1 Indian Science Cruiser, Vol. 27, No. 5, Special issue on Sir Ronald Ross.

A Look at the Parasites
Archi Ghosh
Department of Microbiology Kasturba Medical College Manipal, Karnataka
Email : ghosharchi@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT Parasite, living body, lives in its host causes inds o! diseases. "hrough out the globe all living bodies are been affected by #any inds o! parasitic diseases. In short here author has tried to analyse di!!erent aspects o! parasites, its occurrences and causes o! parasitic diseases.

Introduction : Sir Ronald Ross, born on 13 May 1857 at Almora, in ndia, t!e eldest son of
"eneral #ir Campbell Claye "rant $oss of t!e %ritis! ndian Army and Matilda C!arlotte &lderton, 'as a doctor '!o recei(ed t!e )obel *ri+e for *!ysiology or Medicine in 1,-. for !is 'ork on malaria/ 0is disco(ery of t!e malarial parasite in t!e gastrointestinal tract of t!e $nopheles #os%uito led to t!e reali+ation t!at malaria 'as transmitted by $nopheles, and laid t!e foundation for combating t!e disease/ 1n .- August 18,7, in #ecunderabad, $oss made !is landmark disco(ery '!en !e identified t!e malarial parasite, located in #ecunderabad near t!e %egumpet Airport, no' marked as a !eritage site and t!e road leading up to t!e building is named #ir $onald $oss $oad, '!ile dissecting t!e stomac! tissue of an anop!eline mos2uito fed four days pre(iously on a malarious patient, !e found t!e malaria parasite and 'ent on to pro(e t!e role of $nopheles mos2uitoes in t!e transmission of malaria parasites in !umans/ According to t!e latest estimates, t!ere 'ere about .1, million cases of malaria in .-1- 3'it! an uncertainty range of 154 million to .8, million5 and an estimated 66- --- deat!s 3'it! an uncertainty range of 4,- --- to 836 ---5/ Malaria mortality rates !a(e fallen by more t!an .57 globally since .---, and by 337 in t!e 801 African $egion/ Most deat!s occur among c!ildren li(ing in Africa '!ere a c!ild dies e(ery minute from malaria/ Country9le(el burden estimates a(ailable for .-1- s!o' t!at an estimated 8-7 of malaria deat!s occur in :ust 14 countries and about 8-7 of cases occur in 17 countries/ ;oget!er, t!e Democratic $epublic of t!e Congo and )igeria account for o(er 4-7 of t!e estimated total of malaria deat!s globally/ Data of effected deseases due to ot!er parasites are also alarming/ 0a(ing seen t!ese information no elaboration is needed to say t!at kno'ledge about parasites !a(e impotant rule in !ealt! management/

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Malaria is caused by Plas#odiu# parasites/ ;!e parasites are spread to people t!roug! t!e bites of infected $nopheles mos2uitoes, called <malaria (ectors<, '!ic! bite mainly bet'een dusk and da'n/ *rotists, a type of microorganism, of t!e genus Plas#odiu#/ ;!ere are four parasite species t!at cause malaria in !umans= i/ Plas#odiu# !alciparu#, ii/ Plas#odiu# viva&, iii/ Plas#odiu# #alariae, i(/ Plas#odiu# ovale.

Plas#odiu# falciparum in thick viva&
blood smears

Plas#odiu# falciparum in
thin blood smear

Plas#odiu#

Plas#odiu# #alariae

Plas#odiu# ovale

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;!e midgut is in t!e lo'er !alf of t!e image, and t!e oocysts appear as multiple sp!eres embedded in t!e midgut>s 'all/ #uc! oocysts 'ere seen, for t!e first time, by #ir $onald $oss

1ocysts stages of malaria parasites de(eloping in t!e 'alls of a mos2uito midgut 3stomac!5

As a protist, the plasmodium is a eukaryote of the phylum Apicomplexa. Unusual characteristics of this organism in comparison to general eukaryotes include the rhoptry, micronemes, and polar rings near the apical end. The plasmodium is known best for the infection it causes, malaria.

Plas#odiu# !alciparu# and Plas#odiu# viva& are t!e most common/ Plas#odiu# !alciparu# is t!e most deadly/;!e 'oonotic species P. no(lesi, pre(alent in #out!east Asia, causes malaria in maca2ues but can also cause se(ere infections in !umans/ Malaria is pre(alent in tropical and subtropical regions because rainfall, 'arm temperatures, and stagnant 'aters pro(ide

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!abitats ideal for mos2uito lar(ae/;!e 8orld 0ealt! 1rgani+ation !as estimated t!at in .-1-, t!ere 'ere .1, million documented cases of malaria/ ;!at year, bet'een 66-,--- and 1/. million people died from t!e disease, many of '!om 'ere c!ildren in Africa/ ;!e actual number of deat!s is not kno'n 'it! certainty, as accurate data is una(ailable in many rural areas, and many cases are undocumented/ $emembering $oss?s contribution, 'orked in ndian soil, for combating disease effected !uman being and t!e e@isting scenerio of parasite effect aut!er !ere eleborated t!e aspects of parasites and distribution of effected patients due to parasites/
recorded his discovery of the mosquito transmission of malaria parasites, 20 August 1 !"#

