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In-depth interview
The in-depth interview is a qualitative method of analysis, which proceeds as a confidential and secure conversation between an interviewer and a respondent. By means of a thorough composed interview guide, which is approved by the client, the interviewer ensures that the conversation encompasses the topics that are crucial to ask for the sake of the purpose and the issue of the survey.

The method of the in-depth interview is appropriate if you need to gain an insight into individual evaluations of specific material. This method is the right one to choose if the primary objective with the survey, for example is to evaluate a new packaging, an advertisement or a storyboard. Namely the method can produce very precise and specific answers as well as an exhaustive and varied knowledge about individual determined experiences, opinions and motives, which the group interview and the quantitative methods cannot encompass.

The method of the in-depth interview is also appropriate if your subject and issue are in the nature of something controversial, sensitive or tabooed. One of the advantages of the in-depth interview is that there is time for the respondent, in peace, to further develop and give reasons for his or hers individual point of views - without being influenced by the opinions of other respondents. Apart from that the method typical involves different techniques which encompass spontaneous, emotional and perhaps unconscious circumstances within the respondent.

The completion of an in-depth interview
An in-depth interview most often takes place in a private home, where the respondent is in his or hers natural surroundings. In this way, the respondent is relaxed and therefore open and willing to reply to the exhaustive questions. An in-depth interview typically varies between 1½ and 2 hours and is recorded on tape or video for the sake of the following analysis and the writing of the report. For the sake of the respondents, these recordings are deleted half a year after at the latest.

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fy393

Conducting an In-depth Interview1
Lisa A. Guion, David C. Diehl, and Debra McDonald
2

In-depth interviews are a useful qualitative data collection technique that can be used for a variety of purposes, including needs assessment, program refinement, issue identification, and strategic planning. In-depth interviews are most appropriate for situations in which you want to ask open-ended questions that elicit depth of information

Questions need to be worded so that respondents expound on the topic. The interviewer should try to interpret what is being said and should seek clarity and understanding throughout the interview. Good interviewers are observant. 5. Although it is important to pre-plan the key questions. the interview should also be conversational. but systematically recording and documenting the responses to probe for deeper meaning and understanding. Paraphrasing also has the added benefit of forcing a speaker to focus wholly on the conversation. Human interactions are complex and people’s responses to questions are rarely predictable. It is important to use active listening skills to reflect upon what the speaker is saying. Skills and Attributes of the Interviewer A skilled qualitative interviewer should be: 1. In sum. then they are less likely to openly share their opinions. Recording Responses. For example. Allow the respondent to speak freely and open up at a pace that is personally comfortable. A good listener. Patient. body language. field notes) by the interviewer. By paying attention to tone and emotional content. with questions flowing from previous responses when possible. so good interviewers can think on their feet. “How do you feel about the candidates involved?” Seek Understanding and Interpretation. 4. which allows the interviewer to deeply explore the respondent’s feelings and perspectives on a subject.  Reflecting back to the speaker the emotions inherent in the message.” an appropriate response would be. not just answer “yes” or “no.from relatively few people (as opposed to surveys. thus limiting distractions. and immediate personal reflections about the interview. Open-minded. and tone of voice.” which gives respondents freedom to answer the questions using their own words. Flexible and responsive. qualitative interviews are excellent tools to use in planning and evaluating Extension programs because they use an open-ended. If interviewees perceive that they are being judged or evaluated. A good listener is one who listens actively. Observant. Any conclusions that need to be made can be 2.e. This paper provides a brief introduction to in-depth interviewing as a tool for collecting rich information that can inform program development and evaluation. Judgment or criticism can act as barriers to communication. . if an interviewee remarks that “The elections are approaching. written in a journal after the interview is over. in-depth interviews involve not only asking questions. so it is important to maintain openness during the interview process. using strategies such as:  Attending fully to what the speaker is saying by focusing wholly on what is being said. the interviewer can gain a greater understanding of the messages being delivered. This results in rich background information that can shape further questions relevant to the topic. 3.. and make sure that the core purpose is being served. Semi-structured Format. The key characteristics of in-depth interviews are the following:     Open-ended Questions.” Many open-ended questions begin with “why” or “how.  Paraphrasing what the speaker is saying to confirm to the speaker that the listener is actually listening and that the message conveyed is the message received. discovery-oriented method. The responses are typically audio-recorded and complemented with written notes (i. What is an In-depth Interview? In-depth. which tend to be more quantitative and are conducted with larger numbers of people). Written notes include observations of both verbal and non-verbal behaviors as they occur. Active listening requires the listener to give full attention to the speaker until either the message has been received or the speaker has finished speaking. picking up subtle cues such as facial expressions. respond to challenges.

