o n o n h o 5 a oc ati o n de ci si o ns ar e m ad e.

" y in cr ea si n g th e pe rc ep ti o .gi n g in si m ia r pr ac tic es to in cr ea se th e pe rc ep ti o n of pr oc ed ur a ju sti ce .

n of pr oc ed ur a fa ir ne ss . e m p o ye es ar e i -e y to vi e 5 th ei r b os se s an d th e or ga ni =a ti o n as p os iti ve .

pr o m ot io ns an d ot he r o ut co m es .ev en if th ey ha ve di ss ati sf ie d 5 it h pa y. ) 3 ui ty th eo ry pr o ve s at e as e .

It emp hasi= es on e3uit ab e re5a rds for emp oyee s.i/ th re e g ui de i ne s fo r m an ag er s to co ns id er . <he n indiv idua s be ie ve that they are not bein g re5a rded in an e3uit ab e .

ii/ The conc ernin g e3uit y or ine3 uity is not made so e y on a perso na basis but invo ves com paris on 5ith other 5orers.fashi on. both 5ithi n and outsi de the orga ni=at . certa in mora e and prod uctiv ity prob ems may arise.

but ho5 muc h he or she is bein g paid com pare d to other emp oyee s 5ho have the same or simi ar jobs. iii/ Indiv idua react ion to ine3 . it is not on y impo rtant ho5 muc h an emp oyee is bein g paid. In other 5ord s.ion.

5ith the eve or direc tion depe ndin g on 5het her the ine3 uity 5as perce ived to be unde rpayi ng or over payi ng. 1 *.uity can inc u de chan ges in input s and chan ges in outc omes . 2 V $ o o . 2.

/ e %t . T he th eo ry st at es th at in . n % 1 M o + e2 ) 7 pe ct an cy th eo ry re at es to ch oi ce be ha vi or .& E .

< or -i n g ha rd ea ch da y ve rs us 5 or -i n g ha rd th re e .di vi d ua s 5 i ev a ua te va ri o us st ra te gi es of be ha vi or 8e g.

da ys o ut of fi ve / an d th en ch o os e th e pa rti cu a r st ra te g y th at th ey be ie ve 5 i e ad to th os e 5 or re at ed re 5 .

If th e in di vi d ua 5 or -e rs be ie ve th at 5 or -i n g ha rd ea ch da y 5 i e ad . 9 ay in cr ea se /.ar ds th at th ey va u e 8e g.

T he m ai n p .to a pa y in cr ea se . e7 pe ct an cy th eo ry 5 o u d pr ed ict th at th is 5 i be th e be ha vi or he 5 i ch o os e.

) 7 pe ct an cy th eo ry ar g .os tu at es of e7 pe ct an cy th eo ry ar e ce nt er ed o n th e be ie f sy st e m s of an in di vi d ua .

ue s th at th e st re n gt h of a te n de nc y to ac t in a ce rt ai n 5 ay de pe n ds o n th e st re n gt h of an e7 pe ct ati o n .

th at th e ac t 5 i be fo o 5 ed b y a gi ve n o ut co m e an d o n th e att ra cti ve ne ss of th e th at o ut co m e to th e .

/ e %t . T he re ar e th re e -e y co nc ep ts in ) 7 pe ct an cy th eo ry .in di vi d ua . n % 1 I' )f fo rt à 9 er . E .

) 7 pe ct an cy is th e pe rc ei ve d be ie f co nc er ni n g th e i -e i h o o d th at a pa rti cu .fo r m an ce + e ati o ns hi p.

a r be ha vi or a ac t 5 i be fo o 5 ed b y a pa rti cu a r o ut co m e. T he de gr ee of be ie f ca n va ry be t 5 ee n 0 8c .

o m p et e a cof a re at io ns hi p be t 5 ee n th e ac t an d a gi ve n o ut co m e/ an d 1 8c o m p et e ce rt ai nt y th .

th e e7 te nt to 5 hi ch an in di vi d ua 4s be ie f sy st e m i n -s .at an ac t 5 i re su t in a gi ve n o ut co m e/ . T ha t is.

ef fo rt( pe rf or m an ce .

th at is.clicktocon vert.com re at io ns hi p. e7 er ti n g a gi ve n a m o u nt of ef fo rt 5 i e ad to co rr es p o n di n g e ve .This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www.

a st u de nt ha s a st ro n g be ie f th at if he p ut s 1 0 h o ur s of re ad in g pe r da . 6 or in st an ce .of pe rf or m an ce .

th e ch an ce s of ge tti n g di sti nc ti o n in hi s e7 a m in ati o n is ve ry hi g h an d at th e sa m e ti m e if he be ie ve s .y.