← Page from notebook where Ronald Ross

Origin of the term arasite : *arAaAsite Bpar9u!9sa!ytC originated during 153-94- from
Datin 'ord paras)tus E "reek par*s)tos one '!o eats at anot!er>s table, orig/ ad:/= feeding beside, e2ui(alent to para+ para91 F s,t 3 os 5 grain, food F +os ad:/ suffi@/ Also t!ere is an opinion t!at t!e 'ord <parasite< comes from t!e "reek -parasitos-, 'it! para meaning <alongside<, and sitos meaning <food< 9 t!erefore meaning -eating at the side o!, as one (ould (hen seated at the sa#e table-/ t 'as in t!e 18t! century t!at t!e 'ord parasite entered t!e &nglis! language as a biologic termG before t!at it referred to !umans, suc! as a relati(e or friend '!o li(ed at t!e e@pense of anot!er person/ ;!at is meaning of t!e 'ord parasite means it is an organism t!at li(es on or in an organism of anot!er species, kno'n as t!e !ost, from t!e body of '!ic! it obtains nutriment, a person '!o recei(es support, ad(antage, or t!e like, from anot!er or ot!ers 'it!out gi(ing any useful or proper return, as one '!o li(es on t!e !ospitality of ot!ers, 3in ancient "reece5 a person '!o recei(ed free meals in return for amusing or impudent con(ersation, flattering remarks, etc/ A parasite is an organism t!at li(es in anot!er organism, called the host, and often !arms it/ t is dependent on its !ost for sur(i(al 9 it !as to be in t!e !ost to li(e, gro' and multiply/ A parasite cannot li(e independently/ Alt!oug! a parasite rarely kills t!e !ost, in some cases it can !appen/ ;!e parasite benefits at t!e e@pense of t!e !ost 9 t!e parasite uses t!e !ost to gain strengt!, and t!e !ost loses some strengt! as a result/

!hat is arasite : A parasite li(es in a close relations!ip 'it! anot!er organism, its !ost,
and causes it !arm/ ;!e parasite is dependent on its !ost for its life functions/ Hor e@ample, (iruses are common parasites/ ;!e parasite !as to be in its !ost to li(e, gro', and multiply/ *arasites rarely kill t!eir !osts/ A common, 'ell9kno'n type of a parasite is a !ook'orm/ t is possible for !umans or t!eir pets to get t!em/ 0ook'orms attac! t!emsel(es in t!e lining of t!e small intestine, and cause diseases, and malnutrition as 'ell, as t!ey eat t!e nutrients and keep t!em from going to t!e !ost/ *arasites, unlike predators, are usually muc! smaller t!an t!eir !ost/ ;!ey reproduce at a faster rate t!an t!e !ost/ ;!ere are se(eral types of parasites suc! as Ecto"arasite 9 a parasite t!at li(es on t!e !ost>s surface, e@amples include some mites and !air and body lice/ Endo"arasite 9 one t!at li(es

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inside t!e !ost, e@amples include !eart'orm, tape'orm, and flat'orms/ 1ne t!at in!abits t!e spaces inside t!e !ost>s body is an intercellular parasite, '!ile an intracellular parasite in!abits t!e cells of t!e !ost>s body, t!ese include bacteria or (iruses, and t!ey rely on a t!ird organism kno'n as t!e (ector 3carrier5/ ;!e (ector transmits t!e endoparasite to t!e !ost/ ;!e anop!eline mos2uito is a (ector, it transmits a proto+oan of t!e genus Plas#odiu#, '!ic! causes malaria/ E"i"arasite 9 t!is one feeds on anot!er parasite, a relations!ip kno'n as !yperparasitism/ A flea '!ic! li(es on a dog may !a(e a proto+oan in its digesti(e tract, t!e proto+oan is t!e !yperparasite/ arasitoid 9 t!e lar(al de(elopment takes place inIon anot!er organism, t!e !ost usually dies/ n t!is case t!ere are c!aracteristics of predation, because t!e !ost dies/

Ectoparasite

Endo"arasite

Parasitoids

Epiparasite

arasitic disease
A parasitic disease is an infectious disease caused or transmitted by a parasite/ Many parasites do not cause diseases/ *arasitic diseases can affect practically all li(ing organisms, including plants and mammals/ ;!e study of parasitic diseases is called parasitology/ #ome parasites like "o&oplas#a gondii and Plas#odiu# spp/ can cause disease directly, but ot!er organisms can cause disease by t!e to@ins t!at t!ey produce/

