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Ocean Engineering 35 (2008) 447–457 www.elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng

**On the parametric rolling of ships using a numerical simulation method
**

B.C. Chang

Department of Naval Architecture, National Kaohsiung Marine University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Received 16 July 2007; accepted 3 January 2008 Available online 10 January 2008

Abstract This paper has shown a numerical motion simulation method which can be employed to study on parametric rolling of ships in a seaway. The method takes account of the main nonlinear terms in the rolling equation which stabilize parametric rolling, including the nonlinear shape of the righting arm curve, nonlinear damping and cross coupling among all 6 degrees of freedom. For the heave, pitch, sway and yaw motions, the method uses response amplitude operators determined by means of the strip method, whereas the roll and surge motions of the ship are simulated, using nonlinear motion equations coupled with the other 4 degrees of freedom. For computing righting arms in seaways, Grim’s effective wave concept is used. Using these transfer functions of effective wave together with the heave and pitch transfer functions, the mean ship immersion, its trim and the effective regular wave height are computed for every time step during the simulation. The righting arm is interpolated from tables, computed before starting the simulation, depending on these three quantities and the heel angle. The nonlinear damping moment and the effect of bilge keels are also taken into account. The numerical simulation tool has shown to be able to model the basic mechanism of parametric rolling motions. Some main characteristics of parametric rolling of ships in a seaway can be good reproduced by means of the method. Comprehensive parametric analyses on parametric rolling amplitude in regular waves have been carried out, with that the complicated parametric rolling phenomena can be understood better. r 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Parametric rolling; Numerical simulation; Ship motion; Ship design

1. Introduction The motion behavior in waves is an important performance for a ship. It has direct and close relations to the structural loading and comfort of a ship. In case of severe motions enough to result in capsizing, among others, the ship will face with the danger to total safety loss. The most dangerous motion to ship capsizing is severe rolling. Wave-induced capsizing of intact ships may be separated into the following dynamic modes, which have associated with them different physical phenomena: For beam seas:

Resonant excitation in beam seas. Loss of transverse stability in beam seas. For head or following seas:

Pure loss of transverse stability in following seas. Broaching in following seas. Parametric rolling in head or following seas.

**Impact excitation due to a steep, possibly breaking, beam wave.
**

E-mail address: bcchang@mail.nkmu.edu.tw

The aim of the paper is to study the parametric rolling phenomena of ships. Under certain conditions of a ship with wave parameters, a violent rolling motion of the ship in pure head or following seas can generate quickly. This phenomenon is referred to as ‘‘parametric rolling’’. The violent rolling motions could be in danger of capsizing for a small ship. On container ships, the violent motions could introduce extreme loads on containers and their securing systems, resulting failures and lost of containers overboard.

0029-8018/$ - see front matter r 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2008.01.008

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And due to the unpredictability of the motions in real seas, parametric rolling is quite dangerous. The parametric rolling motions of ships occurring under way were previously described in the literature (de Kat and Paulling, 1989; Payer, 2001; France et al., 2003). The phenomenon has been known to naval architects for almost 50 years but, in the past, it was seen as affecting only smaller, high-speed displacement ships in following sea. In recent years, however, parametric rolling has been observed in large seagoing ships, particularly container ships operating in head seas. In late October 1998 a post-Panamax C11 class containership encountered extreme weather and sustained extensive loss and damage to deck stowed containers. Reasons of the casualty were conﬁrmed to be parametric rolling response in head seas. The problem of parametric roll returned to prominence recently as a result of the dramatic casualty (Belenky et al., 2003; Francescutto et al., 2004; Shin et al., 2004; Umeda et al., 2004; Silva et al., 2005). The author has carried out a comprehensive survey and study work about the overall process of the parametric rolling of ships (Chang, 2005). The mechanism and cause of such motions were analyzed in detail. The phenomenon of parametric rolling has been explained by way of the mathematical analysis of the ship motion equation formulated with Mathieu Equation. Whether the parametric rolling for a ship in seas occurs or not, and the brief guidance for ship operation to avoid such motions were practically demonstrated using the results of that study. In view of the fact that the outcomes for parametric rolling by Chang (2005) resulted only from qualitative analyses, the underlying paper now studies on the parametric rolling of ships in a seaway using a numerical motion simulation method. The mechanism and essential characteristics of parametric rolling of ships in a seaway can be good reproduced by means of the simulation results. Prediction and evaluation of complicated parametric rolling phenomena can be carried out effectively by the simulation tool. 2. Occurrence and characteristics of parametric rolling motion Under certain conditions of a ship with wave parameters, a violent rolling motion of the ship in pure head or following seas can generate quickly. This phenomenon is referred to as ‘‘parametric rolling’’. For a transversely symmetrical ship moving in pure head or following long-crested seas, it will have motions of heave, pitch and surge, but will experience no transverse roll moment theoretically. Therefore, it would be ascribed usually to the non-absolute symmetry of ship structure or non-absolute pure head or following longcrested seas, even though the rolling motions would be observed occasionally during ship model test or sailing in real seas. Nevertheless, the parametric rolling motion may occur indeed, even if the ship is absolute symmetric transversely and sails in pure head or following long-crested seas. The parametric rolling of ships does not result from direct excitation by an external force or moment but from

Fig. 1. The righting arm curves of ship in seas.