ask for feedback and continue with different topics until active listening becomes a natural way of interacting. interviewing. An interview guide that includes the key topics and questions will be your formalized plan for collecting information. you should design a way to elicit this information through the interview process. Transcribing involves creating a verbatim text of each interview by writing out each question and response using the audio recording. In the beginning of the interview. along with a blank space on the right side of the page for written observations The post-interview comment sheet. designing. analyzing. and put the respondent at ease. Analyzing involves re-reading the interview transcripts to identify themes emerging from the respondents’ answers. Thus. it can take a lot of practice to learn. and place of the interview. Or. The interview guide should be designed to help the interviewer focus on topics that are important to explore. maintain consistency across interviews with different respondents. your desire may be to use in-depth interviewing to complement other methods of evaluating your program. explain the purpose of the study. which are placed on the left side of the page. and stay on track during the interview process. Conducting an In-depth Interview Kvale (1996) details seven stages of conducting in-depth interviews: thematizing. Stage 2: Designing. it is important to practice active listening on a friend or colleague. and demographic information about the respondent being interviewed The interview questions. The first question is whether you are using the interview for program planning. which is used to record the time. and reporting. these notes should include feelings. Once you have decided on your general purpose. If the interviews raise more questions than they answer. date. prior to conducting an in-depth interview. In this stage. and other comments that arose during the interview Stage 3: Interviewing. and properly labeled in a separate column or category. You can use your topics and questions to organize your analysi s. it is important to make introductions. Stage 1: Thematizing. it is important to clarify the purpose of the interviews. which is a place to write notes after the interview. then more interviews may be necessary to properly examine the issue at hand. verifying. Begin by instructing a friend to talk about a topic of interest and practice your active listening strategies during the conversation. . See “Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide” in the References and Resources section for a sample interview guide. then you can pinpoint the key information you want to gather through the in-depth interview process. Stage 4: Transcribing. in essence synthesizing the answers to the questions you have proposed. If you plan to audio record the session. special conditions or circumstances that may affect the interview. Afterward. Your main res ponsibility is to listen and observe as you guide the respondent through a conversation until all of the important issues on the interview guide are explored. 3. 2. obtain the respondent’s permission and test the equipment to make sure it is working properly. For example. The facesheet.Although active listening sounds easy. Please see the earlier section on “Skills and Attributes of the Interviewer” for guidance on how to conduct good interviews. After you determine what you want to know. you may want to use in-depth interviews as part of the needs assessment process by interviewing key members of the target audience and/or influential stakeholders. Stage 5: Analyzing. interpretations. The interviewer’s side notes should also be included in the transcription. The three basic parts of the interview guide are as follows: 1. transcribing.

K.. While timeconsuming and labor-intensive. For example. & Neale.J. and other household members. NJ: John Wiley & Sons. M... Y. Verifying involves checking the credibility of the information gathered and a method called triangulation is commonly used to achieve this purpose. K. Qualitative Research Methods: A Data Collector’s Field Guide.htm Rubin. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Josselson.G.. Kvale. Online. M. Thousand Oaks. Lincoln. If the notes agree.pdf [29 June 2012]. (2011). http://www.. (2004). Charmaz. (2005). R. CA: Sage Publications. a study that uses triangulation to examine the outcomes of a Parenting Communication class would require researchers to interview at least three groups of participants: parents.aidsmark.. Newbury Park. http://www. Designing and Conducting Your First Interview Project. and then compare notes. Mack. Conducting In-depth interviews: A Guide for Designing and Conducting In-depth Interviews for Evaluation Input. S.. Online. in-depth interviews can provide rich data to inform Extension programming. & Namey. Summary When you want to gather rich data about Extension programs. McMullen. Five Ways of Doing Qualitative Research. (2006). CA: Sage Publications. Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data (2nd ed. Friesen. C. Woodsong. P. Finally. Kim (2004). (1996). I. Stage 7: Reporting. C. & Guba. E. S. Listening: The Forgotten Skill (A self-teaching guide). CA: Sage. it is important to share results from the in-depth interviews with internal and external stakeholders through a written or oral report. Donoghue.org/en/RH/Pubs/booksReports/QRM_datacoll. .org/site/DocServer/m_e_tool_series_indepth_interviews. these reports should describe not only the results. (2005). then the information is credible. Longsfield. Wertz. Triangulation involves using multiple perspectives to interpret a single set of information. IN: Sorin Books.org/ipc_en/pdf/manual/14_ResearchToolkit-Ch6-In-Depth-Interviews. R. and in-depth interviews provide the structure to ensure that these conversations are both well-organized and well-suited to your purpose. J. E. Notre Dame. Thousand Oaks.E. MacQueen. G.). N. Anderson. Guest. & Siegel. Hoboken..pathfind. http://www. L.. New York: Guilford Press. Are You Really Listening? Keys to Successful Communication . P. When respondents see the information being used.Stage 6: Verifying.pdf?docID=6301 Burley-Allen. B.fhi. H. (1995). then the information that results is considered valid. F.S. (1985). E. in-depth interviews can be a valuable tool to guide your work. Online. Naturalistic Inquiry. (2010). & Rubin. but how the results will shape future work. Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing . & McSpadden.. A simpler way to use triangulation in a study would be to have two colleagues read and analyze the same set of transcripts. they are more likely to participate in future data collection efforts. References and Resources Boyce. children. In-depth Interviews. There really is no substitute for face-to-face communication. When each participant says the same thing in the interviews.

