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Code No: 310405 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION (Common to Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) 2.a) b) 3.a) b)

1

Define the Sampling theorem and establish the same for band pass signals, using neat schematics. For the modulating signal m(t) = 2 Cos 100 t + 18 Cos 2000 πt , determine the allowable sampling rates and sampling intervals. Explain the principles of TDM. List out their merits, demerits and applications. Explain the method of generation and detection of PAM signals with neat schematics. Derive the probability error in base band PAM transmission. Design a binary base band PAM system to transmit data at a rate of 9600 bps with a bit error probability Pe < 10-5. The channel available is an ideal lowpass channel with a bandwidth of 9,600Hz. The noise can be assumed to be white, Gaussian with a two-sided psd η/2 = 10-13 Watt/Hz. Sketch the shape of H T ( f ) , H R ( f ) , Pg ( f ) and find the Transmitter power requirements. Give the block diagram of a system used to derive a clock-signal from the received waveform and explain its operation. Compare the performance of bi-polar coding, twinned binary coding in terms of d.c component, bandwidth required and clock recovery? Derive the expression for quantization noise power in PCM System. Derive the expression for signal quantization noise ratio for PCM system that employs linear quantization technique. Assume the input to the PCM system is a sinusoidal signal. In a single-integration DM system, the voice signal is sampled at a rate of 64kHz.The maximum signal amplitude is Amax=1. a)Determine the minimum value of the step size σ to avoid slope over load error. b)Determine the granular noise power if the voice signal bandwidth is 3.5kHz. c)Assuming that the voice signal is sinusoidal, determine output signal power and SNR d)Determine the minimum transmission bandwidth. Contd…..2

4.a) b) 5.a) b)

6.

Code No: 310405 7.a)

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Set.No:1

b)

With neat block diagram explain coherent detection of ASK waveform and hence show that probability of error Pe=Q (√Eav/η) Where Eav is the average siglal energy/bit [Eav=Sav Tb]. Binary data is transmitted over a microwave link at a rate of 106 bits/Sec and the psd of noise at the receier is 10-10 Watts/Hz. Find the avarage carrier power required to maintain an average probability of error Pe≤ 10-4 for coherent binary FSK. What is the required channel bandwidth? What are the uses of coding in communication systems? The generator matrix for a (6,3) block code is given below: G= 100 011 010 101 001 110 Find the code words, weights of the code words and the minimum distance of the code.

8.a) b)

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Set No.

Code No: 310405 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION (Common to Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

2

1.a) b)

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --Establish the principles of flat top sampling with neat schematics. Hence explain the phenomenon of aperture effect and equalization. A TV Signal has a bandwidth of 4.5 MHz. Determine the sampling rate and sampling intervals for – (i) minimum sampling, (ii) 10 % under sampling, and (iii) 20 % over sampling Establish the channel bandwidth requirements for simultaneous transmission of N signals using PAM – TDM. Define and distinguish between PAM and PTM schemes. Sketch and explain their waveforms for a single tone sinusoidal input signal. Suggest a method to transmit data at the rate of rb bits/sec. over channel with a bandwidth of rb/2 Hz and explain it. A base band binary PAM system uses a signaling waveform Sin π rb t Pg (t ) = to transmit binary data at a bit rate of rb bps. The amplitude π rb t levels at the pulse generator out put are + 1V or – 1V, +1 if the input bit is 1 and -1 if the input bit is 0. Sketch the waveform of the pulse generator output when the input bit string is 1001101. Explain the working of scrambler and unscrambler with the aid of diagrams. Explain about optimum equalizer that minimizes the peak Inter Symbol Interference. binary

2.a) b) 3.a) b)

4.a) b)

5.a) A Television signal with a band width of 4.2 Mhz is transmitted using PCM. The number of quantization levels are 512. Calculate i) Code ward length ii) Transmission band width iii) Final bit rate iv) Out put signal to quantization noise ratio b) Explain the need for non uniform quantization in PCM system.

Contd…..2

Code No: 310405 6. 7.a) b)

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Set.No:2

Compare the performance of SSB, DSB, AM, WBFM and PCM communication systems with reference to Bandwidth, signal to noise ratio and power. Explain correlation receiver with block diagram. Also explain why the correlation receiver is also called as Integrate and Dump filter. A received signal is ± 1mv for Tb second intervals with equal probability. The signal is accompanied by white Gaussian noise with a psd of 10-10 Watt/Hz. The receiver integrates the signal plus noise synchronously for Tb second duration and decodes the signal by comparing the integrator output with 0. (i) Find the maximum signaling rate (Minimum value of Tb) such that Pe=10-4. (ii) If actual signaling takes place at ½ the rate found in (i), what is the signal amplitude required to maintain Pe=10-4 ? What is meant by Hamming distance (dmin)? Show that D errors in a received codeword can be detected if D<= dmin-1. Find all code vectors and the parity check matrix for a (6,3) block code whose generator matrix is G= 100 011 010 101 001 110

8.a) b)

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Set No.