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There are three main t#"es of "arasitic diseases: roto$oa % t!is parasite is a single9cell organism/ *lasmodium, '!ic! causes malaria, is an e@ample/ A proto+oa can only multiply 3di(ide5 'it!in t!e !ost/ &elminths % 'orm parasites/ #c!istosomiasis is caused by a !elmint!/ 1t!er e@amples include round'orm, pin'orm, tric!ina spiralis, tape'orm, and fluke/ Arthro"ods % includes insects and spiders 3arac!nids5/ ;!e insect is not t!e parasite, but it carries it, it is a (ector of parasitic diseases/ To"ics of arasitic 'iseases : Hollo'ing are t!e topics related to !uman parasitic diseases/ i/ Acant!amoeba keratitis, ii/ Amoebiasis, iii/ Ascariasis, i(/ %abesiosis, (/ %alantidiasis, (i/ %aylisascariasis, (ii/ C!agas disease, (iii/ Clonorc!iasis, i@/ Coc!liomyia, @/ Cryptosporidiosis, @i/ Dip!yllobot!riasis, @ii/ Dracunculiasis 3caused by t!e "uinea 'orm5, @iii/ &c!inococcosis, @i(/ &lep!antiasis, @(/ &nterobiasis, @(i/ Hascioliasis, @(ii/ Hasciolopsiasis, @(iii/ Hilariasis, @i@/ "iardiasis, @@/ "nat!ostomiasis, @@i/ 0ymenolepiasis, @@ii/ sosporiasis, @@iii/ Katayama fe(er, @ @i(/ Deis!maniasis, @@(/ Dyme disease, @@(i/ Malaria, @@(ii/ Metagonimiasis, @@(iii/ Myiasis, @@i@/ 1nc!ocerciasis, @@@/ *ediculosis, @@@i/ #cabies, @@@ii/ #c!istosomiasis, @@@iii/ #leeping sickness, @@@i(/ #trongyloidiasis, @@@(/ ;aeniasis3cause of Cysticercosis5, @@@(i/ ;o@ocariasis, @@@(ii/ ;o@oplasmosis, @@@(iii/ ;ric!inosis, @@@@i@/ ;ric!uriasis/ athogens are : i/ Acant!amoeba, ii/ Anisakis, iii/ $scaris lu#bricoides, i(/ %otfly, (/ .alantidiu# coli, (i/ %edbug, (ii/ Cestoda 3tape'orm5, (iii/ C!iggers, i@/ Cochlio#yia ho#inivora&, @/ /nta#oeba histolytica, @i/ 0asciola hepatica, @ii/ 1iardia la#blia, @iii/ 0ook'orm, @i(/ 2eish#ania, @(/ Dinguatula serrata, @(i/ Di(er fluke, @(ii/ 2oa loa, @(iii/ Paragoni#us 9 lung fluke, @i@/ *in'orm, @@/ Plas#odiu# !alciparu#, @@/ Schistoso#a, @@i/ Strongyloides stercoralis, @@ii/ Mite, @@iii/ ;ape'orm, @@i(/ "o&oplas#a gondii, @@(/ ;rypanosoma, @@(i/ 8!ip'orm, @@(ii/ 3uchereria bancro!ti/ (ectors and hosts are : Anop!eles, Douse, #andfly, ;ick, "riato#a, ;setse fly/

!hat are "arasites and "arasitoids)
#ome animals and plants sur(i(e by obtaining t!eir nouris!ment from ot!er organisms, called J!osts?/ ;!e ma:ority of animals '!ic! follo' t!is lifestyle are in(ertebrates/ 8!ile 'e understandably t!ink initially of t!e negati(e effects t!ese animals 3suc! as %ed bugs or ticks5 can !a(e on !umans, it is important to remember t!at t!e ma:ority of t!ese in(ertebrates only affect ot!er animals and plants K particularly ot!er in(ertebratesL

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An Ichneumon parasitoid wasp (Diplazon spider host © laetatarius © !o"er #ey