University of Florida. University of Florida. Youth and Community Sciences. mencari hal-hal yang pokok. disability. Dean. Diehl and Debra McDonald. Immersion in the data Dalam proses ini peneliti membaca dan membaca kembali catatan. Cooperative Extension Service. color. former faculty member. Florida A. 1. University of Florida. one of a series of the Department of Family. melihat kembali catatan observasi dan pengalaman. Department of Agriculture. Visit the EDIS website at http://edis. Lisa A Guion. Place. University Cooperative Extension Program. Revised January 2006. revised by David C. David C. 3. IFAS. Nick T. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. project coordinator. Guion.S. FL 32611. transkrip.edu. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. age. assistant professor. political opinions or affiliations.dan memperoleh hal-hal penting dalam elemen data. Department of Family. This document is FCS6012. sex. perubahan suara. creed. Mentranskrip Wawancara Hasil wawancara dalam tape recorder ditranskripsikan ke dalam kata demi kata. Gainesville. Diehl. 4. Debra McDonald. sexual orientation.ufl. religion. dan jeda antara peneliti dan partisipan. & M. Analysis Data . 2. marital status. Original publication date October 2001.Footnotes 1. Reduksi Data Reduksi Data adalah pemilahan data kasar. Transkrip data dibuat segera setelah wawancara dengan mendengarkan dengan seksama nada suara. mendengarkan tape recorder hingga peneliti terbenam dalam data. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Youth and Community Sciences. national origin. former faculty member. Original written by Lisa A. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research. 2. educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with nondiscrimination with respect to race. Florida Cooperative Extension Service. August 2011. For more information on obtaining other extension publications.ifas. U. contact your county Cooperative Extension service.

d. Memo menggerakkan peneliti ke arah teori dan konseptual daripada faktual. Kapanpun ide tersebut muncul .Ada beberapa tekhnik yang dilakukan dalam analisa data yakni: a. dan memberi nama kategori tersebut yang akan merefleksikan filosofi dasar yang digunakan dalam penelitian. Peneliti akan mengembangkan prasangka tentang hubungan yang dapat diformulasikan dalam proporsi sementara. e. . Pemikiran tersebut secara umum termasuk ke dalam catatan dan terpisah dari catatan lain yang di dalam tanda kurung. Marginal remarks Setelah catatan diperiksa. Developing propositions Saat penelitian terus berkembang. b. Hal yang penting adalah nilai setiap ide dan mendapatkannya tertulis dengan cepat. Memoing dikembangkan oleh peneliti untuk merekam pengetahuan yang mendalam atau ide yang berhubungan dengan catatan transkrip atau code. Coding artinya mengkategorikan dimana peneliti mengorganisasikan data. walaupun hal itu samar dan pemikiran tidak baik. pemikiran atau pengetahuan mendalam seringkali timbul secara tidak disadari. partisipan. Kata-kata tersebut biasanya ditulis di margin kanan dari catatan dan seringkali berhubungan dengan bagian lain dari data atau mengusulkan sebuah intrepretasi yang baru. c. menyeleksi elemen yang spesifik dari data untuk dikategorikan. tindakan dan peristiwa akan mulai dimunculkan. Peneliti dapat membuat hubungan (link) bagian dari data bersama atau bagian khusus dari data sebagai contoh dari ide konseptual. Reflective remarks Saat catatan sudah direkam. tetap harus tertulis secepatnya. observasi tentang catatan tersebut perlu untuk ditulis secepatnya. hubungan antara kategori.

