Prameya-ratnavali A Necklace of Truths By Baladeva Vidyabhusana

1. Victory to Sri Govinda, Gopinatha (lord of the cowherder irls, the opi!, "adana opala (the into#icatin cowherder!. $ shall by his race present the concise nec%lace of truths (Prameya-ratnavali!. &. "ay our attraction always stay fi#ed in that (ultimate! truth who is pleased by even the semblance of devotion (bhakti!, the overseer of dharma, whose name delivers the world, whose form is eternal 'oy, non-dual, and consciousness (nityananda, advaita, caitanya!. (. "ay the ascetic named )nandatirtha, a bastion of 'oy, whom the wise praise as a lifeboat in the ocean of transmi ration, be victorious. *. +he faultless chain of teachers is to be meditated on by the wise, by which sin lemindedness is achieved and by that the pleasure of ,ari (-rsna! arises. *a. As said in the Padma Purana: "antras that are without a tradition (of transmission! are considered fruitless. +herefore, in the ) e of -ali there will be four founders of traditions. Sri, Brahma, /udra, and Sana%a, who are earth-purifyin devotees of Visnu. +hose four shall certainly appear in the ) e of -ali from Puruottama (0a annatha! in 1rissa. *b. Sri (2a%smi! accepted /amanu'a3 the four-faced one (Brahma! (accepted! "adhvacarya3 /udra (accepted! Visnusvamin3 and the four Sanas (accepted! 4imbaditya. *c. Among them our own succession of teachers is thus: 5e praise in succession Sri -rsna, Brahma, 6evarsi (4arada!, Badarayana (Vyasa!, "adhva, Padmanabha, 4rhari, "adhava, )%sobhya, 0ayatirtha, 0nanasindhu, 6ayanidhi, Vidyanidhi, /a'endra, 0ayadharman, and also Purusottama, Brahmanya, and Vyasatirtha. +hen we worship with devotion 2a%smipati, "adhavendra, his disciples -- $svara (Puri!, )dvaita, and 4ityananda, world teachers all -- and the deity (himself!, the disciple of $svara, Sri 7aitanya, by whom, throu h the ift of love for -rsna, the world has been saved. Now the truths are indicated: 8. The moon-like Krsnacaitanya, Hari himself, teaches thus:

"adhva tau ht that Visnu is supreme and the sub'ect of all sacred te#ts, the world and difference are real, livin bein s are servants at the feet of ,ari, there is a hierarchy amon them, liberation is the attainment of the feet of Visnu, untainted worship of him is (its! cause, and the means of correct %nowled e are the three headed by direct perception.

matures nature and transforms all thin s to be ripened. alone oversees the natures (effects! and the causes (of the world!. 1 6hanan'aya ()r'una!: (8d! .#$-) said: Brahman is consciousness and 'oy. . The Va*asaneyin (+a*na)alkya in the Brhad-aranyaka Upanisad. consciousness. birth and death are destroyed. the possessor of the eternal 2a%smi. offer (thin s! to him. (8c! And in the Bhagavad-gita (%#%): +here is nothin hi her than me. So say those who %now it. (=a! And in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad: +hat one Govinda (-rsna! is the embodiment of (eternal! e#istence.b! (His) all-!er)asi)eness. etc. . -rsna alone is the supreme deity. Visnu s su!remacy as (stated) in the Gopala-tapani Upanisad: +herefore. (his) &eing the cause of all as the Svetasvatara ('#(-') says: +hat one deity. the resort ?of the %nower of Brahman@.Among those (truths). and one has all desires fulfilled. consciousness. 9rom meditation on him. (. 'oy. -rsna is considered supreme most because of bein the cause (of all!. (8b! +his one is to be %nown. the hi hest . (8a! And in the Svetasvatara Upanisad ("#""-"$): )fter %nowin the deity.. 4othin at all beyond that is to be %nown. the cause of the universe. 1ne should meditate on him. (=b! A. =.is havin a form of consciousness and 'oy is understood by means of that word >self> (atman! ?in the previous citation@ because of its derivation as the oal of the liberated. the round of <ualities li%e all-pervasiveness. (. +he possession of form of him (-rsna! who is consciousness and 'oy is to be iver of results to the iver. savor him. 5ith the witherin of afflictions. and so forth.. all fetters are destroyed. and *oy as (stated) in the Katha Upanisad ((#(): +hin%in (. consciousness. worship him. which is full of all opulence and is whole. Among those. the wise man does not lament. the 2ord who is to be worshiped. at the end of the body (one reaches! the third (abode!.a! )nd who. and 'oy.c! of the reat and all-pervadin self (atman!. the eternal situated in the self.