Polysphinctine parasitoid wasp larva on !o"er #ey

$

;!ese animals are absolutely fascinating, 'it! ama+ing life cyclesL ;!ere are t'o 2uite different lifestyles taken by suc! animals, '!ic! are kno'n as eit!er Jparasites? or Jparasitoids?, depending upon '!ic! approac! t!ey follo', alt!oug! bot! may li(e eit!er inside or outside of t!e !ost animal/ *arasitoid is a different type of parasite/ ;!e parasitoid Encarsia pergandiella is a tiny 'asp t!at lays its eggs in de(eloping *hiteflies/ ;!e 'asp lar(a e(entually kills t!e '!itefly, and t!en emerges as free9li(ing adults/ ;!is is '!y it is said t!at t!e 'asps are parasitic/ f you !a(e e(er seen Aliens, t!e de(eloping aliens are parasitoids/ *arasitods are different from normal parasites because t!ey kill t!eir !osts '!en t!ey de(elop/ ;!us one can differentiate *arasites and *arasitoids as follo's = Parasites : A parasite obtains its nouris!ment from a !ost organism 'it!out benefiting or killing t!e !ost, and does not pre(ent reproduction/ *arasites often !a(e interesting and complicated life cycles, '!ic! may in(ol(e a number of different !ost organisms/ A 'ide range of animals are parasites, including many in(ertebrates, suc! as species of flies, ticks, mites and (arious types of 'orm 3including leec!es5/ 8!ile t!e (ast ma:ority of parasites do not affect !umans, some are responsible for diseases in people/ 0ere it is essential to note t!at (iruses and bacteria are not normally considered as parasites/ Parasitoids : As 'it! parasites, parasitoids spend a part of t!eir life obtaining nouris!ment from a !ost organism K !o'e(er, unlike parasites, parasitoids ultimately kill t!eir !ost and pre(ent reproduction/ Almost all parasitoids are insects, and most are 'asps/ 0o'e(er, parasitoids include ot!er in(ertebrates, suc! as species of flies, beetles, mot!s, mites and 'orms/ *arasitoids are not kno'n to be responsible for any !uman diseases, but instead are (ery important for controlling agricultural pests/ Alt!oug! some (iruses and bacteria do follo' similar life strategies, t!ey are not generally considered as parasitoids/ Encarsia pergandiella de(elops in a strange 'ay/ Mnlike most parasitoid species, t!ey are auto"arasitoids/ ;!is means females de(elop on '!itefly immatures and males de(elop on immature parasitoids/ ;!is means males are parasitoids of ot!er parasitoids, including females of t!eir o'n speciesL

+ist of "arasites that affect humans
Endo"arasites 9 *roto+oan organisms

Acant!amoeba 9 3Datin name= $cantha#oeba5/ Affects t!e eye andIor brain/ t e@ists all o(er t!e 'orld/ *eople can become infected if t!ey clean contact lenses 'it! tap 'ater/ %abesiosis 9 3Datin )ames= .abesia .. divergens, .. bige#ina, .. e%ui, .. #icro!ti, .. duncani 5/ Affects t!e red blood cells/ Different species li(e in (arious parts of t!e 'orld/ ;ransmitted by tick bites/ %alantidiasis 9 3Datin name= .alantidiu# coli5/ Di(es in t!e intestinal mucosa/ %lastocystosis 9 3Datin name= .lastocystis5/ Affects t!e intestines/ &nters !umans t!roug! ingested food contaminated 'it! !umanIanimal feces/

%

Coccidia 9 3Datin name= Cryptosporidiu#5/ Affects t!e intestines/ &@ists 'orld'ide/ &nters !umans t!roug! ingested food contaminated 'it! !umanIanimal feces/ Amoebiasis 9 3Datin name= /nta#oeba histolytica5/ Affects t!e intestines/ More likely in areas 'it! !ig! population density, poor sanitation, and tropical regions/ Hecal oral transmission/ "iardia 9 3Datin name= 1iardia la#blia5/ Affects t!e lumen of t!e small intestine/ f !umans ingest foodI'ater contaminated 'it! feces, dormant cysts may infect t!e body/ sosporiasis 9 3Datin name= Isospora belli5/ Affects t!e epit!elial cells of t!e small intestine/ &@ists all o(er t!e 'orld/ Hecal oral route/ Deis!maniasis 9 3Datin name= 2eish#ania5 9 Affects t!e skin andIor (iscera/ &@ists 'orld'ide in (arious forms/ ;ransmitted by types of sandflies/ *rimary amoebic meningoencep!alitis 3*AM5 9 3Datin name= Naegleria !o(leri5/ Affects t!e brain/ nsufflation of contaminated soil, s'imming pools and contaminated 'ater/ Malaria 9 3Datin name= Plas#odiu# !alciparu# 38-7 of cases5, Plas#odiu# viva&, Plas#odiu# ovale, Plas#odiu# #alariae/ Affects t!e red blood cells/ &@ists in tropical regions/ ;ransmitted by t!e anop!eles mos2uito/ $!inosporidiosis 9 3Datin name= Rhinosporidiu# seeberi5/ Affects t!e nose and nasop!aryn@/ &@ists in ndia and #ri Danka/ *eople '!o are bat!ing in common ponds can become contaminated '!en t!e nasal mucosa is in contact 'it! infected material/ ;o@oplasmosis/ *arasitic pneumonia 9 3Datin name= "o&oplas#a gondii5/ Affects t!e li(er, !eart, eyes and brain/ 8idespread 'orld'ide/ *eople can become infected after ingesting ra'Iundercooked pork, lamb, goat, milk/ Also may e@ist in contaminated food or soil 'it! cat feces/ ;ric!omoniasis 9 3Datin name= "richo#onas vaginalis5/ Affects t!e female urogenital tract/ Can e@ist in males, but 'it!out symptoms/ ;!is is an #; 3se@ually transmitted infection5/ #leeping sickness 9 3Datin name= "rypanoso#a brucei5/ Affects t!e central ner(ous system, blood lymp!/ t transmitted by t!e tsetse fly/ C!agas disease 9 3Datin name= "rypanoso#a cru'i5/ Affects t!e blood, muscle, ner(es, !eart, esop!agus and colon/ ;ransmitted t!roug! an insect bite/ 0elmint!s organisms 3'orms5 AncylostomiasisI0ook'orm 9 3Datin name= $ncylosto#a duodenale, Necator a#ericanus5/ Affects t!e lungs, small intestine, and blood/ Anisakiasis 9 3Datin name= $nisa is5/ ;!e !uman !as an allergic reaction/ 0uman can become infected '!en eating contaminated fis! and seafood/

