Abstract: The Impact of Glocalization on Erotism and Paradigm shift in the comprehension of the word „Sexy‟- A study through

Bollywood Songs. VasundaraPriya. M Sachin A Tantry Devdas M. B It is indeed the sign of the times that the epithet „sexy‟ sailed into the basket of non -erotic from the actual connotation of erotism in the multi ethnic and multi cultured archaic land of India. Post Globalization and glocalization mended the way of life through the nature of its consummate artistry. Glocalization turned on a paradigm shift in the behavioral attitudinal variables of people through a cultural Coup „de tat. Certain words and phrases, which were considered as a taboo earlier, particularly before globalization started in India, are no more the same. A typical example for this is Bollywood Songs where the word Sexy was not acceptable to audiences for some period of time. But after glocalization and the advent of satellite and Cable television the word sexy has lost its erotic Connotation. The objective of this study is to analyze the metamorphosis of the word „sexy‟ in India and ipso-facto the impact of Glocalization on Erotism. The methodology of qualitative and quantitative analysis is employed in this study, A survey research is carried out in Bangalore City the Capital of the Indian state of Karnataka to find out the young as well as the aged respondents opinions about the erotic connotation of the word Sexy in Bollywood Songs. Apart from analyzing the Impact of Glocalization on erotism this paper also highlights the future research direction in the area of the impact of glocalization on behavioral and attitudinal variables. Key words:Erotism, Glocalization, Sexy, Bollywood Songs, Cultural change, Cultural Coup „de tat, Attitudinal Change. INTRODUCTION: Metamorphosis of the term „Sexy‟ in the Indian context harks back to the pre globalization period and the then prevailed socio-cultural India. The term also envisages the progression of culture in waves. Today the term has been reinvented in the context of glocalisation. Theterm was considered erotic in India and the usage and pronunciation of the term a taboo. Today the

epithet has lost its erotic connotation and become a common word in use. This metamorphosis needs to be studied along with the evolution of the Indian culture. Indian Culture from the pre historic period graciously respected the women folk which is evident from the culture of worshiping female goddesses. By passage of time, position of women in the society might have deteriorated, but never been treated them as sexual objects than today. Two decades ago no one in India would dare to call a modest woman „sexy‟ due to the terms erotic connotations. But over a period of time the erotic connation associated with the term lost its significance. Multiplicity of factors shepherded the term sexy towards non eroticism; but there is one root cause: Glocalisation, Undoubtedly. One can say that the penetration of Gloclastion to Indian soil was through television. People‟s decisions, behavior, culture are shaped never than before the television started occupying the Indian households. The arrival of cable television popularized Bollywood films in urban centers. Television then became an Ad agency for movies, hoping that it would conquer the minds of people and attract them to cinema halls. Thus the Hindimovie songs popularly known as Bollywood songs gained immense popularity in India. The visuals as well as the songs were designed in keeping in mind the traditional Indian mindset. Hence terms like „sexy‟ were then attributed as erotic abstained from Bollywood songs. The mid 90‟s witnessed a paradigm shift in the Bollywood industry due to the sprout of glocalisation. Globalisationleft behind its foot prints in the early 90‟s which failed to captivate the typical mindsets of the Indians, but glocalisation due to its very consummate artistry made the Indians plunge into the trench of modernisation and westernization. The Indian mindsets shifted towards a „look west‟ policy. Western clothing, food and culture started getting popular in India after glocalisation. Traditional culture started dissolving due to the cultural coup-e-datwhich was a meticulous engineering of glocalisation. Bollywood songs could be one such typical example of the impact of glocalisation on Indian Culture. The usage of the word „sexy‟ was considered a taboo and a film song was banne d for using the same in the pre glocalised period. Gradually the traditional Indian mindsets started evolving with the innovations teeming from glocalisation, which in turn made the epithet out of erotic connotations. The word sexy nowadays is increasingly used in Bollywood and regional language cinema democratically.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: This study focuses on the metamorphosis of the word “sexy" and its loosing erotic connotations, and also attempts to explain the reason of cultural and attitudinal change happened in India due to Glocalisation. It is evident that that the definition of eroticism has changed post glocalisation, and this in turn brought significant changes in people ‟s attitude, behavior, and culture, within the span of one and a half decade. This study examines the impact of glocalisation on eroticism through the metamorphosis of the word „sexy‟ from erotic to non -erotic. It also reflects the spirit and the essence of the glocalisation and how deeply it has entrenched the Indian soil. An empirical analysis of the cross section of the society is studied which would help to predict to some extent the probable cultural changes yet to happen.