the periodic variation of ship’s righting arms with the ship’s longitudinal position relative to wave proﬁle. Fig. 1 illustrates the variation of righting arm curves in seas. Righting arm curves vary between values of the wave trough amidships and crest amidships. For a ship in head or following seas the underwater hull geometry varies with time. Thus, the ship will experience heave and pitch motions and result in time-varying changes in the righting arm, i.e., in the static roll stability. Evidently the ship’s longitudinal position relative to wave proﬁle will affect the roll stability of ships. The occurrence of parametric rolling of ships in waves originates from right here. From observations, parametric rolling occurs when the encounter frequency between ship and waves is equal to approximately once or twice the natural frequency of roll. Now the development of parametric roll resonance will be explained for the case with the encounter frequency twice the natural frequency of roll. Assuming that a small roll disturbance occurs in the starting time, the righting moment will tend to restore the ship to its equilibrium position (zero heeling angle). If the midship is located between wave trough and crest at that time and is approaching to wave trough, the ship will roll back to equilibrium position sooner than it would do free rolling in calm water because the righting moment now is greater than that in calm water. At the end of the ﬁrst quarter of the rolling period, ship reaches zero heeling degree and continues to roll to the other side because of the roll inertia. During the second quarter of the period, the midship is located again between wave trough and crest while it is approaching to wave crest. The restoring moment now is less than that in still water. As a result the ship rolls to a larger heeling angle than it would do free rolling in calm water. And at the end of the second quarter of the period, the rolling angle at the other side is larger than the heeling angle of original disturbance. During the third quarter of the period, the midship approaches to wave trough and the ship possesses more righting moment to roll back to equilibrium position. The situation is analogous to that observed during the ﬁrst quarter of the period. And the fourth quarter is similar to that during the second quarter. Hence, the rolling motions

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will continue to augment according to the mechanism unless the other factors enter into the process. The mechanism explains the parametric rolling phenomena of ships. When a ship sails in pure head or following regular waves, the equation of ship motion for small amplitude rolling can be given by Eq. (1). Â Ã 2 € þ 2dj _ þ o2 j (1) m þ oa cosðotÞ j ¼ 0 where sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ W Â GM m om ¼ ; Ix sﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ W Â GM a oa ¼ Ix

If the damping function is ignored (d ¼ 0), the unstable zones: Zone 1, Zone 2, Zone 3, y touch the p-axis at p ¼ 0.25, 1, 2.25, y, respectively. The unstable zones p ¼ 0.25, 1, 2.25, y correspond to the period ratios shown by Eq. (3): Te 1 1 1 ¼ ; 1; 1 ; 2; 2 ; . . . 2 2 Tn 2 (3)

where Tn is the natural frequency of ship rolling, which is calculated with Eq. (4): rﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ I 2pk T n ¼ 2p ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ (4) W Â GM m g Â GM m where k is the radius of gyration about longitudinal axis through the center of gravity. And T e ¼ 2p=o is the variation period of GM values. The variation frequency of ship stability GM is namely the encounter frequency o. The encounter frequency o for the deep water, shown as Fig. 3, will be formulated as Eq. (5): o ¼ ow À 2p n cos m l o2 ¼ ow À w v cos m g

d is the linear damping coefﬁcient, W is the weight displacement of the ship, Ix is moment of inertia about longitudinal axis including added mass in roll, GMm is a mean value of the metacentric height GM in waves, GMa is the amplitude of the GM variations in waves. We assume that GM in waves changes sinusoidally with time, o is encounter frequency. With the substitutions of variables: t ¼ ot; jðtÞ ¼ xðtÞ expðÀmtÞ Eq. (1) can be converted into Eq. (2): d2 x þ ðp þ q cosðtÞÞx ¼ 0 dt2 Here

2 p ¼ ðo 2 m À m Þ;

ð5Þ

(2)

q ¼ o2 a;

m¼

d ; o

om ¼

om ; o

oa ¼

oa o

Eq. (2) is namely famous Mathieu Differential Equation. It is apparent that j ¼ 0 is a solution of Eq. (1), that is, a ship ﬂoating rightly up without rolling motion will be a rational attitude in pure head or following seas. But it is known through the mathematical analysis that some solutions of Mathieu Equation are unstable under certain conditions. The Ince–Strutt diagram in Fig. 2 shows zones where combinations of parameters p and q in Mathieu Equation result in unstable solutions (Zone 1, Zone 2, y in the ﬁgure) (Belenky et al., 2003).

Here ow is the wave frequency, l is the wavelength, n is the ship speed, g is gravitational acceleration, m is the encounter angle of seaway. A linear damping to Mathieu Equation does not limit the amplitude of a solution. The effect of linear damping is only raising the boundary of unstable zones, i.e. creating a threshold for the amplitude of GM variation in waves (q value). The unstable rolling motions will still happen if the p value is larger than the threshold value. Grim (1952) has shown a result that the parametric roll angles will rapidly decrease with increasing p values (reduction of o) (Grim, 1952). Thus only the preceding two unstable zones (Zone 1 and Zone 2) could bring about a danger of ship capsizing. Eqs. (1) and (2) describe only the elementary case for pure head or following regular waves. In real circumstances the situation is much more complex. In particular for evaluating the actual value of parametric rolling, the factors, which have to be taken into account, include at

Fig. 2. Ince–Strutt diagram.

Fig. 3. Encounter frequency.