th at ju st p ut ti n g o n y 2 h o ur s of re ad in g pe r da y. T . th e ch an ce s of ge tti n g a pa ss m ar is ve ry re m ot e.

he m ai n e m p ha si s is th e di ff er en tia e ve s of ef fo rt s in 5 or 5 i e ad to di ff er en tia e ve of o ut co m e. .

or he m ig ht de ci de to p ut fo rt h a m .? e m ig ht de ci de to p ut fo rt h hi s be st ef fo rt an d pe rf or m an e7 ce e nt jo b.

th e fi na pe rf or m an ce m ay .o de ra te e ve of ef fo rt an d d o an ac ce pt ab e jo b. If he p o ut s in m o de ra te ef fo rt.

be eit he r ac ce pt ab e or e ss ac ce pt ab e. ? en ce . fo r ea ch of th e ef fo rt @ pe rf or m an ce co nt in ge nc ie s. th e in di vi d .

6 or e7 a m p e.ua 5 i att ac h so m e -i n d of pr o ba bi it y 5 hi ch 5 o u d ra n ge fr o m 0 to 1. th e in di vi d ua .

$ th at he 5 o u d d o an e7 ce e nt jo b if he p ut s in su pe ri or ef fo rt s an d a pr o ba .m ig ht att ac hO a pr o ba bi it y of .

3 th at it 5 o u d en d u p to be o n y an ac ce pt ab e jo b ev en 5 he n he p ut s in su pe ri or s pe rf or m an ce .bi it y of . .

t !o n s )! / ' It . $ + R e2 . n % 1 II @I n st $ ( & e n t.E . 2!t 1 P e$ #o $ & . / e% t. n %e à R e 4 .

A cc or di n g to Br o o m .re fe rs to th e re at io ns hi p be t 5 ee n fir st an d se co n d @ e ve o ut co m es . in st ru .

If th e fir st ( e ve o ut co m e 8e g.0 . ? ig h pe rf or m an ce / a 5 .m en ta it y ca n va ry be t 5 ee n P 1. 0 an d (1 .

th e in st ru m en ta it y 5 o u d be pe rc ei ve d as ha vi n g a va u e of P 1. 0. If th er .ay s e ad s to a pa y in cr ea se .

e is n o pe rc ei ve d re at io ns hi p be t 5 ee n fir st an d se co n d( e ve o ut co m e. th en th e in st ru m en ta it y ap pr .

T ha t is.oa ch es =e ro . th e e7 te nt to 5 hi ch an in di vi d ua 4s be ie f sy st e m i n -s pe rf or m an ce @ re 5 ar d re at io .

th at is. ge tti n g a de si re d e ve of pe rf or m an ce 5 i e ad to th e att ai n m en t of de si re d o ut co m e.ns hi p. 6 or in .

in su ra nc e ag en t be ie fs st ro n g y th at ge tti n g p o ici es 5 or th of 1 0 cr or es 5 i e ad to ge tti n g a c u .st an ce .

b m e m be rs hi p an d att ra cti ve ca sh in ce nt iv e. T he m ai n e m p ha si s is th e di ff er en tia e ve of pe rf or m an ce .

.in 5 or 5 i e ad to di ff er en tia e ve of re 5 ar d o ut co m e.2 e n % e' A ttr ac ti ve ne ss of re 5 ar ds . V .

T he de gr ee to 5 hi ch or ga ni =a ti o na re 5 ar ds sa tis fy an in di vi d ua 4s pe rs o na g oa s or ne ed s an d th e att .

) 7 pe ct an cy th eo ry he p s to an a y= e th e e7 te .ra cti ve ne ss of th os e p ot en tia re 5 ar ds fo r th e in di vi d ua .

nt to 5 hi ch th e be ie f sy st e m fa ci ita te s to m a7 i m i= e th e a m o u nt of ef fo rt p ut in th ei r 5 or -. 6 or in st an .

ce . if a pe rs o n fe e s th at hi s si e ve is ve ry de fi ci en t. n o m att er h o 5 ha rd he tri es in hi s 5 or -. he is n ot .

Si m ia r y if a pe rs o n be ie ve s if hi s b os s is bi as ed or pa rti a.i -e y to be a hi g h pe rf or m er. he e7 pe ct s to ge ta .

T he se e7 a m p es su g ge st th at o ne p os si b e so ur ce of o 5 e .p o or ap pr ai sa re ga rd e ss of hi s e ve of ef fo rt.

th e i -e i h o o d of ge tti n g .m p o ye e m ot iv ati o n is th e be ie f th at n o m att er h o 5 ha rd he or sh e 5 or -s .