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$ound'orm/ *arasitic pneumonia 9 3Datin name= $scaris sp. $scaris lu#bricoides5/ Affects t!e intestines, lungs, pancreas, li(er, appendi@ 3t!e patient de(elops DNffler>s syndrome5/ ;ropical and subtropical regions/ $ound'orm 9 3Datin name= .aylisascariasis, .aylisascaris procyonis5/ Affects t!e brain, lungs, li(er and intestines/ nfection comes from contaminated raccon stools/ )ort! America 3rare5/ ;ape'orm/ ;ape'orm infection 9 3Datin name= Cestoda5/ Affects t!e intestine/ ;oday t!is parasite is rare/ Clonorc!iasi 9 3Datin name= Clonorchis sinensis4 Clonorchis viverrini, 5icrocoeliu# dendriticu#5/ Affects t!e gall bladder/ 0umans can become infected after ingesting contaminated ants/ Dioctop!yme renalis infection 9 3Datin name= 5ioctophy#e renale5/ Msually affects t!e rig!t kidney/ &@ists all o(er t!e 'orld/ 0umans can become infected after eating ra' or undercooked fres!'ater fis!/ Dip!yllobot!riasis/ ;ape'orm 9 3Datin name= 5iphyllobothriu# latu#5/ Affects t!e intestines and blood/ &@ists in C!ile, *eru, Oapan, Mganda and &urope/ 0umans can become infected after eating ra' fres!'ater fis!/ "uinea 'orm/ Dracunculiasis 9 3Datin name= 5racunculus #edinensis5/ *erson gets blisters and ulcers, affects subcutaneous tissues and muscle/ Echinococcosis. ;ape'orm 9 3Datin name= /chinococcus granulosus, /chinococcus #ultilocularis, /. vogeli, /. oligarthrus5/ Affects t!e spleen, kidneys, lungs and li(er/ Mediterranean region/ ;!e !uman can become infected after eating foods contaminated by t!e feces of a carni(ore, or eating offal from a !erbi(ore/ *in'orm/ &nterobiasis 9 3Datin name= /nterobius ver#icularis, /nterobius gregorii5/ Affects t!e intestines and anus/ ;!is bacteria is more common in temperate regions/ Di(er fluke/ Hasciolosis 9 3Datin name= 0asciola hepatica, 0asciola gigantic5/ Affects t!e gall bladder and li(er/ Common in (arious parts of t!e 'orld/ Contamination comes from fres!'ater snails/ Hasciolopsiasis/ ntestinal fluke 9 3Datin name= 0asciolopsis bus i5/ Affects t!e intestines/ Common in &ast Asia/ 8!en !umans ingest infested 'ater plants or 'ater t!ey can become infected/ "nat!ostomiasis 9 3Datin name= 1nathosto#a spinigeru#, 1nathosto#a hispidu#5/ Affects people under t!e skin/ t is rare, and occurs in #out!east Asia/ Caused by eating fres!'ater fis!, pigs, snails, frogs, and c!icken/ 0ymenolepiasis 9 3Datin name= 6y#enolepis nana, 6y#enolepis di#inuta5/ 0umans can become infected by ingesting material contaminated by cockroac!es, meal 'orms and flour beetles/