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least the nonlinear shape of righting arm curve, nonlinear damping and cross coupling among 6 degrees of freedom. If p and q values are in unstable zone, no ﬁnite solution exists for Mathieu Equation. That is, an initial disturbance with very small rolling angle j will oscillate between starboard and port side and increase inﬁnitely with time. In the real world, however, it shows that the parametric rolling will be limited to ﬁnite stable amplitude after all, even though the motion angles develop rapidly and up to large amplitude sometimes, as shown in Fig. 4. The main factors to stabilize parametric rolling refer to the nonlinear effects during rolling motions. Two major nonlinear effects are shape of righting arm curve and rolling damping. Nonlinearity of righting arm curve at large heeling angles leads to variations of GM values, and therefore in turn to variations of natural rolling frequencies of the ship. The encounter frequency between ship and waves keeps still invariable at the moment. Hence, the p value will deviate from the unstable zone. That is, the condition which triggers the parametric rolling motion disappears. It means that a gain of extra energy during parametric rolling ceases once the roll of ship reaches a certain angle. As a result, nonlinearity of righting arm curve will lead to stabilization of the roll amplitude. Nonlinear damping tends to increase with the rolling velocity of ships. Thus, the damping will increase, some time or later, up to a certain extent. At that time, the dissipated energy from damping is more than the extra input energy from parametric resonance. As a result, nonlinearity of damping has a function to stabilize the parametric rolling motion of ships. Cross coupling among 6 degrees of freedom, especially for heave and pitch motions, has an obvious effect on the instant righting arm of a ship. Hence, the cross coupling among 6 degrees of freedom has an inﬂuence on parametric roll motion. From view of physical mechanism, parametric roll phenomena in pure head and following seas are essentially identical. But the heave and pitch motions of a ship are normally pronounced in head seas. Thus, the cross coupling among 6 degrees of freedom is a necessary factor to distinguish the results from both cases. For researches after such problems of nonlinear dynamics, two methods at least could be adopted. The ﬁrst one involves applications of classic mathematical analyses of nonlinear dynamic equations, represented as a

certain modiﬁcation of Eq. (1) (Francescutto et al., 2004; Umeda et al., 2004; Silva et al., 2005; Bulian, 2006; Bulian et al., 2006). The modiﬁcation extends usually the nonlinearity of damping and righting arm terms. The second approach is a numerical simulation method, as applied in France et al. (2003), Belenky et al. (2003) and the underlying paper. Forces acting on the ship body are estimated from the attitude of ship at this moment, so that roll and surge motions of the ship for the next time step can be calculated, using nonlinear ship motion equations. The roll motion equation considers the ﬂuid dynamics of ship and the cross coupling among 6 degrees of freedom (Chang, 1999b). Numerical motion simulation is a valuable tool for ship design, investigation of accidents and operational guidance. As compared with other methods, a numerical simulation method will be more comprehensive and ﬂexible. With respect to design optimization it can furthermore be demonstrated that the consequent application of numerical investigations in the early design phase allows to efﬁciently improve in the design performance with respect to seakeeping and safety. Study on parametric rolling by way of numerical simulation of ship motions is also feasible. The guide for the assessment of parametric roll resonance in the design of container carriers by American Bureau of Shipping (ABS, 2004) requires a model test and numerical simulations to actually evaluate the magnitude of the problem, if the susceptibility to parametric roll has been determined. Thus, numerical simulation methods will be an effective and important tool for design of Mega-container. 3. Method of simulations The simulation method ‘‘Rolls’’ is used to simulate parametric rolling in the paper. The simulation of ship motions in seas is based on combining the method developed by Kroeger (1987) for intact ships with the method of Petey (1988), which deals with the simulation of liquid ﬂow in ship compartments and on decks. In the following, the method is only sketched because all details are explained in the mentioned references. The ship is considered as a 6-degrees-of-freedom system traveling at a given mean angle relative to the dominant direction of a stationary seaway. During the simulation the chosen mean ship speed and mean wave encounter angle remain constant, whereas the instantaneous ship speed and heading are inﬂuenced by the ships motions which are simulated in all 6 degrees of freedom. The seaway is simulated as a superposition of a large number of component waves having random frequency, direction and phase angle. The random quantities are computed from a given sea spectrum. Thus, the method is applicable to motion simulation of ships not only in regular seaway but also in irregular long or short crested seas. For the heave, pitch, sway and yaw motions, the method uses response amplitude operators (RAO) determined by

Fig. 4. Real development of parametric rolling in regular waves.

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means of the strip method, whereas the roll and surge motions of the ship are simulated, using nonlinear motion equations coupled with the other 4 degrees of freedom. Thus, the four ﬁrst mentioned motions have been treated linearly, including hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. Both the wave exciting moment and the roll moment induced by the sway and yaw motions of the ship are determined by response amplitude operators, evaluated with the strip method. The surge motion is simulated assuming a hydrostatic pressure distribution under the water surface for the determination of the surge-inducing wave force. Eq. (6) is used for the computation of surging (Kroeger, 1987): € ¼ T S À R À DR x mn (6)

Fig. 5. Concept of Grim effective wave (Grim, 1961).