ON THE THEME: Eroticism is a concept with multiple connotations, hence a dynamic term. Whatever was considered erotic some time ago, turned out as non-erotic by the passage of time. Hence it could be presumed that the passage of time has a clear impact on eroticism and brings about changes in the society which would be both materialistic and ideological. The word „sexy‟ may be nothing more than a word to describe beauty to a person who is a part of the western social system. In the Indian context the word was regarded as erotic and pronunciation of that either by person by an audio visual media was regarded as a deviance from the prevailed culture, derogatory and often paved the way for major stirrings. The word „sexy‟ probably got the erotic connation because of the listener‟s mindset which register it as SEX-Y, related to Sex. Ironically India, though the birthplace of „Kamasutra‟ – world‟s oldest and most acute portrayal of sex style, however turned its face from the care was taken word sexy. The usage of the word was a taboo for quite a long period of time. The movie, songs and other mediums of entertainment shut their doors to it,but soon we could see a major ideological shift in the mindsets of the people. The word sexy became increasingly popular than before and lost its erotic connotation. This phenomenon would be evident when we closely look at Bollywood films. Bollywood movies are popular for their songs which are flamboyantly picturised and are an inevitable aspect of these films. The lyrics and music of the songs were articulated in such a way to invoke the spirit of the movies to its audiences.

The lyrics of early Bollywood films were poems and the lyricists were poets. Due care was taken in early days while writing lyrics. Words or phrases, with negative or erotic meanings never appeared in early movie songs. Until 1994, no Bollywood movie used the word „sexy‟ or its kinds in its songs, as the popular belief was that the word was erotic. A film in 1994 used the word “sexy” in one of the songs of the film which was forced to be changed amidst protests from various sources. But as we cross the 20th century the word sexy appears to be increasingly used in Bollywood songs irrespective of its necessity. This study is making an effort to portray the paradigm shift that has taken place in the comprehension of the word sexy through Bollywood songs. Thestudy analysis two Bollywood songs that made its appearance in two different eras, one during the pre-glocalised era and the other in the glocalised era, thus the study is making an attempt to illustrate the nuances of differences in the mindsets of people due to glocalisation and also concludes that glocalisation was able to catapult a cultural coupede tat in India.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY: 1. To give a broad view of the traditional Indian culture and the mindsets of the people towards the word „sexy‟. 2. To analyse the metamorphosis of the word „sexy‟ from its erotic connotation to nonerotic, through bollywood songs 3. To delineate the role of glocalisation in the process of changing people‟s mind setsin India

METHODOLOGY: Contentanalysis and empirical analysis has been used in this study. Since the study is focusing on attitudinal changes that had taken place in the past one and a half decades and there is no barometer to measure the socio cultural and attitudinal changes in that particular time period, content analysis seemed apt for the study. The scientific method of empirical analysis is also used to measure the present attitudinal and behavioral change amounted as a result of glocalisation. A survey research was carried out in Bangalore city with this regard.

INDIAN MINDSETS AND CULTURE: Mark Twain said “India is the cradle of human race, birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the gr eat grandmother of tradition”. It has always been known for its heritage, culture and traditions. From being the land of the maharajas to becoming the land of growing opportunities, the country has travelled an exhaustive distance. Throughout this journey India has proved that being a country of diverse cultures, traditions etc. it still remains united. The diversity of thought is still prevalent though „Kama sutra‟ is the integral part of a larger collection of ancient Indian texts is a treasure that India has given to the world. But when something of the same sought is heard or spoken about it is considered a boon in the Indian society. The country seems to be in a transition phase. We can consider this present society to have come through many phases hence showing a good mix of the old and the new, which leads to differences in thoughts and actions.