.a g o o d pe rf or m an ce ap pr ai sa is ve ry o 5.

clicktocon vert.This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www.com Si m ia r y if a pe rs o n fe e s th at th er e is a 5 ea re at io ns hi p be t 5 ee n pe rf or m an ce s @ .

th e ch an ce s of ge tti n g o ut st an di n g pe rf or m an ce 5 i be p o or . T he re as .re 5 ar d re at io ns hi p in th ei r jo b.

o n is th at or ga ni =a ti o ns re 5 ar d sy st e m is n ot so e y ba se d o n th e pe rf or m an ce cr ite ri a b ut o n th e ot he .

r n o n( pe rf or m an ce fa ct or s. 6 or e7 a m p e. 5 he n pa y ri se is gi ve n to e m p o ye es ba se d o n fa ct or s su ch as .

se ni or ity . be in g co o pe ra ti ve D e m p o ye es ar e i -e y to se e 5 ea pe rf or m an ce ( re 5 ar d re at io ns hi p an d .

e7 pe ct an cy th eo ry ha s u n de rg o ne at e as t fo ur de ve o . Si nc e Br o o m 4s in iti a m o de .fe e de m ot iv at ed .

9ay and 9rom otion / and intrin sic outc omes 8eg. The theor y 5as e7ten ded by ma-i ng the disti nctio n bet5 een e7tri nsic outc omes 8eg. Achi evem ent and 9ers ona 0eve opm ent/. )7tri nsic va en ce refer . +eco gniti on.i/ p m en ts.

s to outc omes that come to the indiv idua from other s beca use of his perfo rman ceD intrin sic va en ces are assoc iated 5ith the job itse f . ii/ A furth er disti nctio n 5as made bet5 een t5o types of e7pe ctanc ies. )7pe ctanc y I is conc

erne d 5ith the perce ived re ati onshi p bet5 een effor t and perfo rman ce. )7pe ctanc y II, simi ar to Broo m4s conc ept of instr ume nta it y is conc erne d 5ith the re ati onshi p bet5 een first eve outc omes 8eg. 9erfo rman ce/ and seco nd(

eve outc omes or re5a rd 8eg. 9ay, reco gniti on, or achie veme nt/. Thes e e7pe ctanc ies have come to be -no 5n as )I 8effo rt( perfo rman ce e7pe ctanc y/ and )II 8perf orma nce( re5a rd e7pe ctanc y/ iii/ It a so conc erns the broa

deni ng to the theor y to inc u de the possi be effec ts of other 5or( re at ed varia be on the majo r varia b es of e7pe ctanc y such as. a/ the possi be impa ct of perso na it y varia b es 8eg. Se f( estee m and Se f( confi denc e/ in the

"/ the effec t of past e7pe rienc es on e7pe ctanc y deve opm ent and c/ the inc u sion of abi it y and ro e perce ption as possi be mod erati ng effec ts on the re ati onshi p bet5 een moti vatio n .form ation of e7pe ctanc y perce ption s.

Satis facti on is vie5 ed as bein g a funct ion of actua perfo rman ce and the rea re5a .and actua perfo rman ce. iv/ The e7pe ctanc y mod e is a so e7ten ded to inc u de the varia b es of 5or( re at ed satisf actio n.

t! o n s o # V $ o o & E . n % 1 M o + e2 ' A s m .rds gaine d from that perfo rman ce. / e %t . I & / 2! % .

he or sh e m .en ti o ne d ab o ve . if th e e m p o ye es fe e th at th e re 5 ar ds ar e n ot so att ra cti ve to fu fi hi s g oa s.

ay n ot p ut m uc h ef fo rt in hi s or he r 5 or -. 6 or e7 a m p e. th e e m p o ye e 5 or -s ha rd in th e h o pe of ge tti n g .

a pr o m ot io n b ut ge ts a pa y ri se in st ea d 5 hi ch he is n ot in te re st ed in 5 i m ae hi m de m ot iv at ed . 1 r th e .

e m p o ye e 5 an ts a m or e in te re sti n g an d ch a en gi n g jo b b ut re ce iv es o n y a fe 5 5 or ds of pr ai se . It is .

de si ra b e to as se ss 5 ha t att ra ct s e m p o ye es in th ei r 5 or -. " ut so m e m an ag er s in co rr ec t y as su m e th at .

a e m p o ye es 5 an t th e sa m e th in g. th us o ve r o o -i n g th e m ot iv ati o na ef fe ct s of di ff er en tia ti n g re .

5 ar ds . .