where a dot designates time derivatives; x is the surging motion; m* the mass of ship including added mass due to longitudinal acceleration; Ts the thrust of propellers; R the resistance of ship in still water, is a function of instantaneous ship speed; and DR is the ship resistance induced by waves. The following nonlinear motion equation is used for the determination of rolling (Chang, 1999a; Petey, 1988): € ¼ j

modiﬁed by Soeding (1982) is used. The idea is that an irregular wave should be replaced by a regular one with the length equal to the length of a ship and its crest or trough situated at the center of gravity. The concept is illustrated in Fig. 5. With this concept, a stochastic character of irregular waves can be taken into account effectively. The height Z of the wavy water surface along the vertical plane through the longitudinal ship axis is approximated in the form

€ Þhs À I xz ½ðy € þ yj € þ cj _ 2 Þ sin j À ðc _ 2 Þ cos j þ M wind þ M cd þ M sy þ M waves g fÀM d À mðg À z fI xx À I xz ðc sin j þ y cos jÞg

(7)

where a dot designates time derivatives; j, y, c is the roll, € the pitch and yaw angle; m the mass of ship; g; z gravitational acceleration and heaving acceleration at the c.o.g.; hs the righting arm in an ‘‘effective’’ longitudinal wave; Md the nonlinear damping moment; Mwind the moment due to wind, estimated according to Blendermann (1986); Mcd the moment due to water motion in compartments; Msy the moment due to sway and yaw motions, using response amplitude operators determined by means of the strip method; Wwaves the exciting moment due to waves for the non-oscillating ship, using response amplitude operators determined by means of the strip method; Ixx the moment of inertia about longitudinal axis through the center of gravity of the ship, including added inertia due to the outside water; and Ixz is the product of inertia relating to the center of gravity of the ship, including also added inertia due to the outside water. The nonlinear damping moment Md is estimated following the method of Blume (1979). The method utilized the experimental results of a series model tests carried out at HSVA and considered the linear and quadratic coefﬁcients depending on Froude’s number. The damping effect of bilge keels is taken into account following the methods of Gadd (1964) and Martin (1958). For computing righting arms hs due to the ship’s heel in a hydrostatic pressure ﬁeld under the wavy water surface, Grim’s effective wave concept (Grim, 1961) in the form

Zðx; tÞ ¼ aðtÞ þ bðtÞx þ cðtÞ cosð2px=lE Þ

(8)

in the region of ship length using the method of least squares of errors. The length between perpendiculars Lpp is used as length of the effective wave lE. Grim showed that the response amplitude operators between regular waves and the quantities a(t), b(t), c(t) in Eq. (8) can be computed easily (Grim, 1961). Using these transfer functions together with the heave and pitch transfer functions, the mean ship immersion, its trim relative to (undisturbed) instantaneous water surface within the ship’s length, and the effective regular wave height within the ship’s length, are computed for every time step during the simulation. The righting arm is interpolated from tables, computed before starting the simulation, depending on these three quantities and the heel angle. While the righting arms in irregular waves can be estimated through the effective wave concept, the nonlinear effects of ship ﬁgure and attitude (heave, pitch and heel) on righting arm values will be also included. Various numerical motion simulation programs exist world-wide from rather simple linearized tools to sophisticated nonlinear codes. All simulation methods are based on assumptions and simpliﬁcations in their mathematical model in order to reduce computing time. Still some of the highly nonlinear methods have longer computing times

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452 B.C. Chang / Ocean Engineering 35 (2008) 447–457

than simulated time, which strongly reduces their practical applicability for safety assessments. The validations of the Rolls model have been done by some works. It has shown that the method allows for very short computing times and is basically able to predict the following mechanisms of large rolling angles and capsizing very well, which are roll resonance in general, parametric resonance and pure loss of stability phenomena. But due to the linear treatment of the yaw motion, it is not able to predict broaching. Chang and Blume (1998) have compared computed results with model experiments. They report that due to the good agreement between the computations and results from model experiments and due to relatively small effort for the simulations, the simulations are considered to be very suitable in helping to solve the capsize problem. Chang (1999a, b) stated further the reasonable agreement was found between simulated and model experimental results. The simulation model is capable of predicting, with good engineering accuracy, the limit of damaged metacentric heights between safe and unsafe with respect to capsizing. The simulation method Rolls was validated also by Clauss et al. (2005). They made a direct comparison between simulations with time series from ship model tests in deterministic wave sequences. The conclusions have been obtained that the roll responses are reliably predicted by the numerical simulation as long as resonance and stability loss effects dominate the roll motion. Thus capsizes due to resonance and stability variations/loss were reliably predicted, not only qualitatively but also quantitatively. Krueger (2006) analyzed the cargo loss of a Panamax container vessel in stern quartering seas applying the simulation tool. And the Rolls method was validated also against a series of systematic model tests using vessels characterized by large stern ﬂare. The results have shown that container vessels are vulnerable to large rolling amplitudes in quartering seas and the method predicted this phenomenon with sufﬁcient accuracy. 4. Results of simulations For the project one existing Ro-Ro passenger vessel A was chosen. It is considered to be typical representative of the kind used in the Baltic Sea. The main dimensions of ship A are given in Table 1; its body plan is shown in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Body plan of ship A.

