# Code No:220802

II.B.Tech II-Semester. Supplementary Examinations. January,2003
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours. Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks.
---
1. Explain the following and give two examples of each
a) (i) Extensive and Intensive properties.
(ii) Reversible and irreversible processes.
(iii) State function and path function.
b) Water flows through a horizontal coil heated from the outside by high temperature
flue gases. As it passes through the coil, the water changes state from 2 atm
(202.66 KPa) and 180
o
F (82.2
o
C) to 1 atm (101.33 KPa) and 250
o
F (121.1
o
C).
Its entering velocity is 10 ft/sec (3.05 m/s) and its exit velocity is 600 ft/s
(182.9 m/s) Determine the heat transferred through the coil per unit mass of
water. Enthalpies of the inlet and outlet water streams are
inlet = 148 Btu/lbm (344.2 KJ/kg)
output = 1168.8 Btu/lbm (2718.5 KJ/kg)
2. a) Explain the application of cubic equations of state.
b) Determine the molar volume of n-butane at 510
o
K and 25 bar by each of the
following.
(i) The ideal gas equation
(ii) The generalized compressibility factor correlation
(iii) The generalized virial - coefficient correlation.
3. a) If 10 moles of ethylene is heated from 200
o
C to 1000
o
C in a steady flow process
at approximately atmospheric pressure. What is its entropy change. Give that,
A = 1.424; B = 14.394 x 10
-3
; C = -4.392 x 10
-6
; D = 0.
b) One mole of an ideal gas is compressed isothermally but irreversibly at 400 K
from 3 bar to 7 bar in a piston cylinder device. The work required is 35% greater
than the work of irreversible isothermal compression. The heat transferred from
the gas during compression flows to a heat reservoir at 300 K. Calculate the
entropy changes of gas, reservoir and ∆ S total.
4. a) For acetone at 20
o
C and 1 bar β = 1.487x10
-3
/
0
C

, K = 62X10
-6
/bar,
V = 1.287
gm
cm
3
Find (i) The value of
v
T
P

,
`

.
|

(ii) The pressure generated when acetone is heated at constant volume from
20
o
C and 1 bar to 30
o
C.
(iii) The volume change when acetone is changed from 20
o
C and 1 bar to 0
o
C
and 10 bar
Contd…….2
Set No:
1
Code No:220802 -2- Set No:1
b) Show that
(i)