Namun ketika membuat pertimbangan kualitas . 1994). Ide map berasal dari kode (konsep) dan hubungan diatara kode (konsep) dari taped interview yang peneliti dengarkan berulang-ulang.Pernyataan atau proporsi dapat ditulis dalam index cards dan diringkas menjadi kategori atau disimpan dalam komputer. program grafik atau program dekstop publishing. Prosedur ini didesain untuk meringkas dari proses coding. Cognitive Mapping Cognitive map adalah representasi visual dari informasi yang diberikan partisipan dan merupakan konseptualisasi dan interpretasi yang dibuat oleh peneliti kualitatif. Counting Penelitian kualitatif cenderung menghindari penggunaan angka. Display Data Display data berisi versi singkat dari hasil penelitian kualitatif yang sepadan dengan ringkasan tabel statistik yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian kuantitatif dan menperkenankan peneliti untuk mendapatkan ide utama dari penelitian dengan ringkas. . dan menginterpretasikan ke dalam satu aktifitas. Teknik yang digunakan yakni : a. counting terjadi dan peneliti dapat menggunakan bentuk “seringkali (frequently)” atau “lebih sering (more often)”. 6. Display dapat dikembangakan relatif lebih mudah dengan spreadsheets. Daftar yang sudah dikerjakan dapat diprint dan didikusikan dengan pembimbing. Sesuatu dapat dipertimbangkan menjadi penting atau signifikan (Miles and Huberman. Taktik tersebut meliputi : a. Drawing and Verifiying Conclusion Miles and Huberman (1994) mengidentifikasi 12 taktik untuk menggambarkan dan memverifikasi kesimpulan dimana dalam penggunaan nantinya akan bergantung pada hasil data dan analisis yang diperoleh. mengkategorikan. 5.

Yang paling sulit adalah mencari bukti tambahan yang nyata saat kembali untuk mengkonfirmasi bukti tersebut. Untuk mengkluster objek. Metaphor juga merupakan pereduksi data yang termasuk mengeneralisasi bentuk khusus. Ketika ditanya bagaimana menjadi masuk akal. atau perilaku ke dalam grup. Making Metaphors yakni menggunakan bahasa kiasan untuk memberikan kesan suka atau analogi sebuah ide yang digunakan dalam tempat yang lain.b. Noting Patterns and Themes Orang dapat dengan mudah mengidentifikasi bentuk. decentering devices dan penghubung penemuan teori. Ketika intuisi terjadi. Intuisi ini penting untuk peneliti kualitatif dan kuantitatif. orang. Bentuk yang teridentifikasi haruslah bersifar subjektif dari ketidakpercayaan dari peneliti dan orang lain c. d. Namun. e. hati-hati menguji data untuk memverifikasi validitas dari intuisi tersebut (Miles & Hoberman. nampak “masuk akal” tidak dapat berdiri sendiri namun “masuk akal” juga harus merupakan hasil analisis sistematik. peneliti akan menjawab bahwa “itu terasa benar (just feel right)”. seseorang harus mengkonseptalisasi mereka dengan bentuk atau karakteristik yang sama. Metaphor memberikan gambaran yang kuat dalam rasa yang menunjukkan kekuatan makna komunikasi. 1994). Splitting Variables penting selama stage analisis untuk memperbolehkan pengujian yang lebih detil dari proses yang terjadi. Clustering merupakan proses menyingkat elemen ke dalam kategori atau grup. tema. jika variabel tidak berhubungan dengan baik dengan framework. f. Selama membentuk teori . dan gestalts dari observasi mereka. Seeing Plausibility dimana selama analisis biasanya sebuah kesimpulan terlihat masuk akal. mungkin harus dipisahkan agar .

j. . Subsuming particulars into general hampir sama dengan clustering yang memasukkan bagian yang serumpun bersama. 1994). l. Building a logical chain of evidence termasuk dalam menguji teori. Finding intervening variables merupakan proses untuk menemukan faktor yang menghalangi atau menganggu variabel. Bagian akhir dari penelitian kualitatif adalah harus melaporkan ekspresi dari ide teori yang timbul dari data analisis. Noting relationships beetween variabel penting untuk memverifikasi hubungan yang nyata yang terjadi guna menjelaskan hubungan tersebut. dan pengalaman lingkungan dimana data dikumpulkan. Making conseptual/ theorical coherence dimana teori yang peneliti peroleh dari analisis harus berhubungan dengan teori lain yang ada dalam body of knowledge. g. setting. 7. h. pengamatan. Factoring diambil dari prosedur kuantitatif dimana daftar karakteristik apakah merupakan tema utama yang mempermudah dalam menjelaskan apa yang terjadi dengan jelas. i. Melaporkan Hasilnya Dalam penelitian kualitatif. k. seksi pertama dari hasil laporan adalah deskripsi yang detil dari partisipan. Deskripsi harus hidup sehingga pembaca dan pendengar akan merasa meraka bersama dengan peneliti.lebih koheren dalam mengintegrasikan model untuk dikembangkan (Miles & Huberman.