It was usually thought that ships could not exhibit the parametric roll phenomenon in short-crested irregular seas because the required response period relationship would not be sustained long enough due to the spatial variation of the seaway (France et al., 2003). But the opinions conﬂict clearly with real observations for irregular seas. It is certainly that a ship in irregular seas may experience parametric rolling motions. To know the parametric rolling of ships thoroughly, studies on motions of ships in longitudinal irregular seas are necessary. Although the method is applicable to ships in irregular seas, only the conditions with sinusoidal regular waves were considered in this paper. Investigations into the parametric rolling of ships in irregular waves by this simulation model will be the next project for us. The variable parameters considered in the paper include encounter angle of seaway (1801—pure head sea; 1651— oblique head sea; 01—pure following sea; 151—oblique following sea), wavelength, wave height and ship speed. A tiny port side heeling angle 0.021 and zero rolling speed were used as initial conditions in all simulations. The time step of simulations was 0.2 s for the ship motion. The duration of each simulation was 50 min or it ceased to simulate when the ship rolls up to 451. The computing time for such a simulation case keeps always within reasonable limits. 4.1. Righting arm curves in regular wave Figs. 7–9 illustrate the variations of the righting arm curves for ship A in pure head or following waves. The waves are sinusoidal regular of lengths respectively equal to 0.75-, 1- and 2-times ship length (L) and height of L/20. The outcomes result from the conditions with wave trough amidships, calm sea and wave crest amidships. For these righting arm computations, heave and trim attitudes of the ship were assumed to correspond to static equilibrium and KG value was 12.23 m. The results show an increase in righting arm when a wave trough is near amidships and a reduction in righting arm when a wave crest is near

Table 1 Main dimensions of ship A Length between perpendiculars, Lpp (m) Breadth, B (m) Depth (m) Draught (m) Cb Displacement, t Metacentric height GM in still water (KG ¼ 12.23 m) (m) 166.00 27.20 19.10 6.00 0.66 18378 2.72

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Righting arm curve for ship A (wave length=0.75L, height=L/20) 2.5 2 1.5 (m)

(m) 2.5

Wave trough amidship Ship on calm sea Wave crest amidship

453

**Righting arm curve for ship A (wave length=L)
**

Wave trough amidship-WH=L/20 Wave trough amidship-WH=L/15 Ship on calm sea Wave crest amidship-WH=L/20 Wave crest amidship-WH=L/15

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 20 40 degrees 60 80

0 -0.5 -1

20

40 degrees

60

80

**Fig. 7. Righting arm curves of ship A in regular waves by static approach (wavelength ¼ 0.75L).
**

Righting arm curve for ship A (wave length=L, height=L/20) 2.5 2 1.5 (m) 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 20 40 degrees 60 80

Wave trough amidship Ship on calm sea Wave crest amidship

**Fig. 10. Inﬂuence of wave height on righting arm curves (wavelength ¼ ship length).
**

30 20

Roll, deg

10 0 0 -10 -20 -30 50 100 Time, sec 150 200 250 300

Fig. 11. Roll motions of ship A sailing in pure head seas (wavelength 199.2 m, wave height 14 m, ship speed 20 Kn, GM ¼ 1.72 m).

Fig. 8. Righting arm curves of ship A in regular waves by static approach (wavelength ¼ L).

4.2. Reproduction of main characteristics of parametric rolling Fig. 11 contains the simulation results of ship A sailing in pure head sea. It shows that a tiny initial rolling angle (0.021) increases rapidly for some periods of rolling and ﬁnally stabilizes at ca. 251 steady-state amplitude. The development of roll motions shown in Fig. 11 is typical for the parametric rolling which involves the nonlinearity of righting arm curves and nonlinear damping. It comes to the conclusion that the simulation method can successfully reproduce the parametric rolling phenomenon. Fig. 12 shows the maximal parametric rolling angles and the range of wavelength l (lambda) resulting in parametric rolling when ship A sails in pure head seas with different wave height (WH). The wavelengths resulting in parametric rolling correspond to the unstable Zone 1 in Ince–Strutt diagram. Namely, the encounter frequency between ship and waves is equal to approximately twice the natural frequency of roll (so-called frequency 2:1 type). Another condition exciting parametric rolling is that the amplitude of the GM variations in waves has to be large enough over a threshold value. For regular waves the amplitude of the GM variations relates to ship hull geometry, wavelength and wave height (illustrated as Figs. 7–10). Fig. 12 shows that a noticeable parametric rolling occurs only in waves with larger wave heights than ca. 6.5 m. Namely, only in such high waves the amplitude

**Righting arm curve for ship A (wave length=2L, height=L/20) 2.5 2 1.5 (m) 1 0.5 0 0 -0.5 -1 20 40 degrees 60 80
**

Wave trough amidship Ship on calm sea Wave crest amidship

Fig. 9. Righting arm curves of ship A in regular waves by static approach (wavelength ¼ 2L).

amidships. In general, the variations of righting arms are the most obvious for waves of length nearly equal to the ship length. And the righting arms on calm sea differ distinctly with the mean values from cases of wave trough amidships and wave crest amidships. Fig. 10 shows that a higher wave in same length enhances the variations of righting arms.

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40 35 30 Roll(max), deg 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 Lambda/Lbp 2 2.5 3

**B.C. Chang / Ocean Engineering 35 (2008) 447–457
**

30 20 10 Roll. deg 0 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 200 Time, sec 400 600 800 1000

WH=14m WH=10m WH=9m WH=8m WH=7m WH=6m WH=6.5m

Fig. 12. Maximal rolling angles of ship A sailing in pure head seas with different wavelengths and wave heights (conditions as in Fig. 11).