Code No: 310405 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION (Common to Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max. Marks: 80

3

Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) A signal m(t) = 2 Cos (100 πt) Cos (500 πt) is ideally sampled at 700 Hz, and is sent through an ideal LPF with cut off at 650 Hz. Determine the frequency components in the filter output. What changes will be there if the sampling is done at Nyquist rate? b) Distinguish between different types of transmission schemes for PAM signals, identifying the bandwidth requirements in each case. 2.a) b) c) 3.a) What are the advantages and limitations of PAM systems. List out the applications, merits and demerits of PPM signals. Explain the process of generation and recovery of PWM signals, with neat schematics.

Compare duo-binary scheme with ideal binary PAM scheme using pulses with raised cosine frequency characteristics. b) Design a quarternary-signaling scheme for transmitting the output of an ergodic source emitting an independent sequence of symbols from a source alphabet consisting of four equiprobable symbols A, B, C and D. The symbol rate of the source is 5000 symbols per sec. and the overall error probability has to be less than 10-4. The channel available for transmitting the data has the following characteristics: 1 Hc ( f )= and Gn ( f ) =10 −12 Watt / Hz. 1 + j ( f / 5000) Explain the necessity of Equalization in base band PAM systems. Find the duo-binary encoded sequence for the data sequence 011010. How it is detected? With a neat block diagram explain the working of a DPCM system. The bandwidth of signal input to the PCM is restricted to 4Khz.The input varies from -3.8v to +3.8v and has average power of 30mW.The required SNR is 20dB. The modulator produces binary output. Assume uniform quantization. i) Calculate the number bits required per sample ii) Outputs of 30 such PCM Coders are time Multiplexed. What is the minimum required transmission bandwidth for the multiplexed signal. Contd…..2

4.a) b) 5.a) b)

Code No: 310405 6. 7.a)

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Set.No:3

Derive and compare the signal to Noise ratio comparison of AM and FM system. With a neat block diagram explain noncoherent detection of ASK receiver, and hence derive the expression for probability of error Pe ≈ ½ exp (-A2/8N0) if A2 >>N0 b) Binary data has to be transmitted over a telephone link that has a usable bandwidth at 3000Hz and a maximum achievable signal-to-noise power ratio of 6 dB at its output. i) Determine the maximum signaling rate and Pe if a coherent ASK scheme is used for transmitting binary data through this challel. ii) If the data rate is maintained at 300 bits/Sec, calculate the error probability. Find the generator matrix of the H matrix given H= 11111110000 1000 11110001010 0100 11001101101 0010 10101011111 0001 Find the first 5 code words. If the information word is A = 00101100111, find the code word T.

8.a)

b)

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Set No.

Code No: 310405 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 DIGITAL COMMUNICATION (Common to Electronics and Communication Engineering, Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) Explain the different types of Sampling Obtain the Nyquist rate and Nyquist interval for the signal 10 Cos (2000 πt) Cos (4000 πt) based on – (i) low pass sampling theory, and (ii) Band pass sampling theory Explain how the PPM signals can be generated and reconstructed through PWM signals. Compare the merits and demerits of PAM, PDM and PPM signals. List out their applications Design a binary base band PAM system to transmit data at a bit rate of 3600 bits/sec. with a bit error probability less than 10-4. The channel response is given by, 10 −2 for f < 2400 Hc ( f ) = Else where 0 The noise power spectral density is Gn (f) = 10-14 Watt/Hz. What is meant by precoding? Give the scheme of basic precoded duo-binary scheme and explain its operation? Why this scheme is not suitable for channels having poor d.c response? Write short notes on the following: a) Adaptive equalizer. b) c) Characteristics of eye pattern. Scrambler Max. Marks: 80

4

2.a) b) 3.a)

b)

4.a)

5.a) b)

Explain μ-law companding for Speech signals. Twenty four signals are sampled uniformly and then time division multiplexed. The highest frequency component for each voice signal is 3.4kHz. i) If the signals are pulse amplitude modulated using Nyquist rate sampling, What is the minimum channel bandwidth required. ii) If the signals are Pulse code modulated with an 8 bit encoder, what is the sampling rate. The bit rate of the system is 1.5Mbits/sec. Contd…..2

Code No: 310405 6. 7.a) b)

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Set.No:4

Derive the expression for the figure of merit of AM, DSB-SC systems and compare. Derive an expression for probability of bit-error for a binary non-coherent FSK demodulator. Binary data is transmitted over a telephone line with usable bandwidth of 2400 Hz using the FSK signaling scheme. The transmit frequencies are 2025 & 2225 Hz, and the data rate is 300 bits/Sec. The average signal to noise power ratio at the output of the channel is 6dB. Calculate Pe for the coherent and non coherent demodulation schemes. Construct the standard array for a (6,3)linear block code whose generator matrix is given below. G= b) 100 010 001 110 011 101

8.a)

Write the advantages of table lookup decoding scheme in linear block codes.

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