1Cb. all comprehendin . 1Cf. the iver of %nowled e.e who is all-%nowin . By that person is all this pervaded.> his possession of form (is established!. (Bb! 1C..urva-ta ani U anisad (18!. By >etc.1!. 9rom him ancient wisdom is manifested (*.): +he one stands in heaven erect li%e a tree. By this it is shown tan entially that there is no difference between him and his body. the resort of all. a arland of forest flowers. (Aa! B. he (both! has form and is all-pervadin and he is also that because he can be visible simultaneously to many meditators. the controller. but $ am not situated in them and also bein s are not in me.(!. The all-!er)asi)eness of e)en one who has form as (stated) in the Svetasvatara Upanisad (. (one becomes liberated from transmi ration!. )nd (his! sweetness in the "o ala. who is the before and after. And in the Tenth /anto (of the Bhagavata Purana "0#. two arms.im of whom there is no inner or outer. and bonda e to the cycle of transmi ration (. (.1. thin%in him her son. 1ne who %nows the 'oy of Brahman has no fear of anythin .#. (s%in! the color of a cloud. ((! .&. no before and after.1=!.e is! the 2ord of all. clothes the color of li htenin . in human form. &. 1Cc. the outer and inner of the universe.B. the cowherd woman tied him to a wooden mortar li%e an ordinary boy. 9rom the statement that thou h he is situated in the heavens he pervades everythin .rasped li%e a musical mode (raga! and also. 1Cd. beyond sensory e#perience. ("editatin on! the lord who has lotus-li%e eyes.#(-'): $ spread throu h all this universe with my unmanifest form.!. 5hat is meant by the word yoga (>manner> in the previous verse! is that there is unlimited ener y in the lord which is the resolver of contradictions. the friend.B.1. and the liberator as in the !vetasvatara U anisad ((. . thou h he is the unmanifest.e is! the cause of liberation from. because of his lorification with words li%e >solidified consciousness (vijnana-ghana!.1A!. (&! )nd his bein the 2ord. the posture of %nowled e. )ll bein s are in me. (Ba! And in the Bhagavad-gita (. (1! )nd bein 'oyful in the Taittiriya U anisad (&. maintenance of.> (in verse . +his is the opinion of the wise. (.#"(): . who is the universe. 1Ce. See my odly manner. 1Ca. the friend.! is meant omniscience as in the Mundaka U anisad (1.

**-*8!.> 1(. and activity. 1 best of the twice born. nimesa.B.! .> +hat the >hi her> is the Sri who is non-different from Visnu is stated there as well (1. VisnuEs three ener ies.. ?and@ another. %nowled e. full of <ualities.A.. since even amon the learned there are notions such as >time always e#ists>. So said the master ("ahaprabhu! to his reat disciples. the controller. +he characteristics are not different from the one characteriDed. the all-pervadin is -rsna.e! has a faultless fi ure. thou h pure. as in the !vetasvatara U anisad (. who thou h . She is indeed eternal. 1&e. that he is always connected with 2a%smi in the #isnu Purana (1.ancaratra.. 1(a. called the E%nower of the fieldE. is also one. who is not different from him. and abdomen that consist of pure 'oy and is in all ways free of internal distinctions.e.! )nd in the #isnu Purana (. (*! So is it said in the Narada.(. is possessed of hands. they are said to be many throu h their many self-accomplished arbs. +hou h Visnu is one and 2a%smi. devoid of body and <ualities made of unconsciousness (matter!. >+he hi her innate ener y of this one is heard of as manifold. and so forth. the refu e of all. >"ay that . the ma%er of awareness are one in you. (8! 4ow. (. so indeed is she. 1&. 1&d. the mother of the world.B!.1&. >+he master of the primordial matter (ener y! and of the %nower of the field (the livin bein !.. %astha. as in the "o ala-ta ani U aniad (1. who is the self of all embodied bein s. a third ener y. face.1. feet. 11a.&C!. (but! there is the appearance of difference because of visesa.> (.> 1&b.11. inseparable from him. +he one. stren th. >+he ma%er of 'oy. +he one amon them who is praised as the hi hest is that Sri. the lord of the una. and is self-reliant. (A! 1n VisnuEs bein many while bein only one.ari be pleased with us. the worshipable. 11b. the ma%er of bein . called i norance and %arma. 0ust as Visnu is all-pervadin . that inseparable Sri ( oddess of wealth! of Visnu. 1&c. Visnu has three ener ies.A! 1&a. $n this. is said metaphorically to be the lord of Sri ( arama! (=!3 may that Visnu be pleased with us.1C!. >VisnuEs ener y is accepted as the hi her as well as the not hi her. +he mi#ed one which causes pleasure and pain is not in you who are free of the una.> +hat this >hi her> is threefold is also stated there as well (1. (.18!. the pure one whose ener y does not fall within the power of time which is made up of %ala..