Fig. 14. History of rolling motion of ship A sailing in pure following seas (wavelength ¼ 348.6 m, wave height ¼ 12 m, ship speed ¼ 1.57 Kn, GM ¼ 1.72 m).

Head sea, Ship Speed=1.5 Kn, WH=10m 50

GM=1.72m

50 40 Roll(max), deg

WH=12m

40

GM=2.72m

30 20 10 0 0 1 2 3 Lambda/Lbp 4 5 6

Roll(max), deg

30 20 10 0 0 1 2 Lambda/Lbp 3 4

Fig. 13. Maximal rolling angles of ship A sailing in pure following seas with slow speed (wave height ¼ 12 m, ship speed ¼ 1.57 Kn, GM ¼ 1.72 m).

Fig. 15. Maximal rolling angles of ship A with different GM values sailing in pure head seas.

of the GM variations is in excess of the threshold. Fig. 12 shows also that a higher wave corresponds to a wider range of wavelength, l, in which parametric rolling takes place. And the Ince–Strutt diagram (Fig. 2) shows that the p-range of unstable zone, with an increase of q value, becomes wider. Thus, the results of numerical simulations agree with that shown in Ince–Strutt diagram. Fig. 13 illustrates the results from sailing with slow speed and in pure following seas. It shows that two ranges of wavelengths resulting in parametric rolling exist clearly. The zone with shorter wavelength, l, corresponds to the parametric rolling of frequency 2:1 type, and the zone with longer wavelength corresponds to the parametric rolling of frequency 1:1 type. The parametric rolling of frequency 2:1 type takes place under such condition that the encounter frequency between ship and waves is equal to approximately twice the natural frequency of roll. During the rolling processes, the ship gains resonance energy in both starboard and port sides. Hence, the rolling angles of such type parametric resonance develop nearly symmetrically for both sides of the ship. Fig. 11 shows such a case. On the other side, the parametric rolling of frequency 1:1 type takes place under such condition that the encounter frequency between ship and

waves is equal to approximately the natural frequency of roll. The ship gains resonance energy only in a certain side during the rolling processes. Hence, the rolling angles of such type parametric resonance develop asymmetrically. Fig. 14 shows the rolling angles of frequency 1:1 type resonance and the asymmetric results of such case are illustrated obviously. 4.3. Inﬂuence of GM value on parametric roll The natural frequencies of rolling, which are calculated with Eq. (4), have relations with GM values of ships. Thus, the wavelengths resulting in parametric rolling, either frequency 2:1 type or 1:1 type, will vary with different GM values of the ship. The maximal rolling angles of ship A with different GM values sailing with slow speed in pure head seas are shown in Fig. 15. It shows that for ship A with GM of 2.72 m, the wavelengths resulting in parametric rolling of frequency 2:1 type and of frequency 1:1 type are more near. However, such wavelengths differ more distinct for ship A with GM of 1.72 m. The results coincide with those results which are calculated from Eqs. (3)–(5). The results shown in Fig. 15 illustrate also the inﬂuence of wavelengths on parametric rolling. In general, ships with

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larger GM will lead to smaller rolling motions. However, for the magnitudes of parametric rolling of ships the inﬂuence of wavelengths has to be taken into account. The wavelengths in which the frequency 1:1 type parametric rolling occurs are respectively 2.6- and 1.4-times length of the ship when ship A with GM ¼ 1.72 m and GM ¼ 2.72 m sail in regular waves with 10 m wave height. As shown in Figs. 7–9, the variations of righting arms are the most remarkable in waves of length nearly equal to the ship length. And larger variations of righting arms of ships in waves will induce more violent rolling motions. Thus, instead of reducing rolling motions, ship A with larger GM (2.72 m) experiences larger rolling motions. Besides, the maximal angles of frequency 2:1 type and 1:1 type parametric rolling for ship A with GM=2.72 m are much the same. The reason is that the wavelengths in which the two types parametric rolling happen have nearly same differences from ship length. Thus the resulting variations of righting arms for the two cases are much the same. 4.4. Inﬂuence of oblique seas on parametric roll The above results have shown that ship A may indeed experience parametric rolling when it sails in either pure following or head regular waves. When ships encounter waves with an angle, i.e. oblique waves, ships will also roll. At this time the ship suffers asymmetric transverse wave force. Even though such rolling motions result uncertainly from so-called parametric resonance, the asymmetric heeling has a function of catalyzer to initiate parametric rolling of ships. Fig. 16 illustrates the result. The simulation results in Fig. 16 show that ship A experiences nearly no rolling motions when it sails in pure following seas with any wavelength. When ship A with the same conditions sails in 151 oblique following seas, maximal rolling angles are clearly less than 51 for any wavelength other than 0.6-time ship length. Such small rolling angles result purely from the asymmetric transverse wave forces. However, when the ship sails in waves with about 0.6-time ship length, it suffers clearly from the parametric resonance with 301 maximal rolling angle.