This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www.com I n s u m m a r y.clicktocon vert. t h e e y t o e 7 p e c t a n c y t h e o r y is t h e u n d .

e r st a n d i n g o f a n i n d i v i d u a 4 s g o a s a n d t h e i n a g e b e t 5 e e n e .

ff o rt a n d p e rf o r m a n c e . b e t 5 e e n p e rf o r m a n c e a n d r e 5 a r d s a n d fi .

1 . b e t 5 e e n r e 5 a r d s a n d i n d i v i d u a g o a s a ti s f a c ti o n .n a y.

4 2 e $ M o + e 2 ' 9 o rt e r a n d % a 5 e r p r o p o . 2 .* . n + L . * P o $ t e $ .

s e d a c o m p r e h e n si v e m o d e o f m o ti v a ti o n e n c o m p a s si n g t h e m o d e r .

a ti n g e ff e c ts o f a b i it i e s a n d tr a it s a n d r o e p e r c e p ti o n a n d a c c e e .

r a ti n g r o e s o f p e r c e i v e d e 3 u it a b e r e 5 a r d s a n d p e r c e i v e d ) ff .

T h e m o d e h .o rt ( + e 5 a r d p r o b a b i it y. 9 o rt e r a n d % a 5 e r 2 o d e . 6 i g .

i g h i g h ts t 5 o i m p o rt a n t f a c t o r s 5 h i c h f a c i it a t e o r i n f u e n c .

e t o p u t m o r e e ff o rt i n 5 o r . T h e y a r e t h e v a e n c e a n d p e r c e i .

v e d ) ff o rt à + e 5 a r d p r o b a b i it y 8i/ V . 2 e n % e ' T h e fi r st f a c t o r c o n c .

e r n s t h e e 7 t e n t t o 5 h i c h t h e v a u e o f r e 5 a r d 8va ence / that is i-e y to be received from their job inf uenc es the amount of effort. 6or instance, if a person is

sho5ing more interest to5ards the re5ard or e7pected outcome , the chances of putting more effort in his or her 5or5i be very high. If the e7pected re5ard is not attractiv e enough, he 5i o5er his effort. 8ii/

P e $ % e ! " e + E # # o $ t à R e

4 , $ + / $ o 3 , 3 !2 !t 1 '
T h e s e c o n d f a c t o r st a t e s t h e

inf uenc e of perceive d effortà.r e5ard probabi i ty. If a person fee s that the probabi i ty of getting

re5ard is very high for given eve of effort, he 5i more i-e y to put high eve of effort in his 5or-. T h e r e a r e o t h e r t 5 o si g n if i c a n t f a c t o r s 5 h

8i / T h .i c h f a c i it a t e t o m a 7 i m i = e t h e a m o u n t o f p e rf o r m a n c e .

e y a r e i n d i v i d u a 4 s a b i it i e s a n d r o e p e r c e p ti o n . 8i/ A 3 !2 ! t ! .

s i s a n d .e s . n + T $ . ! t s ' If a n i n d i v i d u a h a s r e 3 u is it e a b i it i e s.

he 5i produce more resu ts than others 5ho do not have such s-i s to such type of tas-s. 8ii/ R o 2 e .traits to perform the assigned job. persever ance and goa ( directed ness 5hich are re evant for doing any tas-s. These abi ities and traits 5i moderat e the effortàp erforman ce re ations hips. Traits inc ude enduranc e.

P e $ % e / t ! o n ' If a n i n d i v i d u a h a s v e r y c e a r r o e p e r c e p ti o n .

. the person 5i de iver more output. very c ear job descripti ons of 5hat he is suppose d to do in his tas-s 5ithout any ambiguit y or confusio n. The accuracy of ro e percepti on is another variab e that moderat e the effortà9 erforman ce re ations hip. That is. on y those 5ho perceive d their ro e as it is defined by the . t h a t is .

T y p e s o f r e 5 a r d s.organi=a tion 5i be ab e to perform 5hen they put forth the re3uired effort in their job. 9 e rf o r m a n c e 5 i r e s u t i n g e .

tt i n g v a ri o u s r e 5 a r d s. T h is c a n b e c a s si fi e d i n t o i n tr i n si c a n d .

e 7 tr i n si c r e 5 a r d s. I n tr i n si c r e 5 a r d s a r e t h o s e 5 h i c h a r e .

clicktocon vert.com d e ri v e d 5 it h i n o n e s e f b y g e tt i n g t h e f e e i n g s o f j o b s a ti .This watermark does not appear in the registered version http://www.

s f a c ti o n . s e f ( e st e e m . s e n s e o f c o m p e t e n c e a n d r e a i = i n g o n e s o .

