# Set No. Code No:221101 II B.Tech.

, II Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time:3 hours Max Marks:80 Answer any Five Questions All questions carry equal marks. ---1.a) State and prove Bayes theorem of probability. b) In a single throw of two dice, what is the probability of obtaining a sum of at least 10? 2.a) b) A fair coin is tossed three times and the faces showing up are observed.(i)Write the Sample description space (ii) If X is the number of heads in each of the outcomes of this experiment, find the probability function. (iii) Sketch the CDF and pdf. The continuous random variable X has a p.d.f. f(x)= x/2, 0≤x≤2.Two independent determinations of X are made. What is the probability that both these determinations will be greater than one. If three independent determinations are made What is the probability that exactly two of these are larger than one? If a Random variable X has variance of σx2 & if Y=ax+b where a & b are constants, prove that σy2=a2 σx2. If the joint probability density of X & Y is given by fxy(x,y)=2/3(x+y), 0<x<1 & 1<y<2 =0, otherwise find expected value of g(X,Y) = X/Y3 Find the Auto correlation function and power spectral density of the Random process . x(t) = K Cos (ϖo t + θ) Where θ is a Random variable over the ensemble and is uniformly distributed over the Range ( 0,2Π) Find the input auto correlation function, output autocorrelation and o/p spectral density of RC low pass filter, where the filter is subjected to a white noise of spectral density N 0/2. What is shot noise? How is it qualified? How the spectral density of White noise is denoted. Derive the mathematical description of noise figure. An amplifier with ga = 40dB and BN = 20KHz is found to have Nao = 10°K T0 when Ti = T0 . Find Te and noise figure. A code is composed of dots and dashes. Assume that a dash is three times as long as the dot and has one-third the probability of occurrence. Find, (i) The information in a dot and that in a dash, and (ii) The entropy in the dot – dash code. Suppose 100 voltage levels are employed to transmit 100 equally likely messages. Assume the system to be a Gaussian channel with λ = 3.5 and bandwidth B = 104 Hz. Find S/N. !!!!!

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Set No. Code No:221101 II B.Tech., II Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time:3 hours Max Marks:80 Answer any Five Questions All questions carry equal marks. ---Define Probability mass function. List its properties The probability density function of X is given by the following table: X→ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 P (X) → K 3K 5K 7K 9K 11K 13K Find (i) P (X<4) (ii) P (X≥5) (iii) P (3<X≤6) What will be the minimum value of K so that P (X≤2)>0.3? Derive an expression for, the error function of the standard normal Random variable Lifetime of IC chips manufactured by a semiconductor manufacturer is approximately normally distributed with mean = 5x 10 6 hours and standard deviation Of 5x 10 5 hours. A mainframe manufacturer requires that at least 95% of a batch should have a lifetime greater than 4x10 6 hours. Will the deal be made? A random variable X is uniformly distributed on the interval (-5, 15), another random variable Y=exp(-x/5) is formed .Find E(Y) fy(y) A Gaussian-distributed random variable X of zero mean and variance σ2 is transformed by rectifier characterized by input –output relations. Y = X, X ≥ 0 = 0, X< 0 Determine probability density function of Y State and prove properties of power density spectrum. Calculate the PSD of a stationary random process for which the Autocorrelation is Rxx(τ) = σ 2 .e −α λ The input voltage to an RLC series circuit is a stationary Random process X(t) with E[x(t)]=2 and Rxx( τ ) = 4+ exp(-2 τ ). Let Y(t) be the voltage across capacitor. Find E[Y(t)] and Gy(f). Write short notes on : (a) Flicker noise (b) Partition noise (c) Johnson’s noise.

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Bring out the difference between narrowband and broadband noises. Describe the quadrature representation of narrowband noise. (Contd..2)

Code No:221101 8.a) b)

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Set No:2

Consider an AWGN channel with S/N = 104. Find the maximum rate for reliable information transmission when, B = 1 KHz, 10 KHz and 100 KHz. The Binary Erasure Channel (BEC) has two source symbols 0 and 1, and three destination symbols 0, 1 and E, where E denotes a detected but uncorrectable error. The forward transition probabilities are, P (0/0) = 1-α P (E/0) = α P (1/0) = 0 P (0/1) = 0 P (E/1) = α P (1/1) = 1-α I (x, y) is maximum when source symbols are equiprobable. Find Cs (channel capacity) in terms of α.