WH=12m 35 30 Roll(max), deg 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 Lambda/Lbp 4 5

Following Sea- 0 Grad Oblique following sea15 Grads

4.5. Inﬂuences of ship speed and surging motion on parametric roll The nonlinear damping moment Md is estimated in the simulation following the method of Blume (1979). The method considered the inﬂuence of ship speed on damping moment. Damping effects on ship rolling motions increase with higher ship speeds. Thus, eventuality and intensity for occurrences of parametric rolling motions will in principle decrease when a ship runs with higher speed. The results are illustrated clearly in Fig. 17. When ship A runs in pure head seas with 10 m wave height, both the range of wavelengths resulting in parametric rolling and maximal rolling angles of the ship reduce with increasing speeds. The same results were also conﬁrmed through model tests by France et al. (2003). Ship surging motion is surely an important factor for evaluating the ship capsize because surging motions will affect the ship’s longitudinal position relative to wave proﬁle (Kroeger, 1987). The ship may ride the wave on a ﬁxed position over a long period of time, e.g. wave crest where provides smaller righting arm. Thus, the ship may suffer from capsizing more probably. Besides, surging motions will also alter the encounter frequency between ship and waves which plays a role for parametric rolling. Thus, the parametric roll phenomena will be simulated more authentically when the surging motions of a ship by waves have been taken into account. In the work surging motions of ship are simulated by way of Eq. (6). During the simulation the chosen mean ship speed remains constant, whereas the instantaneous ship speed is inﬂuenced by the ships surging motions. Figs. 18 and 19 show the inﬂuences of ships surging motions on the parametric rolling. Fig. 18 shows that the wavelengths bringing about parametric rolling of type 1:1 are clearly shorter, if surging motions of ship A in pure following waves are taken into account. The shortening of wavelength condition corresponds to faster speed of ships in following seas (estimated by Eq. (5)). The increment of ship speed results namely from the surging motions of ship in

WH=10m 50

Fn=0.02

40 Roll(max), deg 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 Lambda/Lbp 3

Fn=0.0765 Fn=0.153 Fn=0.204 Fn=0.255

4

Fig. 16. Maximal rolling angles of ship A sailing in pure and 151 oblique following seas (wave height ¼ 12 m, GM ¼ 1.72 m, ship speed ¼ 25 Kn).

Fig. 17. Maximal rolling angles of ship A with different speeds sailing in pure head seas (wave height ¼ 10 m, GM ¼ 1.72 m).

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456

WH=12m 50

Surge motion incl.

**B.C. Chang / Ocean Engineering 35 (2008) 447–457
**

Speed of ship=20 Kn; WH=14m 40

w/o bilge kiels with bilge kiels

Surge motion excl.

40 Roll(max), deg 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 Lambda/Lbp

30 Roll(max), deg 3 4

20

10

0 0 1 2 Lambda/Lbp 3 4

Fig. 18. Maximal rolling angles of ship A with/without surging motions sailing in pure following seas (wave height ¼ 12 m, ship speed ¼ 1.57 Kn, GM ¼ 1.72 m).

WH=12m 50 40 Roll(max), deg 30 20 10 0 0 1 2 Lambda/Lbp 3 4

Surge motion incl. Surge motion excl.

Fig. 20. Maximal rolling angles of ship A with/without bilge keels sailing in pure head seas (GM ¼ 1.72 m).

5. Conclusions The conclusions obtained from the results of the paper are as follows: (1) The simulation method in the work is a well functioning program code and appears to give very plausible and coherent results. It has considered the major factors affecting the parametric roll motions of ships, including the nonlinear shape of the righting arm curve, nonlinear damping and cross coupling among all 6 degrees of freedom. Thus, the mechanism and main characteristics of parametric rolling of ships in a seaway can be good reproduced by way of the simulation results in this paper. It is conﬁrmed that our numerical simulation model is capable of effectively simulating the parametric rolling motions of ships sailing in longitudinal regular waves. (2) The simulation program Rolls make a compromise between best possible accuracy and computing time small enough to allow a large number of parametric rolling simulations to be carried out. The evaluation of the parametric rolling of a ship requires usually a large amount of numerical simulations to be carried out. The Rolls code is very suitable for such a work. (3) The inﬂuences of some important factors with respect to parametric rolling of ships have been analyzed by means of the simulation tool. The factors include wavelength, wave height, encounter angle of seaway, ship speed, surging motion, GM value and bilge keel. Some results of a series of simulations are shown as in the text above. Results of such analyses by the method enable better understanding of complicated parametric rolling mechanism.

Fig. 19. Maximal rolling angles of ship A with/without surging motions sailing in pure head seas (wave height ¼ 12 m, ship speed ¼ 1.57 Kn, GM ¼ 1.72 m).

following waves. Fig. 19 illustrates the results in pure head seas. The wavelengths bringing about parametric rolling of type 1:1 are also shorter, if surging motions of ship in pure head waves are taken into account. The shortening of wavelength condition, however, corresponds to slower speed of ships in head seas (estimated by Eq. (5)). The decrement of ship speed results namely from the surging motions of ship in head waves. 4.6. Inﬂuence of bilge keel on parametric roll Bilge keels have often been installed to damp down the rolling motions of ships. The damping effect of bilge keels in the simulation is taken into account following the methods of Gadd (1964) and Martin (1958). The method utilized the experimental results of a series tests and considered the linear and quadratic rolling damping moments. Two bilge keels, each one is 0.51 m in breadth and 45.15 m in length, were arranged on ship A in the project. Fig. 20 shows one example of simulations which illustrate inﬂuences of bilge keels on parametric rolling. All results come to the conclusion that such bilge keels will reduce about 25% of parametric rolling angles, whereas the ranges of wavelengths resulting in parametric rolling make no noticeable change.