,
`

.
|
+

,
`

.
|

·

,
`

.
|

p T H
C
T
P
V
P
V

P P
C
V
T
V

,
`

.
|

2

P
T
V

,
`

.
|

(ii)
S
OT P T
P C
T
A
v
v
s

,
`

·
,
`

.
|

/ (
5. a) Derive Maxwell’s equations, explain their importance.
b) Estimate V
R
, H
R
and S
R
for steam at 200
o
C and 1400 kpa by using generalized
correlations. Given that T
C
= 647.3 K, P
C
= 220.5 bar, V
C
= 56 cm
3
/mol
W = 0.344.
6. Calculate Z and V for methanol vapour at 200
o
C and 10 bar by the following
equations.
a) A truncated virial equation
2
1
V
C
V
B
RT
PV
Z + + · · with the following values of
virial coefficients, B = -219 cm
3
/mol, C = -17,300 cm
6
/mol.
b) The truncated virial equation
RT
BP
RT
PV
Z + · · 1 with a value of B from the
generalized pidzer correlation.
c) The Red lich -Kwong equation with estimates of a and b given, T
c
= 512.6K,
P
c
= 81 bar W = 0.564.
7. a) Explain about the variations of heat capacity of a substance with temperature.
b) How much heat would be absorbed or released from hydrogenation of acetylene
to ethane at standard conditions.
C
2
H
2
(g) + 2H
2
(g) C
2
H
6
(g)
(i) Use heat of combustion data
(ii) Use heat of formation data.
Combustion data at 25
o
C : C
2
H
2
: ∆H
o
C
= -310620 cal/gm
C
2
H
6
: ∆H
o
C
= -372820 cal/gm
H
2
: ∆H
o
C
= -68317 cal/gm
Heat of formation data at 25
o
C:
C
2
H
2
: ∆H
ƒ
= 54194 cal/g.mole
C
2
H
6
: ∆H
ƒ
= -20236 cal/g.mole
8. Write short notes on any two of the following.
(i) Phase rule and criterion for equilibrium.
(ii) Heat effects of Industrial reactions.
(iii) Thermodynamic properties of an ideal bas.
@@@@@
Code No:220802
II.B.Tech II-Semester. Supplementary Examinations. January,2003
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours. Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks.
---
1. a) State the first law of thermodynamics. Obtain an expression for first law of
thermodynamics for a steady state flow process.
b) A particular substance undergoes a mechanically reversible process, expanding
from an initial state of 20 bar to final state of 8 bar. The path for the process is
described by the equation
( )
4
036 . 0
− ·
t
V
P
where P is in bar and V
t
is in m
3
.
If
t
V ∆
for the change of state is -1400J, determine W, a and
t
H ∆
.
2. Air is compressed from an initial condition of 1 bar and 25
o
C to a final state of 5
bar and 25
o
C by three different mechanically reversible processes.
(a) Heating at constant volume followed by cooling at constant pressure.
(b) Isothermal compression.
( c) Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at constant volume. At these
conditions air may be considered as an ideal gas with the constant heat capacities
C
v
=
,
`

.
|
2
5
R and C
P
=
,
`

.
|
2
7
R. Calculate the work required, heat transferred and
the changes in the internal energy and enthalpy of air for each process.
3. Calculate the molar volume of saturated liquid and the molar volume of saturated
vapor by the Redlich Kwong equation for the propose at 40
o
C where P
sat
= 13.7
bar.
Given that, T
C
= 369.8K, P
C
= 42.5 bar, W = 0.152, V
C
= 203 cm
3
/mol,
Z
C
= 0.281.
4.a) What are the different statements of second law of thermodynamics. Show that
the efficiency of an irreversible heat engine is always than of a reversible heat
engine.
b) One kilogram of water at the constant pressure of 1 atm, raised from 25
o
C to the
boiling point and then completely vapourized at this pressure. What is the
entropy change of the given process. Latent heat of vaporization at 1 atm is
2257 kJ/kg, C
P
= 4.184
kgK
kJ
Contd……2
Set No:
2
Code No:220802 -2- Set No:2
5. Show that
(i) dH = C
P
dT +
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

P
T
V
T U dP and
dv = C
V
dt +
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

P
T
P
T dV
(iii) C
P
-C
V
= - T
V
UT
UP

,
`

.
|
2
P
UT
UV

,
`

.
|
6. If heat in the amount of 13,00 KJ is added to 40 mol of SO
2
initially at 400
0
C in a
steady state flow process at approximately atmospheric pressure, what is its
entropy change.
For SO
2
: A = 5.699, B = 0.801 x 10
3
, C = 0, D = -1.015x10
-5
7. A particular power plant operates with the heat source reservoir at 300
0
C and a
heat sink reservoir at 25
0
C
,
it has a thermal efficiency equal to 60% of the carnot
engine thermal efficiency for the same temperature.
a) What is the thermal efficiency of the plant
b) To what temperature must the heat source reservoir be raised to increase the
thermal efficiency of plant to 40%, again efficiency is 60% of cannot engine value
.
8. Answer any TWO of the following:
a) State the difference between state function and path function with examples.
b) Enumerate the characteristics of a reversible process.
c) What is the final temperature when 0.4x10
6
(Btu) are added to 25 (lb mol) 8
ammonia initially at (500
0
F) in a steady flow process at 1 atm.
Data: A = 3.578, B = 3.020x10
-3
, C = 0 , D = -0.186 x 10
5
.
********
Code No:220802
II.B.Tech II-Semester. Supplementary Examinations. January,2003
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours. Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks.
---
1.a) Distinguish between state function and path function.
b) Distinguish between a reversible process and an irreversible process.
c) A certain gas obeys the relation
,
`