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Doa filariasis, Calabar s'ellings 9 3Datin name= 2oa !ilarial5/ Affects t!e eyes, lungs and connecti(e tissue/ Mainly in 8est Africa/ ;ransmitted by !orsefly bites/ Mansonelliasis/ Hilariasis 9 3Datin name= 7ansonella streptocerca5/ Affects t!e subcutaneous layer of t!e skin/ Metagonimiasis/ ntestinal fluke 9 3Datin name= 7etagoni#us yo oga(ai/ Caused by eating undercooked or salted fis!/ Hound in #iberia, %alkan states, srael, #pain and Manc!uria/ $i(er blindness 9 3Datin name= 8nchocerca volvulus, 8nchocerciasis5/ Affects t!e eyes, skin, and tissue/ Hound in Africa, CentralI#out! America, near fast flo'ing, cool ri(ers/ ;ransmitted by a fly/ C!inese Di(er Hluke 9 3Datin name= 8pisthorchis viverrini, 8pisthorchis !elineus, Clonorchis sinensis5/ Affects t!e bile duct/ n $ussia 1/5 million people are affected/ Caused by eating ra', slig!tly salted or fro+en fis!/ *aragonimiasis, Dung Hluke 9 3Datin name= Paragoni#us (ester#ani4 Paragoni#us a!ricanus4 Paragoni#us caliensis4 Paragoni#us ellicotti4 Paragoni#us s r9abini4 Paragoni#us uterobilateralis5/ Affects t!e lungs and sputum/ Causd by eating undercooked or ra' fres!'atercrabs, crayfis!es and ot!er crustaceans/ #c!istosomiasis, bil!ar+ia, bil!ar+iosis or snail fe(er 9 3Datin name= Schistoso#a sp.5/ Affects t!e skin/ Caused by e@posure to fres! 'ater snail infested 'aters/ Hound in #out! America 3eastern5, Africa, t!e Caribbean, and t!e Middle &ast/ ntestinal sc!istosomiasis 9 3Datin name= Schistoso#a #ansoni5/ Affects t!e skin, spleen intestine, li(er, and lungs/ 83 million people are affected/ Hound in t!e Middle &ast, Asia, #out! America, Africa and t!e Caribbean/ 0uman skin e@posed to 'ater infested 'it! a type of fres! 'ater snail can become infected/ Mrinary sc!istosomiasis 9 3Datin name= Schistoso#a hae#atobiu#5/ Affects t!e skin, lungs, ureters, bladder and kidneys/ Hound in t!e Middle &ast and Africa/ 0umans can become infected if t!eir skin is e@posed to 'ater contaminated 'it! a type of snail/ #c!istosomiasis by, and li(er/ 0umans can become infected if t!eir skin is e@posed to 'ater contaminated 'it! a type #c!istosoma :aponicum 9 3Datin name= Schistoso#a 9aponicu#5/ Affects t!e intestine, skin, spleen of snail/ Asian intestinal sc!istosomiasis 9 3Datin name= Schistoso#a #e ongi5/ Hound in sout!east Asia/ 0umans can become infected if t!eir skin is e@posed to 'ater contaminated 'it! a type of snail/ #parganosis 9 3Datin name= Spiro#etra erinaceieuropaei5/ 0umans can become infected if t!ey eat foods tainted 'it! dog or cat feces/ #trongyloidiasis/*arasitic pneumonia 9 3Datin name= Strongyloides stercoralis5/ Affects t!e lungs, skin and intestines/ ;!e parasite penetrates t!roug! t!e skin/ %eef tape'orm 9 3Datin name= "aenia saginata5/ &@ists all o(er t!e 'orld/ Affects t!e intestines/ Caused by eating undercooked beef/

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*ork tape'orm 9 3Datin name= "aenia soliu#5/ Caused by eating undercooked pork/ ;o@ocariasis 9 3Datin name= "o&ocara canis, "o&ocara cati5/ Affects t!e eyes, brain and li(er/ Caused by eating ;o@ocara egg tainted foods/ ;ric!inosis 9 3Datin name= "richinella spiralis, "richinella britovi, "richinella nelsoni, "richinella native5/ Affects muscle, small intestine and periobital region/ Caused by eating undercooked pork/ #'immer>s itc! 9 3Datin name= "richobilhar'ia regenti, Schistoso#atidae5/ Affects t!e skin/ Caused by going into contaminated 'ater/ 8!ip'orm 9 3Datin name= "richuris trichiura, "richuris vulpis5/ Affects t!e large intestine and anus/ t is common all o(er t!e 'orld/ 0umans can become infected '!en ingesting t!e eggs in dry goods, for e@ample rice, se(eral grains, beans, or soil tainted 'it! !uman e@crements/ &lep!antiasis Dymp!atic filariasis 9 3Datin name= 3uchereria bancro!ti, ly#phatic syste#5/ Caused by mos2uito bites/ Ecto"arasites %edbug 9 3Datin name= Ci#icidae Ci#e& lectularius5/ Affects t!e skin and (ision/ Hound all o(er t!e 'orld/ #!aring clot!ing and bedding can spread infection/ 0ead louse/ *ediculosis 9 3Datin name= Pediculus hu#anus5/ Affects t!e !air follicles/ Common all o(er t!e 'orld/ #pread by !ead9to9!ead contact/ %ody louse/ *ediculosis 9 3Datin name= Pediculus hu#anus corporis5/ Common all o(er t!e 'orld/ nfection can spread by se@ual acti(ity, skin9to9skin contact, and s!aring bedding andIor clot!ing/ Crab louse/ *ediculosis 9 3Datin name= Phthirus pubis5/ Affects t!e pubic area and eyelas!es/ Common all o(er t!e 'orld/ nfection can spread by se@ual acti(ity, skin9to9skin contact, and s!aring bedding andIor clot!ing/ Demode@/ Demodicosis 9 3Datin name= 5e#ode& !olliculoru#:brevis:canis5/ Affects t!e eyebro' and eyelas!es/ Common all o(er t!e 'orld/ Caused by prolonged skin contact/ #cabies 9 3Datin name= Sarcoptes scabiei5/ Affects t!e skin/ Common all o(er t!e 'orld/ nfection can spread by se@ual acti(ity, skin9to9skin contact, and s!aring bedding andIor clot!ing/ #cre''orm/ Coc!liomyia 9 3Datin name= Cochlio#yia ho#inivora&5/ Affects skin and 'ounds/ Hound in Central America and nort! Africa/ ;ransmitted by a fly/ *arasites are seen t!roug! out t!e 'orld/ Hollo'ing is t!e standard list of parasites seen in different parts of t!e globe and also cause of deat! due to parasites/