It was veriﬁed in the paper that the simulation model Rolls is an available tool to assess the parametric rolling motions of ships in regular waves. To know the parametric rolling of ships thoroughly, some investigations can be

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B.C. Chang / Ocean Engineering 35 (2008) 447–457 457

carried out in future with the simulation model, including inﬂuences of ship hull form and irregular waves on parametric rolling, and forces acting on deck stowed containers during parametric rolling. References

ABS (American Bureau of Shipping), 2004. Guide for the Assessment of Parametric Roll Resonance in the Design of Container Carriers. ABS Publication. Belenky, V.L., Weems, K.M., Lin, W.M., Paulling, J.R., 2003. Probabilistic analysis of Roll parametric resonance in head seas. In: Proceedings of STAB’03: 8th International Conference on Stability of Ships and Ocean Vehicles, Madrid, Spain. Blendermann, W., 1986. Windkra ¨ fte am Schiff. Report No. 467. Institut fuer Schiffbau, Hamburg (in German). Blume, P., 1979. Experimentelle Bestimmung von Koefﬁzienten der wirksamen Rollda ¨ mpfung und ihre Anwendung zur Abscha ¨ tzung extremer Rollwinkel. Schiffstechnik 29, 3–23 (in German). Bulian, G., 2006. Nonlinear parametric rolling in regular waves: an approximate analytical solution for the response curve in the region of ﬁrst parametric resonance. Journal of Ship Research 50 (3), 239–249. Bulian, G., Francescutto, A., Lugni, C., 2006. Theoretical, numerical and experimental study on the problem of ergodicity and ‘practical ergodicity’ with an application to parametric roll in longitudinal long crested irregular sea. Ocean Engineering 33, 1007–1043. Chang, B.C., 1999a. On the damage survivability of Ro-Ro ships investigated by motion simulation in a seaway. Ship Technology Research 46 (4). Chang, B.C., 1999b. On the Survivability of Damaged Ro-Ro Vessels Using a Simulation Method. Bericht Nr. 597. Arbeitsbereiche Schiffbau der Technische Uni, Hamburg-Harburg. Chang, B.C., 2005. On parametric rolling motion of ships. In: 17th Conference of Taiwan Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, Taipei, 19–20 March 2005 (in Chinese). Chang, B.C., Blume, P., 1998. Survivability of damaged Ro-Ro passenger vessels. Ship Technology Research 45 (3). Clauss, J.F., Hennig, J., Cramer, H., Brink, K.E., 2005. Validation of numerical motion simulations by direct comparison with time series from ship model tests in deterministic wave sequences. In: Proceedings of OMAE 2005, Halkidiki, Greece, 12–17 June 2005.

de Kat, J.O., Paulling, J.R., 1989. The simulation of ship motions and capsizing in severe seas. Transactions of SNAME 97. France, W.N., Levadou, M., Treakle, T.W., Paulling, J.R., Michel, K., Moore, C., 2003. An investigation of head-sea parametric rolling and its inﬂuence on container lashing system. Marine Technology 40 (1), 1–19. Francescutto, A., Bulian, G., Lugni, C., 2004. Nonlinear and stochastic aspects of parametric rolling modeling. Marine Technology 41 (2), 74–81. Gadd, G.E., 1964. Bilge keels and bilge vanes. Report 64, Ship Division, National Physical Laboratory. Grim, O., 1952. Rollschwingungen, Stabilitaet und Sicherheit im Seegang. Schiffstechnik, 1. Heft (in German). Grim, O., 1961. Beitrag zu dem Problem der Sicherheit des Schiffes im Seegang. Schiff und Hafen, No. 6 (in German). Kroeger, P., 1987. Simulation der Rollbewegung von Schiffen im Seegang. Report No. 473, Institut fuer Schiffbau, Hamburg (in German). Krueger, S., 2006. Evaluation of cargo loss of a large container carrier due to parametric roll. In: International Marine Design Conference, IMDC, Michigan. Martin, M., 1958. Roll damping due to bilge keels. Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research Report, Contract No. 1611(01). Payer, H.G., 2001. Technological and economic implications of megacontainer carriers. In: SNAME 2001 Annual Meeting. Petey, F., 1988. Ermittlung der Kentersicherheit lecker Schiffe im Seegang aus Bewegungssimulationen (Bericht Nr. 487). Institut fuer Schiffbau, Hamburg (in German). Shin, Y.S., Belenky, V.L., Paulling, J.R., Weems, K.M., Lin, W.M., 2004. Criteria for parametric roll of large containerships in longitudinal seas. In: SNAME, Maritime Technology Conference and Expo in Washington, DC, 30 September–1 October. Silva, S.R., Santos, T.A., Guedes Soares, C., 2005. Parametrically excited roll in regular and irregular head seas. International Shipbuilding Progress 52 (1), 29–56. Soeding, H., 1982. Bewegungen und Belastungen der Schiffe im Seegang. Vorlesungsmanuskript Nr. 18, Institut fuer Schiffbau der Universitaet Hamburg. Umeda, N., Hashimoto, H., Vassalos, D., Urano, S., Okou, K., 2004. Nonlinear dynamics on parametric roll resonance with realistic numerical modelling. International Shipbuilding Progress 51 (2/3), 205–220.

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