.
|
+
2
V
a
P (V-b) = RT where a,b and R are
constants. Derive a relation for the work done by the gas when it changes from
V
1
, T to V
2
, T.
2.a) State the first law of thermodynamics. Derive an expression for first law of
thermodynamics for a steady-state flow process.
b) For one mole of an ideal gas undergoing reversible adiabatic process, show that
PV
r
= constant. Where r = C
P
/C
v
.
3.a) One kilo mole of methane is stored in a 0.3m
3
tank at 300
0
K. Estimate the
pressure of the gas using ideal gas law and Redlich-Kwong equation of state.
T
C
= 190.6
o
K P
C
= 4.6 MPa
b) State Two parameter and three parameter law of corresponding states. Explain
Pitzer’s modification to law of corresponding states.
4.a) What do you mean by criterion of Exactness? Using criterion of Exactness derive
the four Maxwell relations.
b) Consider S=S(T,P) and S=S(T,V) and derive the following relations:
(i) T ds = C
p
dT -
Τ V β
dp
(ii) T ds = C
V
dT +
K

dV
5.a) A Turbine in a steam power plant operating under steady state receives 1 kg/s
super heated steam at 3.0 MPa and 300
0
C. The steam enters the turbine with a
velocity of 10 m/s at an elevation of 5 m above the ground level. The Turbine
discharges wet steam 50 KPa pressure with a velocity of 50 m/s at an elevation of
10m above the ground level. The energy losses as heat from the Turbine casing
are estimated to be 10 KJ/s. Estimate the power output of the Turbine.
Enthalpy of super heated steam at 3 MPa and 300
o
C = 2993.5
kg
kJ
Enthalpy of wet steam at 50 kPa = 2300.08 kJ/kg.
Contd….2
Set No:
3
Code No;220802 -2- Set No:3
b) An ideal gas (r=1.4) at 0.1 MPa and 300
o
K enters an adiabatic compressor at the
rate of 1 mol/s and leves at 750
o
K. Calculate the power consumed by the
compressor.
6.a) A reversible heat engine A absorbs energy from a reservoir at T
1
and rejects energy
to a reservoir at T
2
. A second reversible engine B absorbs the same amount of
energy as rejected by the engine A from the reservoir at T
2
and rejects energy to a
reservoir at T
3
. What is the relation between T
1
, T
2
and T
3
if:
(i) The efficiencies of engines A and B are same.
(ii) The work delivered by the engines are same
One mole of Nitrogen Cr=1.4) at 0.1 MPa and 300
o
K. has been subjected to a
series of processes as a result of which it reached the state P=0.5 MPa and 600
0
K
Determine the change in Entropy of Nitrogen. Nitrogen may be treated as an ideal
gas.
7.a) An insulated and rigid container is divided into two compartments. care
compartment contains 2 kmol Melium at 1.0 MPa and 600
0
K, while the second
compartment contains 5 Kmol air at 2.0 MPa and 500
0
K. The partition is
punctured and the gases are allowed to mix. Calculate the entropy change
associated with this process. Helium and air may be treated as ideal gases.
C
V
(He) = 1.5 R kJ/Kmol

-
0
K and C
V
(air) = 2.5 R kJ|kmol-
0
K.
b) Explain phase rule with suitable examples.
8.a) Calculate the standard heat of the following reaction at 1000
0
K.
2 SO
2
(g) + O
2
(g)