IMPACT OF GLOCALISATION ON BOLLYWOOD FILM SONGS: The Indian film industry is one of the oldest and the largest industries in the world. Popularly known as „Bollywood‟ it is celebrating its centenary this year. It is also the largest producer of films; over 1000 films are produced annually in various languages. In terms of annual film output Bolllywood ranks first after Hollywood. Song and music is an inseparable part of cinema in India. Globalisation opened new market for cinema. Foreign images and its Indianised version, MTV culture became part of everyday viewing experience increasingly than before. 1995 onwards a silent cultural drift started eclipsing the Indian society. This cultural drift is obvious in bollywood films and its songs, which started the glamorization and objectification of women with ado to imitate the western culture.The Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC), the apex authority for certification of movies for public exhibition, was not permittingkissing scenes in movies until recently. But today after the glocalisation and resulted global cultural transactions-which resulted in the manufacture of new language, image and culture-the CBFC is forced to take a U-turn from many of its earlier norms.Thefollowing two case studies instill much information about metamorphosis of the word sexy.

CASE STUDY: 1 Film:„Khuddar‟ 1 Song: Sexy SexyMujhe log bole2 Original Hindi Version Sexy, sexy, sexy mujhe log bole, Hi sexy, hello sexy kyunbole?! Chehrayeh le jaaonkaha, Husnkochupaokaha Romeo hazaaraagepeechedaude Sexy, sexy, sexy, sexy… English Translation Sexy, Sexy, Sexy people call me Hi Sexy, Hello Sexy, Why do they say?! Whereshall I take my face, Whereshall I hide my beauty? Thousands of Romeos run around me Sexy, sexy, sexy, sexy…

In 1994 the song of the movie Khuddar released amid protest and the above mentioned song with the words “sexy”was the epicenter of the controversy.Many women‟sorganizations and Hindu right wing groups made clamor for banning the song. Amid protest the CBFC asked the film makers to change the lyrics of the song else the public exhibition of the film would be prohibited.Due to CBFC„s decision the makers of the movie replaced the word „sexy‟ with socially acceptable word „baby‟ to facilitate its smooth release. This event could be typical example of the traditional Indian mindset. It is curious to observe that the epicenter of the protest against the song was the usage of the word „sexy, which was considered as erotic and derogatory then. The protesters against the song accentuated that the word sexy is obscene and its public exhibition should be forbidden as it is contrary to Indian culture. The time period of the release of the movie is important to Indian society as the glocalization stated entrenching its foot print in Indian soil. The popularity of the western way of life and transnational channels started increasingly entering in to Indian households. This period was an arena of conflict between traditional and newly emerging culture byproduct of glocalisation, hence could be regarded as a transition period. In the succeeding years India witnessed dramatic social and cultural changes due to glocalisation. The following case study reflects the changes that have happened.

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CASE STUDY: 2 Film: Tees Maar Khan3 Song: Sheelakijawani4

Original Hindi Version My Name Is Sheela, Sheela Ki Jawani I'm Too Sexyfor You Main TereHaath Na Aani Na NaNaSheela,Sheela Ki Jawani I'm TooSexyfor You Main TereHaath Na Aani

English Translation My Name Is Sheela, Sheela’s youth I'm Too Sexy For You You can’t catch me No NoNoSheela’s youth I'm Too Sexy For You You can’t catch me

In 2011 above mentioned song of the movie „Tees Mar Khan‟ gained much popularity among Indians especially among the youth and this song too has used the word „sexy‟. But interestingly there was no clamor from any sources to ban the movie or song. In fact the song gained the title of most popular song and found its place in many hit charts.Neither the women‟s organizations nor the Hindu right wing groups raised any protest against the song. The CBFC commemorated a „U‟ certificate to the movie. It is interesting to note that metamorphosis of the word „sexy‟ happened during the last one and half decade. When we reach to Tees Mar Khan from Khuddar we can see the word sexy lost its erotic connotation. The people who lived during the same time period when the movie Khuddar was released and stood against the song and the usage of the word, today accepts its usage in movies. This underscores the socio-cultural change amounted from glocalisation. To understand the socio cultural changes happened due to glocalisationanan empirical study was undertaken along with these case studies.

Empirical research design For the study Bangalore, a metropolitan cityof Karnataka, India was chosen. An online survey was conducted with the help of a sprucely designed questionnaire. 100 respondents were chosen
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for the study of which 50 were men and 50 were women. These respondents chosen wereintheir teens during the period of the release of the filmKhuddar in 1994 and hence taken as samples for this study.

Analysis and observations The cultural and attitudinal changes that have taken place in the past one and half decade is tested with the questions related to the two songs mentioned in the case study. The impact of Glocalisation on society and culture being the focus of the study the results obtained out of the analysis is presented and discussed below.

Personnel characteristics of the respondents The data has been analyzed keeping in view the independent variables such as gender and age. The relationship between the age and gender will reveal the nature of respondents.

Agreement and Disagreement tothe word “SEXY”

Usage of the word "SEXY"
Song 2 Strongly Disagree Disagree Some what Agree Agree Strongly Agree 0 2.07% 8% 4.03% 6.80% 3% 2% Song 1 82%

1.02%

90%

Figure 1: Agreement or Disagreement to the word "SEXY" in both the songs

Figure 1 shows the agreement and disagreement to the songs by the respondents. As seen in the graph 82% of the respondents say that the word “Sexy” was not aptly used in the first song whereas 90% strongly agreed to its usage in the second song which shows the paradigm shift in their thoughts and perceptions over a period of time.

Element of Vulgarity

Element Of Vulgarity in the Songs
Song 1 Song 2

87.06%

12.04%

Song 1

Song 2

Figure 2: Element of Vulgarity in the Songs

Figure 2 represents the respondent‟s opinion on the element of vulgarity the word “Sexy” exudes in both the songs. 87.06% respondents feel that the element of vulgarity is more in the first song as compared to a 12.04% for the second. Was the replacement of the word “SEXY”necessary?

Replacement of the word 'Sexy'
Song 1 Song 2

No

12%

92%

Yes

88%

8%

Figure 3: If the Replacement of the word “SEXY” was necessary?

Theterm “Sexy” was replaced with another so called socially acceptable word “Baby”. The Table also shows that 88% of the respondents felt the replacement was necessary in song one but 92% of the same audience don‟t feel the same in case of song two which shows that the audiences have started accepting the term without any erotic connotations. Acceptance of the word “SEXY” by Indian Audiences

Acceptance of the word "SEXY" in Glocalized India
Strongly Disagree Disagree Some what Agree Agree Strongly Agree 3.3 5.7 6.2 6.8 78

Figure 4: Acceptance of the word “SEXY” by Indian Audiences

Figure 4 shows that in the present day the word “sexy”is more acceptable than it was 15 years ago. 78% respondents strongly agree to this statement.

Impact of Glocalisation on Mindset, Culture and perception about Erotism

Impact of Glocalization
No 24% 76% Yes

Erotic

Mindset

8%
92%

Culture

19%
81%

Glocalisation has evidently impacted the mindsets, culture and perception about erotismof the respondents. The graph clearly show that the term is no more considered erotic, does not attack the culture and has changed the mindsets of Indian audiences today.

Change in Women‟s Mindsets

Women's approval with the statement made by Mrs Mamta Sharma's, Charperson NCW
Yes 16% No 84%

Figure 5: Change in Women’s Mindsets

Mrs.Mamatha Sharma, Chairperson- NCW (National Commission for Women) recently said “Sexy means excitingly beautiful and should be taken as a compliment” the data shows that 84% of the women agreed with this statement which validates the study.

Conclusion: From both the case studies and associated empirical analysis it is evident that the word sexy is no more an erotic phrase or has any erotic connotations in India. The apparent reason catapulted this metamorphosis is glocalisation. The impact of the glocalisation is evident on Indian culture since 1995.Glocalisation has amended the way of life by altering the culture,attitude and behavior thus paving way for a cultural coupe de tat. During the period of the releases of the movies many women organizations protested against the broadcast and telecast of the song „sexy sexy‟. But recently the chairperson of National Commission for women (The apex national level organization of India with the mandate of protecting and promoting the interests of women)Mamta Sharma during her speech in Jaipur said “women should be proud “if someone call them as sexy. From the empirical study undertaken in this research we can come to the conclusion as majority of the respondents agree that the word „sexy‟ is acceptable to Indian culture. Proliferation of mass media and the impact of glocalisation

is the main reason for the paradigm shift, as it acted as a catalyst in bringing about social and cultural change.

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