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A 19 page FREE e-book(pdf 670 KB) Mechanics Part Two 'Two Dimensional Motion'.Divided into 3 sections viz.projectiles,circular motion,relative motion.

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com

2

distributed freely provided it is not sold for profit.

Contents

projectiles 3

circular motion 6

relative motion 12

3

Projectiles

horizontal(neglecting air resistance)it follows the curve of a parabola.

The particle has an initial horizontal speed of ucosθ, which is unchanged throughout the

motion.

Vertically the particle has an initial speed of usinθ. It falls under gravity and is accelerated

downwards with an acceleration of g ms-1,where g = 9.8 ms-2 (approx.)

Time of flight

The time of flight is calculated from the vertical component of the velocity. It is the time it

takes for the particle to go up, reach its maximum height and come down again. So this is

twice the time to maximum height.

If the time to maximum height is t secs. Then the time of flight is 2t.

Consider motion up to maximum height. This is attained when the final velocity v = 0.

4

The maximum height attained occurs when the particle is momentarily stationary, before

falling under gravity. The vertical component of speed is zero at this point(v=0).

Range(R)

The range is simply the horizontal component of speed multiplied by the time of flight.

5

Solution of problems is to find the vertical component of speed at time t and combine this

with the original horizontal component of speed, which remains unchanged.

Example

A particle P is projected at an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal at a speed of 30 ms-1 .

What is the speed and direction of the particle after 3 secs.?

(g=9.8 ms-2)

6

Circular Motion

Summary of equations

As the position vector R rotates anti-clockwise, the particle at P traces out a circle of

radius r .

7

The velocity vector V at an instant is given by differentiating the position vector R with

respect to t .

Here the unit vectors i & j, parallel to the x and y-axes, are centred on the particle at P.

8

9

Example

If the radius of the circle followed by the satellite is 1000 km, find:

i) the acceleration of the satellite

ii) the time for the satellite to complete one full orbit of the moon in minutes(2d.p.).

10

circular motion'.

Here we look at the more general case of the acceleration component along the circle and

the component towards the centre varying.

Example

A particle starts to move in a circular direction with an angular speed of 5 rad s-1 .

The radius of the circle of motion is 4 m, and the angular speed at time t is given by,

What is,

(answers to 1 d.p.)

11

12

Relative Motion

Consider two particles A and B at instant t positioned along the x-axis from point O.

Particle A has a displacement xA from O, and a velocity VA along the x-axis. The

displacement xA is a function of time t .

Particle B has a displacement xB from O, and a velocity VB along the x-axis. The

displacement xB is a function of time t .

BVA = VB - VA

This can be expressed in terms of the derivative of the displacement with respect to time.

13

Particle A has a displacement rA from O, and a velocity VA along the x-axis. The

displacement rA is a function of time t .

Particle A has a displacement rB from O, and a velocity VB along the x-axis. The

displacement rB is a function of time t .

Relative position

The position of B relative to A at time t is given by the position vector from O, rB-A .

r

B A = rB - rA

14

Relative velocity

Similarly, at time t the velocity vector VB relative to velocity vector VA can be written,

BVA = VB - VA

This can be expressed in terms of the derivative of the displacement with respect to time.

Example #1

If the velocity of a particle P is (9i - 2j) ms-1 and the velocity of another particle Q is (3i -

8j) ms-1 , what is the velocity of particle P relative to Q?

15

Example #2

A particle P has a velocity (4i + 3j) ms-1. If a second particle Q has a relative velocity to P

of (2i - 3j), what is the velocity of Q?

Example #3

P has position vector (4i + 3j) km, with velocity vector (3i - j) km hr -1.

Q has position vector (8i + j) km, with velocity vector (2i + 2j) km hr -1.

i) What is the displacement of P relative to Q at 0900 hours? (ie distance between ships).

Answer to 2 d.p.

ii) Write an expression for the displacement of P relative to Q in terms of time t .

iii) Hence calculate the displacement of P relative to Q at 1500 hours.

16

i)

ii)

17

18

Similarly, if aA and aB are the acceleration vectors at A and B at time t, then the

acceleration of B relative to A is given by,

19

Notes

distributed freely provided it is not sold for profit.

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