arasites of India, a-istan and Sri +an-a

13 arasites Plasmodium sp Leishmania sp Dracunculus medinensis Ancylostoma duodenale Strongyloides stercoralis Ascaris lubricoides 'isease .alaria 3ala%a$ar 'racunculiasis &oo-*orm disease Strong#loidiasis Ascariasis Occurrence /.0 million 422,222 reduced from 56,76/ to 82 from 0661%64 522 million 97 million 122 million .ortalit# 122,222

arasites of Africa
arasites Plasmodium sp Trypanosoma sp Leishmania sp Entamoeba histolytica Onchocerca volvulus Wuchereria bancrofti Loa loa Strongyloides stercoralis Ancylostoma duodenale !ecator americanus Trichuris trichiura Ascaris lumbricoides Schistosoma mansoni S" haematobium arasites Diphyllobothrium latum Trichinella spiralis #ymenolepis nana Echinococcus granulosis $iardia lamblia 'isease .alaria Tr#"anosomiasis +eishmaniaisis 3)ort! and &ast Africa5 Amoe:iasis ;ilariasis Strong#loidiasis &oo-*orm disease !hi"*orm disease Ascariasis Schistosomiasis 'isease 'i"h#llo:othriasis Trichinellosis Rare &#datidosis Giardiasis =/22 million 022 million Occurrence / .illion 0.4 .illion 0.7 .illion 0 million 02 million 02,222 Occurrence /5 million 9 522,222 3under estimate5 /%5 million 4 million 0< million 908.5 million = 0.< million 4222 .ortalit# /.8 million

arasites of Eurasia
.ortalit#

arasites of the >SA
arasites Entamoeba histolytica %alamuthia mandrillaris 'isease Amoe:iasis amoe:ic ence"halitis Occurrence /6<5 cases?#r @0661A rare @fe* case?#rA .ortalit# high

14 rare @fe* case?#r, /7 cases identified in TeBas since 067/A %lastocystis hominis Blastoc#stosis /5C @/22/A $iardia intestinalis Giardiasis 7./C 0,2<2 31,,,5 741 3Oan9Ouly 'ryptosporidium sp Cr#"tos"iridiosis .---5 602 #r Plasmodium viva( .alaria D ///40C E ////////////////50C Plasmodium falciparum f Strongyloides stercoralis Strong#loidiasis F 0 million @2.1CA Trichinella spiralis Trichinellosis s"oradic 912?#r Enterobius vermicularis Entero:iaisis 42 million Ascaris lumbricoides Ascarisis 2.<C Echinococcus sp" &#datid disease 7022?#r Taenia solium Taeniasis?C#sticercosis 0222?#r ulmonar# 00< re"orted cases Dirofilaria immitis 'irofilariasis since0680 #ymenolepis nana Rare /.8 .illion !aegleria fo&leri rimar# amoe:ic .eningoence"halitis

&igh

arasites of South America
arasites Onchocerca volvulus Strongyloides stercoralis Schistosoma mansoni Wuchereria bancrofti Trypansosoma cru)i Leishmania chagasi 'isease RiEer Blindness Strong#loidiasis Bilhar$ia ;ilariasis Chagas disease Occurrence 422,222 97.1 million 14 million / million 08%0< million 5222?#r .ortalit#

14,222?#r

Leishmania bra)iliensis
%lastocystis hominis Plasmodium s"

+eishmaniasis Eisceral cutaneous
Blastoc#stosis .alaria

6222?#r
/4%15C @ArgentinaA 80.<C @ChileA 0./ million

/12,222

Case Stud# : )umbers of case study !a(e been done by different groups and or indi(iduals to
identify parasites, its occurrence and causing "arasitic deseases/ %ut till no' lots of 'orks are to be done for streng!ting t!e 'oundation to com(at the parasitic disease / *articularly in t!e country like ndia, a t!ickly populated country and land of tropic area, '!ere #ir $onald $oss created glorious past, is most essential to study t!e aspects of parasites and its effects rigorously for minimasing mortality rate due to parasites/ denfying places and time of occurrences of types of parsites if pre(enti(e measures can be taken t!en people can sa(e t!emsel(es from many kinds of parasitic deseases/ Aut!or is conducting a sur(ey to prepare a table as follo's = arasites Occurance 'istri:ution Ta:le