5 n p o t e n ti a i ti e s. ) 7 tr i n si c r e 5 a r d s a r e t h o s e e 7 t e r n a r e 5 a r d s t

h a t a r e g i v e n b y o t h e r s i n t h e 5 o r e n v ir o n m e n t s u c h a s m o n e y, p r

o m o ti o n , s e c u ri t y, i n c e n ti v e s e t c . " o t h t h e s e t y p e s o f r e 5 a r d s 5

i r e s u t i n s a ti s f a c ti o n . 1 n c e a g a i n , t h e + e 5 a r d à S a ti s f a c ti o n r

e a ti o n s h i p s is m o d e r a t e d b y t h e p e r c e i v e d e 3 u it a b e r e 5 a r d s. t .

s a ti s f a c ti o n 5 i b e e 7 p e ri e n c e d o n y 5 h e n t h e p e r s o n f e e s .h a t is .

I & / 2! % . t ! o n s o # P o $ t e $ .f a ir y a n d r e 5 a r d e d f o r h is e ff o rt s. .

4 2 e $ M o + e 2 ' 9 o rt e r a n d % a 5 e r4 s m o d e is o f g r e a t si g n .n + L .

if i c a n c e t o m a n a g e r s si n c e it s e n si ti = e s t h e m t o f o c u s a tt e n ti o .

n o n t h e f o o 5 i n g t o e e p t h e ir e m p o y e e s m o ti v a t e d . i/ A s si g .

n i n g ri g h t t y p e o f j o b s t o ri g h t t y p e s o f p e r s o n . e n s u ri n g p e rf .

ii/ e c t m a t c h b e t 5 e e n p e r s o n a n d j o b . 9 r o v i d i n g a c e a r j o b d e s c ri .

p ti o n s a n d h i g h i g h ti n g 5 h a t a p e r s o n is e 7 p e c t e d o f i n h is 5 o r 8r o e p e r .

5 .iii/ c e p ti o n / A s si g n i n g t h e p r o p e r p e rf o r m a n c e e v e s s u c h s 3 u a n ti t y.

a st e c o n tr o n u m b e r o f c u st o m e r a tt e n d e d e t c . ) n s u ri n g t h a t t h e r e 5 iv/ .

If high eve s of moti .a r d s g i v e n t o t h e ir e m p o y e e s a r e v e r y a tt r a c ti v e t o t h e m .

If signi fican t chan gers in perfo rman ce eve s are desir ed. the re5a rds give n must a so . mana gers shou d ensur e that the emp oyee s perce ive a direc t inbet5 een perfo rman ce and desir ed re5a rds.vatio n are to be indu ced.

be signi fican t and va ue d enou gh by the emp oyee s to chan ge their effor t eve s. The 9orte r and %a5 er mod e is usefu in unde rstan ding by the dyna mic of moti vatio n at the 5orp ace . * L et . 1 *.

U s S ( & U / I n th is u ni t. 5 e ha ve di sc us se d ab o ut th e pr oc es s th eo ri es of m ot iv ati o n. T .

E n + A %t .4 L e ss o n . 13.he se th eo ri es he p to u n de rs ta n d th e d y na m ic s of co g ni ti ve as pe ct s.

< h a t is m e a n t b y t h e c o n c e p ts . I n st r u m e n t a i t y. ) 7 p e c t a n c y.!" !t !e s 1. B .

a e n c e a n d 6 o r c e E 2. ) 7 p a i n 9 o rt e r a n d % a 5 e r 2 o d e o f 2 o ti v a ti o n a n d .

? o 5 c a n a m .h o 5 m a n a g e r s c a n b e n e fi t fr o m u n d e r st a n d i n g t h e m o d e E 3.

e ff o rt ( t .a n a g e r i n f u e n c e a n i n d i v i d u a 4 s p e r c e p ti o n o f v a e n c e .

a n d p e rf o r m a n c e ( t o ( r e 5 a r d e 7 p e c t a n c i e s E 4.o ( p e rf o r m a n c e . 0 is c .

u s s t h e m a n a g e ri a i m p i c a ti o n s o f u n d e r p a y i n g a n d o v e r p a y m e n t .

> o n tr a st d is tr i b u ti v e j u st i c e a n .fr o m t h e v i e 5 p o i n t o f e 3 u it y t h e o r y. !.

d p r o c e d u r a j u st i c e . < h a t i m p i c a ti o n s m i g h t t h e y h a v e f o r d e si g .

) 7 p a i n t h e A d a m 4s ) 3 u it y m .n i n g p a y s y st e m s i n d if f e r e n t c o u n tr i e s E #.

o d e a n d it s i m p i c a ti o n s f o r m a n a g e s. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful