1ema 2

• Crganlzaclón general del slsLema endocrlno
• ulversldad qulmlca y de mecanlsmos de
slnLesls, secreclón y acclón de las hormonas
• naLuraleza [erárqulca del slsLema endocrlno
• SlsLemas de ampllñcaclón y conLrol
• ÞaLologlas del slsLema endocrlno
• L[e hlpoLálamo-hlpóñsls (hlpoLálamo/plLulLarla)
• Crganlzaclón anaLómlca y funclonal:
neurohlpóñsls y adenohlpóñsls
- Clándula plneal y melaLonlna
Arno|d Ado|ph 8ertho|d,
1849
Aprox|mac|ón c|ás|ca a |a |nvesngac|ón en endocr|no|og|a:
-Lxurpar la glándula con poslble acuvldad endocrlna para promover un esLado
de dehc|enc|a hormona| y observar camblos ñslológlcos en el anlmal de experlmenLaclón
!"#$%& ()*+,-#+). /001. 2%*$&3,4,56% 3* 23&&,#. 73#%&&,88, 73 #6*4,5%# 73 7)%9343#:
-8eponer la glándula o admlnlsLrar un exLracLo de la mlsma para lnLenLar reverur los
camblos ñslológlcos deLecLados (terap|a de susntuc|ón), o hacer lo mlsmo en anlmales conLrol
Þara ver efecLos de un exceso de hormonas
!"#$%& ()*+,-#+). /001. )528%*4%$);* 73 <&%=53*4,# 73 2>*$&3%# 739%?, 73 8% 2)38
53?,&% 7)%9343# 3* 23&&,# 2%*$&3,4,5)@%7,#:
AÞurlñcar exLracLos de la glándula ldenuñcada e ldenuñcar las susLanclas con acuvldad hormonal
!B&373&)$+ C%*D*= E FG%&83# C3#4. /1H/. )73*DI$%* #J#4%*$)% %*D7)%9KD$% 3*
3L4&%$4,# 73 2>*$&3%#M /1HH. 2J&)I$%$);* 73 )*#J8)*% E JD8)@%$);* 3* 3*#%E,# $86*)$,#:
Concepto actua| : |as hormonas no só|o se secretan desde |as g|ándu|as espec|a||zadas
c|ás|cas, s|no tamb|ón por có|u|as endocr|nas d|fusas s|tuadas en d|versos te[|dos
Þr|nc|pa|es g|ándu|as y fuentes endocr|nas: |oca||zac|ón anatóm|ca
Þr|nc|pa|es g|ándu|as endocr|nas: |oca||zac|ón anatóm|ca
..y feromonas??
Þr|nc|pa|es g|ándu|as endocr|nas: acc|ones hso|óg|cas
Þr|nc|pa|es g|ándu|as endocr|nas: acc|ones hso|óg|cas
• Amlnes, derlved from Lyroslne and LrypLophan
– Lxamples: hormones from Lhe adrenal medulla
(caLecholamlnes), Lhyrold hormones, and melaLonln
(plneal gland)
• Þolypepudes and proLelns
-Lxamples: po|ypepndes as anudlureuc hormone/
vasopressln, lnsulln, growLh hormone (CP), g|ycoprote|ns
as folllcle-sumulaung and luLelnlzlng hormones (lSP, LP)
• SLerolds are llplds derlved from cholesLerol
– Lxamples: LesLosLerone, esLradlol, progesLerone,
corusol. SecreLed by adrenal corLex and gonads
D|vers|dad qu|m|ca de |as hormonas: d|ferentes
mecan|smos de s|ntes|s, secrec|ón y acc|ón
Þepude Pormone SynLhesls,
Þackaglng, and 8elease
4 S
1o target
Acnve hormone
Go|g| comp|ex
Secretory
ves|c|e
!"# "$%&'()*+ ,()*+)
Þepnde
fragment
ke|ease
s|gna|
Cap|||ary
endothe||um
Messenger kNA on the
r|bosomes b|nds am|no
ac|ds |nto a pepnde cha|n
ca||ed a '-.'-&/&-+&0..
1he cha|n |s d|rected |nto
the Lk |umen by a *120)(
*.45.06. of am|no ac|ds.
1he secretory
ves|c|e re|eases
|ts contents by
exocytos|s |nto
the extrace||u|ar
space.
1he hormone
moves |nto the
c|rcu|anon for
transport to |ts
target.
Lnzymes |n the
Lk chop oñ the
s|gna| sequence,
creanng an
|nacnve
'-&/&-+&0..
1he prohormone
passes from the
Lk through the
Go|g| comp|ex.
Secretory ves|c|es conta|n|ng
enzymes and prohormone
bud oñ the Go|g|. 1he enzymes
chop the prohormone |nto one
or more acnve pepndes p|us
add|nona| pepnde fragments.
mkNA
k|bosome
Þrohormone
S|gna|
sequence
1ransport
ves|c|e
Lndop|asm|c rencu|um (Lk)
Þreprohormone
1 2 3 6
1
2
3
4
S
6
1yros|ne-der|ved am|ne hormones
(adrena| g|and medu||a , neurons) (thyro|d g|and)
Stero|d hormones are der|ved from cho|estero|
Adrena| g|and cortex, gonads, p|acenta
Þrehormones
G|obu||ns (C8G, 18G), a|bum|n
kecaptura, degradac|ón, |nacnvac|ón y excrec|ón
Membrane recepLors and slgnal Lransducuon for
pepude and amlne hormones
SLerold Pormones: Acuon
Most hydrophob|c
stero|ds are bound
to p|asma prote|n
carr|ers. Cn|y
unbound hormones
can d|ñuse |nto the
target ce||.
1rans|anon produces new
prote|ns for ce|| processes.
Some stero|d
hormones a|so
b|nd to mem-
brane receptors
that use second
messenger
systems to
create rap|d
ce||u|ar
responses.
Stero|d hormone
receptors are
typ|ca||y |n the
cytop|asm or
nuc|eus.
1he receptor-
hormone comp|ex
b|nds to DNA
and acnvates or
represses one or
more genes.
Acnvated genes create new
mkNA that moves |nto the
cytop|asm.
Ce||
membrane
Intersnna|
ßu|d
Cytop|asm|c
receptor
Lndop|asm|c
rencu|um
Nuc|eus
Nuc|ear
receptor
DNA
1rans|anon
kap|d responses
1ranscr|pnon
produces mkNA
Stero|d
hormone
8|ood
vesse|
Þrote|n
carr|er
New
prote|ns
Ce|| surface receptor
2
3
1
4 S
2a
1
2
2a
3
4
S
SLerold Pormone Acuon 1hyrold Pormone Acuon
naLuraleza [erárqulca del slsLema endocrlno
SlsLemas de ampllñcaclón y conLrol
• Sumulus
• AñerenL slgnal
• lnLegrauon
• LñerenL slgnal (Lhe hormone)
• Þhyslologlcal acuon
• negauve feedback
Snmu|us
1
S|mp|e neura|
reßex
keceptor
Añerent
neuron
CNS
|ntegranng
center
Lñerent
neuron
Neuro-
transm|uer
1arget
ce||
kesponse
1
Snmu|us
Neurohormone
reßex
8|ood
vesse|
kesponse
Snmu|us
L
1
Lndocr|ne
|ntegranng
center
kesponse
Snmu|us
L
Lndocr|ne
ce||s
Neurohormone
Neurotransm|uer
k k k
L
1

L
2

k
1
k
Snmu|us
kesponse
normone #2
kesponse
1
Snmu|us
L
k
kesponse
1
normone
k
L
S Snmu|us
Lndocr|ne ce||
keceptor (sensor)
Sensory neuron
(añerent pathway)
CNS or endocr|ne
|ntegranng center
1
Neurotransm|uer
Neurohormone
C|ass|c hormone
Lñerent neuron
1arget ce|| 7.8.6%&-9
Lñerent pathways
kL¥
Neuroendocr|ne reßexes
S|mp|e endocr|ne
reßex
1 2 3 4 S 6
1AkGL1 1ISSULS
ÞkL
SUMMAk¥ CI 1nL MAICk CCMÞCNLN1S CI 1nL LNDCCkINL
S¥S1LM
1Sn
CALCIUM
Gn
AC1n
Ln]ISn
GCNADS LIVLk
ADkLNAL
CCk1Lk
ÞANCkLAS 1n¥kCID
INSULIN
GLUCAGCN
S1LkCIDS
IGI-1
13 +14
S1LkCIDS
Þ1n
GLUCCSL
AN1LkICk LC8L
CI ÞI1UI1Ak¥
ÞCS1LkICk LC8L CI
ÞI1UI1Ak¥
ÞAkA1n¥kCID
Ck¥1CCIN
MILk
88Aln
8kLAS1
DIL1
ADkLNAL
CCk1Lk
VASCÞkLSSIN
ILLD8ACk LCCÞS

CP8P Cn8P
C8P 18P
Pormones of Lhe hypoLhalamlc-anLerlor
plLulLary paLhway