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Code No: 310203 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 POWER SYSTEMS- II (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) Write a short notes on the following types of over head line conductors i) ACSR ii) Bundled conductors iii) Hollow conductors iv) AAC conductors. Find the loop inductance and reactance per km of a single phase overhead line consisting of two conductors, each 1.213cm diameter. The spacing between conductors is 1.25 meters and frequency is 50Hz. Derive an expression for line to neutral capacitance for a 3-phase line when conductors are symmetrically placed What is transposition? Explain the method of transposition of 3-phase line over the lengths. Discuss why equivalent π circuit of a long line is preferred over the equivalent T circuit. A three phase 50Hz transmission line is 150 km long and delivers 25MW at 0.85 power factor lagging and at 110KV. The resistance and reactance of the line per conductor per km are 0.3 ohms and 0.9 ohms respectively. The line charging admittance is 0.3 x 10 -6 mho per km per phase. Compute by applying the nominal π method the voltage regulation and transmission efficiency In a 5 insulator disc string capacitance between each unit and earth is 1/6 of the mutual capacitance. Find the voltage distributions across each insulator in the string as percentage of voltage of the conductor to earth. Find string efficiency. How is this efficiency affected by rain. Derive the expressions for sag and tension when the supports are at unequal heights. A transmission line conductor having a dia of 19.5mm weighs 0.85kg/m. The span is 275 meters. The wind pressure is 40kg/m2 of projected area with ice coating of 13mm. The ultimate strength of the conductor is 8000Kg. Calculate the maximum sag, if the factor of safety is 2 and ice weighs 910kg/m3. Contd….2 Max. Marks: 80

1

2.a) b) 3.a) b)

4.

5.a) b)

Code No: 310203 6.a) b)

::2::

Set.No:1

With a neat diagram, show the various parts of a high voltage single core cable. Find the diametral dimensions for the 1-core, metal-sheathed cable giving the greatest economy of insulating material for a working voltage of 85 kv, if a dielectric stress of 60 kv per cm can be allowed. Explain the concept of power factor. Explain any three causes of low power factor of supply system. Discuss the disadvantages of low power factor and list methods to improve power factor. What is per unit system? Why it is required in power system calculations? Explain how base values can be selected in the networks containing transformer. Derive the formula for base impedance. By choosing the rating of Transformer as base values, convert all electrical quantities of the following transformer in p.u. values. Transformer is rated as 100KVA, 2000/200V, single phase has equivalent impedance referred to HV side as (1+j1)ohm and exciting current referred to LV side is 3Amps.

7.a) b) c) 8.a) c) d)

$$$

Set No.

Code No: 310203 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 POWER SYSTEMS- II (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) Write a short notes on ‘overhead line conductors’ brining out the reasons for using ACSR conductors. b) What is a bundled conductor? Why it is used? Give a few configurations of such conductors commonly employed.. c) Why Hollow conductors are required for EHV and UHV applications? d) Find the loop inductance and reactance per km of a single phase overhead line consisting of two conductors, each 1.3cm diameter. The spacing between conductors is 1.4 meters and frequency is 50Hz. 2.a) b) How do we find line to neutral capacitance in a 3-phase system? The three conductors R, Y and B of a 3-phase line are arranged in a horizontal plane with DRY=1.5mtr; DYB=2mtr and DBR=3.5mtr. Find line to neutral capacitance per km if dia of each conductor is 1.2cm. The conductors are transposed at regular intervals. Also calculate line capacitance per km length Discuss the effect of load power factor on voltage regulation and efficiency of a transmission line. What is skin and proximity effects? A 10km long 3 phase line delivers 1 MW at 0.8 lagging power factor. The series impedance of the line is 0.5 +j0.56 ohms per km per phase. The ending end voltage is 11KV. Find the line current, receiving end voltage and transmission efficiency. Each conductor of a 33KV, 3-phase system is suspended by a string of three similar insulators, the capacitance of each disc is nine times the capacitance to ground. Calculate the voltage across each insulator. Determine the string efficiency. A string of eight suspension insulators is to be graded to obtain uniform distribution of voltage across the string. If the capacitance of the top unit is 10 times the capacitance to ground of each unit, determine the capacitance of the remaining seven units. What is a sag-template? Explain how this is useful for location of towers and stringing of power conductors. What is a stringing chart? Explain clearly the procedure adopted for stringing the power conductors on the supports. Contd…..2

2

3.a) b) c)

4.a)

b)

5.a) b)

Code No: 310203 6.a) b)

::2::

Set.No:2

What are the limitations of solid type cables. How are these overcome in pressure cables? A single core cable has conductor diameter of 40mm and the internal diameter of the lead sheath of 90mm. The cable is provided with two different insulating materials having relative permittivities 4.5 (inner), and 3.5 (outer) respectively. The corresponding maximum permissible electric stresses are 4.5 and 3.5 kv/mm. i) Determine the radial thickness of the insulating materials required to confirm with the above specifications. ii) Also find the safe operating voltage of the cable. Why the improvement of power factor is very important for both consumers and generating stations? List the various causes of low power factor and explain. List the power factor improvement equipment and briefly explain. The currents in a 3-phase unbalanced system are: IR=(12+j6); IY=(12-j12)A IB=(-15+j10)A The phase sequence is RYB. Calculate the zero, positive and negative sequence components of the currents.