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Set No. Code No:221101 II B.Tech., II Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time:3 hours

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Max Marks:80 Answer any Five Questions All questions carry equal marks. ----Explain what do you mean by the term “Random variable”? Give the classification of random variables and explain with examples. If the probability density of a random variable is given by: f(x) = x for 0<x<1 (2-x) for 1<x<2 Find the probabilities that a random variable having this probability density will take on a value (i) between 0.2 and 0.8. (ii) between 0.6 and 1.2. Derive an expression for the average value and variance associated with the Gaussian probability density function The average life of a certain type of electric bulb is 1200 hours. What percentage of this type of bulbs is expected to fail in the first 800 hours of working? What percentage is expected to fail between 800 and 1000 hours? Assume a normal distribution with σ = 200 hours. Prove that the Characteristic function of a Gaussian random variable having zero mean value is given by exp(-σ2w2). Let X be a uniformly distributed random variable in the interval (-π,π). This undergoes the transformation Y= cos x, find fy (y) and E[Y]. Explain Ergodic random process. State and prove properties of Auto correlation function. White noise n(t) with PSD = n is passed through a low pass RC network with a 3 db 2

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3.a) b) 4.a) b) 5.

frequency fc. a) Find the auto correlation R(τ) of the o/p noise of the network. R (τ ) b) Sketch ρ (t ) = R (o ) 6.a) Give reasons for the following: i) ii) 7.a) b) In any communication system the first stage must have low noise operation. Describe how FET gives low noise performance compared to BJT.

Bring out the difference between narrowband and broadband noises. Describe the quadrature representation of narrowband noise. (Contd..2)

Code No:221101 8.a)

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Set No:3

The voice frequency-modulating signal of a PCM system is quantized in 16 levels with the following probabilities, P1 = P2 = P3 = P4 = 0.1 P5 = P6 = P7 = P8 = 0.05 P9 = P10 = P11 = P12 = 0.075 P13 = P14 = P15 = P16 = 0.025 Find the information rate taking the band limiting frequency of the modulating signal at 3 KHz.

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For the communication system where channel characteristic is given below, 0 ¼ ½
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y Verify that I (x, y) = I (y, x).

¼ 0 1 2

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Set No. Code No:221101 II B.Tech., II Semester Supplementary Examinations, November-2003 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM VARIABLES (Bio-Medical Engineering) Time:3 hours Answer any Five Questions All questions carry equal marks. ---1.a) b) Define Probability density function and obtain the relationship between probability and probability density. Consider the probability density f (x)= a e -b|x| where x is a random variable Whose allowable values range from x = - ∞ to ∞. Find (i) the CDF F (x) (ii) the relationship between a and b. and (iii) the probability that the outtcome x lies between 1 and 2. Explain the Normal or Gaussian distribution An analog signal received at the detector (measured in microvolts) may be modeled as a Gaussian random variable N (200,256) at a fixed point in time. What is the probability that the signal will exceed 240 µvs. what is the probability that the signal is larger than 240 µV, given that it is larger than 210 µVs? If X is a normal random variable denoted by N(5,2) & Y=2X+4, Prove that E(Y)=14 and σ2 (Y)=4. Also find the probability density fun fY(y) of the above random variable Y. A class of modulation signal is modulated by Xc (t) = AX(t) Cos (ωc t + θ ) Where x(t) is the message signal and A Cos (ωc t + θ ) is the carrier. The message Signal x(t) is modeled as a zero mean stationary random process with the autocorrelation function Rxx(τ) and the PSD Gx (f). The carrier amplitude A and frequency ωc are assumed to be constants and the initial carrier phase θ is assumed to be a random variable uniformly distributed in the interval (-Π,Π). Further more x(t) and θ are assumed to be independent. a) Show that Xc (t) is stationary. b) Find the PSD of Xc (t). A random process x(t) is applied to a network with impulse response h(t) = u(t)t exp(-bt) where b>0 is a constant. The cross-correlation of x(t) with the o/p y(t) is known to have the same form. Rxx(τ) = u(τ)τ exp(-bτ) a) Find the auto correlation of y(t)? b) What is the average power in y(t)? (Contd..2) Max Marks:80

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Code No:221101 6. a) b)

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Set No:4

Explain the external noise sources of random noise. Calculate the rms noise voltage generated in a bandwidth if 15 kHz by a resistor of 2k Ω operating at 200c. Find the noise power over this bandwidth. Find the noise PSD. Which of the following noise parameters is the true representation of noise in electrical circuits? i) Noise figure ii ii) Noise temperature iii iii) Noise bandwidth Support your answer with the help of suitable examples. A source is transmitting six messages with probabilities 0.3, 0.25, 0.15, 0.12, 0.10 and 0.08 respectively. Find the binary “HUFFMAN Source code for the above messages and code efficiency. Consider an AWGN Channel with 4 MHz bandwidth and noise PSD is η/2 = 10-12 W /Hz. The signal power is required at the receiver is 0.1 mw. Find the capacity of the channel. !!!!

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