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CHAPTER SIX FIRST-LAW ANALYSIS FOR A CONTROL VOLUME

˙ C.V. = +38.558 kW. This is also the heat transfer to the other control volume, for which Q ˙ C.V. = m ˙ w (h e − h i )w Q ˙w = m 38.558 kW = 0.919 kg/s (83.95 − 42.00) kJ/kg

Nozzle

A nozzle is a steady-state device whose purpose is to create a high-velocity ﬂuid stream at the expense of the ﬂuid’s pressure. It is contoured in an appropriate manner to expand a ﬂowing ﬂuid smoothly to a lower pressure, thereby increasing its velocity. There is no means to do any work—there are no moving parts. There is little or no change in potential energy and usually little or no heat transfer. An exception is the large nozzle on a liquid-propellant rocket, such as was described in Section 1.7, in which the cold propellant is commonly circulated around the outside of the nozzle walls before going to the combustion chamber, in order to keep the nozzle from melting. This case, a nozzle with signiﬁcant heat transfer, is the exception and would be noted in such an application. In addition, the kinetic energy of the ﬂuid at the nozzle inlet is usually small and would be neglected if its value is not known.

EXAMPLE 6.4

Steam at 0.6 MPa and 200◦ C enters an insulated nozzle with a velocity of 50 m/s. It leaves at a pressure of 0.15 MPa and a velocity of 600 m/s. Determine the ﬁnal temperature if the steam is superheated in the ﬁnal state and the quality if it is saturated. Control volume: Inlet state: Exit state: Process: Model: Analysis We have ˙ C.V. = 0 (nozzle insulated) Q ˙ C.V. = 0 W PEi ≈ PEe

Control surface

Nozzle. Fixed (see Fig. 6.7). Pe known. Steady-state. Steam tables.

Vi = 50 m/s

FIGURE 6.7

Illustration for Example 6.4.

Pi = 0.6 MPa Ti = 200°C

Ve = 600 m/s Pe = 0.15 MPa

7E Illustration for Example 6.1 + (600)2 m2 /s2 (50)2 − = 2671.1 + xe 2226.99 EXAMPLE 6. Determine the ﬁnal temperature if the steam is superheated in the ﬁnal state and the quality if it is saturated.EXAMPLES OF STEADY-STATE PROCESSES 191 The ﬁrst law (Eq.4E Steam at 100 lbf/in. Steady-state.8 lbf/in.4 kJ/kg 2 × 1000 2 × 1000 J/kJ Vi2 V2 = he + e 2 2 The two properties of the ﬂuid leaving that we now know are pressure and enthalpy. Fixed (see Fig. Since he is less than hg at 0.V. = 0 (nozzle insulated) Q ˙ C. Ti = 400 F Pi = 100 lbf/in. enters an insulated nozzle with a velocity of 200 ft/s. ˙ C. 6.5 xe = 0.2 . 400 F. W PEi = PEe First law (Eq.8 lbf/in.4 = 467.2 Ve = 2000 ft /s Pe = 20. and therefore the state of this ﬂuid is determined.15 MPa. h = hf + xhf g 2671. Control volume: Inlet state: Exit state: Process: Model: Analysis Nozzle. the quality is calculated.13): hi + Vi2 V2 = he + e 2 2 Control surface Vi = 200 ft /s FIGURE 6. It leaves at a pressure of 20. 6.2 . = 0. Pe known.7E). Steam tables.13) yields hi + Solution Solving for he we obtain h e = 2850.V.4E.2 and a velocity of 2000 ft/s. 6.

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