2 SO
3
(g)
Data: C
P
0
(SO
2
) = 47.38 x 10
-3
+ 6.66x10
-6
T
C
P
0
(SO
3
) = 67.01 x 10
-3
+ 8.78x10
-6
T
C
P
0
(O
2
) = 30.25 x 10
-3
+ 4.21x10
-6
T
Where C
P
o
denotes the molar heat capacity in the ideal gas state and is given in
kJ/mole -
0
K.
Take ∆ H
0
f 298
= - 197.78 kJ.
b) Define:
(i) Standard heat of reaction
(ii) Standard heat of formation.
*********
Code No:220802
II.B.Tech II-Semester. Supplementary Examinations. January,2003
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS
(Chemical Engineering)
Time: 3 hours. Max.Marks:80
Answer any FIVE questions
All questions carry equal marks.
--
1.a) Define the following terms:
(i) Enthalpy (ii) Internal energy (iii) Gibbs energy (iv) Helmholtz free energy
b) Explain phase rule. Give suitable examples.
c) Distinguish between state function and path function.
d) State Zero’th law of thermodynamics.
e) Distinguish between closed system and open system
2.a) Heat in the amount of 5 kJ is added to a system while its internal energy decreases
by 10 kJ. How much energy is transferred as work? For a process causing the
same change of state but for which work is zero how much heat is transferred?
b) What do you mean by an intensive property and extensive property.
c) State the first law of thermodynamics. Derive an expression for first law of
thermodynamics for a steady state flow process.
3. An ideal gas C
P
=
2
5R
and C
V
=
2
3R
is changed from P
1
= 1 bar and V
1
= 10 m
3
to P
2
= 10 bar and V
2
= 1 m
3

by the following mechanically reversible processes:
a) Isothermal compression
b) Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at constant pressure.
c) Adiabatic compression followed by cooling at constant volume
d) Heating at constant volume followed by cooling at constant pressure
calculate Q,W, H U ∆ ∆ , for each of these processes.
4.a) Show that the vander waals constants a and b are given by :
a =
C
P
C T R
64
27
2 2
and b =
C
C
P
RT
8
b) What is a cubic equation of state ? Give few examples for cubic equations of state.
c) An empirical equation, PV = constant, where δ is a constant B sametimes used to
relate P and V for any mechanically reversible process. Assuming the validity of
this equation for an ideal gas, show that:
ω
=
1
1
− δ
RT
]
]
]
]
]

,
`

.
|

δ
δ 1
1
2
1
P
P
Contd……..2
Set No:
4
Code No:220802 -2- Set No:4
5.a) Starting from Fundamentals, derive the four Maxwell relations.
b) (i) Consider h = h (T,P) and derive the following relation:
dh =C
P
dT + V (1-T
β
) dp
(ii) Consider u = u (T,V) and show that :
du = C
V
dT +
,
`

.
|
− P
K

dv
6.a) Derive the clausius clapeyron equation and write down the assumptions involved
in it.
b) An insulated container has 1 kg super cooled liquid water at -10
0
C. Suppose a
negligible amount of ice is added as a seed to aid solidification. Calculate the
mass of water which solidifies and the change in Entropy associated with the
process C
P
of water is 4.2 kJ/kg -
0
K and the latent heat of fusion of water at 0
0
C
is 333.43 kJ/kg.
c) A carnot Engine I operates between two reservoirs at Temperatures 2000
0
K and T
, while carnot Engine II operates between the reservoirs at T and 300
0
K. If is
found that both the Engines have the same efficiency. Determine the value of T.
7.a) Explain the Thermodynamic analysis of a Nozzle
b) Saturated steam at 175 KPa is compressed adiabatically in a centrifugal
compressor to 650 KPa at the rate of 1.5 kg/s. The compressor efficiency is 75%.
What is the power requirement of the compressor and what are the Enthalpy and
Entropy of the steam in its final state?
8. Calculate the Theoretical Flame temperature when methane at 25
0
C is burned
with 50%. Excess air preheated to 500
0
C.
Date:
i A Bx10
3
Cx10
6
Dx10
-5
∆ H
f
,J/mole
O
2
3.639 0.506 0.0 -0.227 -----
N
2
3.280 0.593 0.0 0.040 -----
CH
4
1.702 9.081 -2.164 0.0 -74520
CO
2
5.457 1.045 0.0 -1.157 -393509
H
2
O(g) 3.47 1.45 0.0 0.121 -241818
*********