never born of nature. the od of ods. free of loss or ain. )pparently. GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG Notes 1. So. )nd in the other descents of Visnu. +hen that of 2a%smi. +he <uestion addressed here is whether all the characteristics discussed so far are different from Visnu or non-different from him. )lthou h the fullness is the same in all ?the divine forms@. *. (.> (See 1&c! 1*. +he 'oy referred to here is 'oy as a <uality as opposed to the 'oy which is the very nature of -rsna described previously. amon these descents! there should be innate fullness (in them!. +he opinion of the learned is that because of the oneness here (i. 0anardana. Sweetness is defined by one of the commentators as the performin of actions in a human form that can be accomplished only by supreme power.e.1!. +he two words sarva-jna and sarva-vit both meanin all-%nowin . was born this one became the earth. not the others. she was his companion. (1C! )nd when /ama. She fashions her own body accordin to the body of Visnu.ari became the son of )diti. the descendent of Bhr u. she is woman. -rsna is by nature 'oy that is characteriDed by bein 'oyful. and always fully aware. still there can be a hierarchy created by the manifestation or non-manifestation of his ener y. 9rom the full the full arises.. for instance. >+he hi her innate ener y of this one is heard of as manifold.one appears as many. &. she became Sita3 in -rsnaEs birth she was /u%mini. )nd a ain.> )nd in the #araha Purana. +a%in full. 1*b. $f they are different from him then all of away the full of the . 1(b. she was born from the lotus. 1*c. full of the hi hest 'oy. 8.> 4ow that of Sri. the full alone remains. 5hen he is a od she has a oddessE body and when he is a man. )ll are full of all <ualities and free of all flaws.> 18. >+hat is full3 this is full. )s an e#ample he ives -rsnaEs suc%in on the breast of the witch Putana li%e an ordinary child and yet suc%in out her life. when . >+hus as the "aster of the Fniverse. 1*a. (11! 5hen he was /ama.1. as in the #isnu Purana. so does his companion Sri. as in the #ajasaneyaka($rhad Aranyaka. it is one thin to be made of 'oy and another to be 'oyful in the same way that it is one thin to be made of consciousness and another to be conscious. 1ne commentator says that the first means %nowin everythin in eneral and the second means %nowin all thin s in particular. >)ll the bodies of that supreme self are eternal and everlastin . (B! +hus the fullness of Visnu in all ?forms@. ma%es descents. +hose steadfast ones who worship him on the altar have endurin happiness.

#isesa means >distinction> or >peculiar attribute>. . was %nown as Padma. +he sunEs romantic relationship with the lotus flower (lotus flowers blossom durin the day! has been stuff of Sans%rit poetry for centuries. it manifests as dual.is consort in that birth was 6harani (2a%smi in the form of the earth! accordin to the commentary Prabha. +here are three %inds of difference. +his statement implies that since VisnusEs ener y does not fall under the power of time because it is not different from him3 it is eternal as he is eternal. then how can he be called the lord of SriH $f Visnu and Sri are non-different. +he son of Bhr u is Parasurama.is consort. $n VisnuEs case there is no internal difference between him and his body or him and his <ualities. so does the lord throu h different meditations>. but not (real! difference. +ranslated by 4eal 6elmonico (4itai 6as! . .ancaratra it is said. but appear to be so throu h the action of visesa. they differ in terms of the how much or how many of the <ualities they manifest. 11.1(! B. +he problem posed and answered by this statement is that if Visnu is said to be pure. +his idea different from the cate ory of the same name in 4yaya ($ndian 2o ic! that serves to distin uish eternal substances and atomic particles from each other. 8. yellow.. +he e#amples are >time always is> and >e#istence e#ists>. >0ust as a 'ewel by parts is possessed of blue. who accordin to the myth unburdened the earth of the members of warrior class twenty-one times. =.ere it is defined by both commentators as the surro ate of difference. a visesa causes the perception of difference where there is no difference. the a#e wieldin /ama. however. . born out of a lotus.1. 2astly. $n 4yaya a visesa is what ma%es two atomic particles that are otherwise indistin uishable different. . there is internal (sva-gata! difference li%e the difference between the flowers and fruit of the man o tree. $n the Narada. &. how can one of them be said to be the lord of the otherH +he author of the #isnu Purana says that such statements are to be ta%en metaphorically only. yellow.they do not accord with some statements of revealed scripture ( %atha U&. +he first is difference amon thin s of the same type (sajatiya! li%e the difference between man o and 'ac%-fruit. )ll of the various forms or descents (avatara! of Visnu and 2a%smi are full or complete. and so forth and thus assumes different forms. then. +he second is difference between thin s of different types ( vijatiya! li%e the difference between man o and stone. and so forth. +hus thou h the hi hest truth is one. +he >son of )diti> means the Vamana or >dwarf> descent of Visnu. (%antimala on 1.1*. +he answer is that all the characteristics are really not different from Visnu. +he 'ewel here is the Vaidurya 'ewel which has <ualities of blue. 1C. as the hi hest male and as the hi hest female. supports the non-difference of Visnu and Sri and is thus cited by the author of this te#t as the authority for his assertion of that non-difference. for instance! and if they are non-different then the non-<ualified absolute which is denied in this tradition is supported. . )ditya is also a name for the sun and VamanaEs three steps have been reco niDed as the course of the sun by some scholars. +hese are some of the units into which time is divided. By attributin time to time or e#istence to e#istence the statements create the appearance of difference between the sub'ect and predicate where in fact there is no difference. that is unmi#ed or undivided. A.ere. 4evertheless. +he Purana.