15

Game of "lace of sam"le 1/ ./ 3/ 4/

Su:diEition?Talu- Colleted Sam"le *ith date

Identified arasite

Hrom t!is type of table not only occurance of parasites 'ill be re(ealed but also density of certain types of parasites in particular area and time of occurance 'ill also be manifasted/ Conclusion : $onald $oss made !is landmark disco(ery on .- August 18,7 '!en !e identified t!e malarial parasite, located in #ecunderabad near t!e %egumpet Airport 'as a mile stone of combating malaria/ *resent micro scale study, particularly for ndia 'it! !ig! population density, 'ill !elp to understand !elt! problem in realistic manner 'it! details of areas effeceted by specific kind3s5 of parasites and distribution of affected areas 'it! time, dimension etc/ '!ic! undoubtedly 'ill guide !ealt! planer for taking appropriate measures to protect affected persons and to minmise parasitic deseases/ 0ere it is essential to note t!at instead of con(entional met!ods more simple and rapid identification parasites procedure, if possible, 'ill be pat! breaking and no doubt t!ese may be anot!er land mark of present century/ At t!e end it is essential to note t!at mat!ematical concepts of $onald $oss !elped !im to apply t!eory of *robabilities to t!e #tudy of a priori *at!ometry, '!ic! is lacking in many today?s in(estigator comes from t!e field of biological sciences/ References
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

$)

%eukeboom,D/8/ 31,,45 = *!enotypic fitness effects of t!e selfis! % c!romosome, paternal se@ ratio 3*#$5 in t!e parasitic 'asp )asonia (itripennis/ &(ol/&col/ 8= 19.4/ Campbell, $eece, Mitc!ell/ 31,,,5 = %iology 5t! &dition, "len(ie', llinois= Addison 8esley Dongman/ C!au ;ran and )at!an 8einberg 31,,85 = 8eb Design/ Mni(/ of Ari+ona 0onors %iology 181 9 "roup 15/ 0agan, */ G C!au!an, P/ 31,,75 * $onald $oss and t!e problem of malaria) *arasitology ;oday, 13 385/ pp/ .,-9.,5/ ##) -16,94758 0agan, */ and C!au!an, P/ 31,,75 = $onald $oss and t!e problem of malaria/ ;rends in *arasitology, Polume 13, ssue 8, .,-9.,5, 1 August 1,,7 0unter, M/#/, et/ al/ 31,,35 = 1rigin of males by genome loss in an autoparasitoid 'asp/ 0eredity, 7-= 16.9171/ De(akin, /A/, Dose(, &/A/, )ikolae(, )/&/ Q "alaktiono(, K/P/ 3.-135 = n (itro encystment of 0imast!la elongata cercariae 3Digenea, &c!inostomatidae5 in t!e !aemolymp! of blue mussels Mytilus edulis as a tool for assessing cercarial infecti(ity and milluscan susceptibility/ Oournal of 0elmint!ology, 87/ 18-9188 $oss, $/ 31,165 = An Application of t!e ;!eory of *robabilities to t!e #tudy of a priori *at!ometry/ *art / Proceedings o! the Royal Society $; 7athe#atical, Physical and /ngineering Sciences ,. 36385 = .-4K..6/ doi=1-/1-,8Irspa/1,16/---7/ edit

16

$oss, $/G 0udson, 0/ */ 31,175 = An Application of t!e ;!eory of *robabilities to t!e #tudy of a priori *at!ometry/ *art / Proceedings o! the Royal Society $; 7athe#atical, Physical and /ngineering Sciences ,3 365-5 = .1./doi=1-/1-,8Irspa/1,17/--14/ edit 1&) $oss, $/G 0udson, 0/ */ 31,175 = An Application of t!e ;!eory of *robabilities to t!e #tudy of a *riori *at!ometry/99*art / /Proceedings o! the Royal Society .; .iological Sciences 8, 36.15 = 5-7/ doi=1-/1-,8Irspb/1,17/---8/ edit 11) Mmberger, C/M/, de %uron, /, $oumillat, 8/A/ Q Mc&lroy, &/O/ 3.-135 = &ffects of a miscle9 infecting parasite nematode on t!e locomotor performance of t!eir fis! !ost/ Oournal of His! %iology/ 8./ 1.5- K 1.58/ 12) 8erren, O/0/, #kinner, #/8/, and C!arno(, &/ D/ 31,815 = *aternal in!eritance of a daug!terless se@ ratio factor/ )ature/ .,3= 4679468/ 13) 8erren, O/0/ 31,,15 = ;!e *aternal9se@9ratio C!romosome of )asonia/ Am/ )at/, 137= 3,.94-./
%)