7.a) b) c) 8.

$$$

Set No.

Code No: 310203 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 POWER SYSTEMS- II (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) 2. a) b) 3.a) b) c) Derive the expression for calculating the internal and external flux linkages of a conductor carrying current. Use these expressions to derive the equation for the inductance of a single phase line. Calculate the loop inductance per km of a single phase Overhead line consisting of two conductors each 1 cm dia 1.2 meter apart. What do you understand by electric potential? Derive an expression for electrical potential and hence deduce the formula for capacitance for the following cases: Single phase 2-conductor line 3-phase unsymmetrical spacing, but transposed. Why transmission lines are of three phase three wire type and distribution lines are of three phase four wire type? Differentiate between a nominal T and equivalent T representation of a transmission line. Input to a single phase short line is 2000KW at 0.8pf lagging. The line has a series impedance of 0.4 + j0.4 ohms. If the load voltage is 3KV, find the load and receiving end power factor. Also find supply voltage and supply power factor A string of suspension insulators consists of 8 units. If the maximum peak voltage per unit is 33KV. Calculate the maximum voltage for which this string can be used the string efficiency Assume capacitance between each link pin and earth as 15 percent of the selfcapacitance of each unit Calculate maximum sag of a line unit copper conductor 7/0.295cm size, are 0.484sq.cm, overall diameter 0.889cm, weight 428kg/km and breaking strength 1,975kg. Assume factor of safety 2. Span 200 metres. Level supports: Due to weight of the conductor Due to additional weight of ice loading of 1cm thickness Due to both a) and b) plus wind acting horizontally at a pressure of 39kg per sq. metre. Contd….2 Max. Marks: 80

3

4. a) b)

5. a) b) c)

Code No: 310203 6.a) b)

::2::

Set.No:3

Derive the expression for the insulation resistance of a single core cable. A 11kv, 50Hz, single-phase cable has a diameter of 10mm and an internal sheath radius of 15mm. If the dielectric has a relative permittivity of 24, determine for a 2.5 km length cable (i) the capacitance (ii) the charging current. Write short notes on the following p.f. improvement by synchronous condenser importance of p.f. improvement. Economics of p.f. improvement Explain the need for per unit method in power system calculations. Explain how base quantities can be selected and derive the formula for base impedance. A 3-phase unbalanced system currents are read as IR=150 A; IY=0 A; and IB=80A. The phase sequence is RYB. Find all the three symmetrical components for the case.

7. a) b) c) 8.a) b) c)

$$$

Set No.

Code No: 310203 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 POWER SYSTEMS- II (Electrical and Electronics Engineering) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) Develop an expression for the inductance of a single phase transmission line taking into account the internal flux linkages. Assume the conductors are solid. Calculate the inductance per km per phase of a p-phase transposed line, with distance between any two conductors being 4m, 4m and 8 meter respectively. Will capacitance of a transmission line depend upon the ground effect? If so explain. Explain the method of images. Derive the formula for capacitance between two charged conductors with method of images. How a corona formation does affect the efficiency of the line? Give Peterson’s formula to determine the power loss due to corona? A 1 phase transmission line has a resistance of 0.2 ohm and an inductive reactance of 0.4 ohm. Find the voltage at the sending end to give 500KVA at 2KV at the receiving end at load power factors of (i) unity (ii) 0.707 lagging. Illustrate with suitable phasor diagrams. The potential across the 6 units of the string is equalized by using graded insulators. If the capacitance of the top insulator is 8C and that of pin-to-earth is C. Calculate the capacitance of the other units. If instead of graded insulators, a guard ring is used to equalize the potential, calculate the capacitance of each link to conductor. Assume that the insulator used in the string are similar to that of the top. A transmission line conductor at a river crossing is supported from two towers at height of 50 and 80 metres above water level. The horizontal distance between the towers is 300 metres. If the tension in the conductor is 2000Kgs, find the clearance between the conductor and water at a point midway between the towers. Weight of conductor per metre = 0.844Kg. Assume that the conductor takes the shape of parabolic curve Max. Marks: 80

4

2.a) b) c) 3.a) b)

4.

5.

Contd….2

Code No: 310203 6.a) b)

::2::

Set.No:4

Derive an expression for the capacitance of a single core cable. The insulation resistance of a single core cable is 495MΩ/km. If the core diameter is 2.5cm and resistivity of insulation is 4.5x1014 Ω-cm. Find the insulation thickness. What is most economical power factor? Why it is needed? List the methods to improve power factor and explain briefly. Show that the most economical power factor depends upon the relative costs of supply and p.f. correction equipment. Three resistors of 5 ohm, 10 ohm and 20 ohm are connected in Delta across the three phases of a balanced 100 volts supply. What are the sequence currents in the resistors and in the supply lines?

7.a) b) c) 8.

$$$

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