HAWA - Hazardous Waste Management Project Karnataka Indo-German Technical Cooperation ASEM Advisory Services in Environmental Management

Karnataka State Pollution Control Board
German Technical Cooperation Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH

Detailed Project Report (DPR) Treatment Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) for Karnataka Dobbasapete, Bangalore Rural District June 2004

2229. Ecology & Environment (DFEE).00 P 1214 . Karnataka Date: June.1 – 001. 2004 .HAWA .Hazardous Waste Management Project Karnataka Indo-German Technical Cooperation Karnataka State Pollution Control Board KSPCB Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH (German Technical Cooperation) PN 96. Government of Karnataka Submitted by: HAWA Project GTZ-KSPCB.2 Submitted to: Department of Forest.

DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project. Karnataka Page ♦ iii List of Acronyms: AAS AFAS APCS APIIC APPCB BIS BOO BS BT CA CEO CERCLA CETP CFC CFE CII CL CPCB DEWATS DFEE DMP DSCR EDF EIA EIRA EMP EPH ERF ETP EU EWL FDI FI GIDC GM GoI GoK GSDP GSPCB GTZ HAWA HDPE HR HW HWM ICAR IHW IMD IRR KSPCB / GTZ Atomic Absorption Spectro Photo meter Automatic Fire Alarm System Air Pollution Control Systems Andhra Pradesh Industrial Infrastructural Corporation Andhra Pradesh Pollution Control Board Bureau of Indian Standards Build Own Operate British Standards Bio-Technology Contracting Authority Chief Executive Officer Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act Common Effluent Treatment Plant Chloro Flouro Carbons Consent for Establishment Confederation of Indian Industries Clay Liner Central Pollution Control Board Decentralized Waste Water System Department of Forests. Government of Karnataka Disaster Management Plan Debt Service Coverage Ratio Environment Development Fund Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment Environmental Management Plan Environmental Public Hearing Environmental Relief Fund Effluent Treatment Plant European Union Equivalent Waste Location Foreign Direct Investment Financial Institution Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation General Manager Government of India Government of Karnataka Gross State Domestic Product Gujarat State Pollution Control Board German Technical Cooperation Hazardous Waste Management project High Density Poly Ethylene Human Resource Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Management Indian Council of Agricultural Research Incinerable Hazardous Waste Indian Meteorological Department Internal Rate of Return ERM GmbH . Ecology and Environment.

DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project. Karnataka Page ♦ iv IT KHWMA KIADB KSPCB MIDC MoEF MoUs MPCB MSIHC MT NAAQS NE NEPA NFPA NNE NOC PAH PCB PCC PLCC PFA PO POHC PPG PVCA R. New Delhi Memoranda of Understanding Maharashtra Pollution Control Board Manufacture Storage and Import Hazardous Chemicals Metric Tons National Ambient Air Quality Standards North East National Environment Protection Agency National Fire Protection Agency North North East No Objection Certificate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Printed Circuit Board Pollution Control Committee Port Land Cement Concrete Pulvarised Flue Ash Private Operator Principal Organic Hazardous Constituents Peri Plane Gneiss Poly Vinyl Chloride Armoured Relative Humidity Reinforced Cement Concrete Rapid Environmental Impact Assessment Rapid Environmental Impact and Risk Assessment Reprocessable Hazardous Waste Return on Equity Return on Investment Roll on – Roll off Respirable Particulate Matter Straight Line Method State Pollution Control Board Special Purpose Vehicle Scientific Storage Hazardous Waste South-South West South West Total Organic Carbon Terms of Reference Tonnes per Annum Transport Emergency Transport Storage Disposal Facility Under Ground Drainage System United States Bureau of Reclamation United States Environmental Protection Agency Valley Fills Written Down Value Waste Minimization KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH . H RCC REIA R-EIRA RHW ROE ROI RO-RO RPM SLM SPCB SPV SSHW SSW SW TOC TOR TPA TREM TSDF UGD USBR USEPA VF WDV WM Information Technology Karnataka Hazardous Waste Management Agency Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board Karnataka State Pollution Control Board Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation Ministry of Environment and Forests.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Project Background Operator Model Site selection Site Description Site suitability Inventorisation of HW Characterization and Projection of HW Economic considerations Technology alternatives and selection Infrastructure for TSDF Operation of the TSDF Quality assurance during construction Transportation Determination of Location and Number of TSDF & Transfer Station Project Implementation Schedule Estimation of Liabilities Cost for HW-TSDF Karnataka Cost Estimates Financial Feasibility Environmental Aspects Legal considerations ANNEXES 161 129 134 12 i 1 2 8 9 13 27 62 66 81 89 102 105 115 124 140 155 171 KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH . 17. 7. 15. 6. 18. 20. 12. 11. 21. 14. Karnataka Page ♦ v List of Contents 0. 1. 4. 8.DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project. 13. 3. 10. 9. 16. 2. 19. 5.

.................... Error! Bookmark not defined............................................... 9.........2..................................... 6................... Error! Bookmark not defined.............2.. 6. Error! Bookmark not defined............. Error! Bookmark not defined......... 4............... 3.3........... Error! Bookmark not defined. 7................ Error! Bookmark not defined..................................... 9..3 Soil.................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined............. Error! Bookmark not defined........................4 Hydro-geological aspects ................................ Inventorisation of HW .......................2 Stabilisation .... Error! Bookmark not defined...1 Pre-treatment facility .......... 4....................2 Priority categories ..........3... 2............................ 7. 7....... Error! Bookmark not defined....2 Industrial Sector Growth in Karnataka ........ 1....................... Error! Bookmark not defined........... Site Description............................... Error! Bookmark not defined..... 4............... 5............................ ERM GmbH KSPCB / GTZ ...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined... Economic considerations .................3 Stakeholders in operator model .....................................3................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined........... Technology alternatives and selection ........ Karnataka Page ♦ vi Details of Contents 0............................. 8................. 13 Project Background.... Error! Bookmark not defined................................4................................. Error! Bookmark not defined....2.................2...................................................................... 6......... 7......................................................................................................... 2.....1 Drying ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.............................................................2 Operator Model.... 8........................ Characterization and Projection of HW ......................1 Overall quantity of HW ............... 4.................2 Scientific Storage HW or landfillable HW.........2 Geology ............................................................3 Inputs for TSDF... Error! Bookmark not defined................................... Operator Model ... 6....................... 4. 6..................... 9. Error! Bookmark not defined........... 6............................... Error! Bookmark not defined......3 Inferences from Inventorisation........................3 Projections ..1 Physical features ............ Error! Bookmark not defined.....................................3 Priority industrial sectors....1 Technology concept... 7................... 9.. Error! Bookmark not defined..................1 Cooperation with Industries.......... Error! Bookmark not defined...... Error! Bookmark not defined............................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. Error! Bookmark not defined................ Error! Bookmark not defined.............. Error! Bookmark not defined..... 2......................... Assumptions ...... Site suitability ..............3 Location of TSDF .......................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined............1 Overall Economic Scenario in Karnataka.................. 2............................................................................................. 7....... Error! Bookmark not defined.... 8..........1 Characterisation of HW . 6...2 Storage capacity of TSDF ...3 Review of policies relevant to TSDF ...........................................................................................4 Economic Incentives for TSDF .............. 6...4 Priority districts .... 8..... 7..1 Priority industries ............2 Surface water ............ Error! Bookmark not defined......2...................1 Ground water ......3 Capture Rates........................ Error! Bookmark not defined.......... 9........... Characterisation and Projection of SSHW......2 Projections of SSHW.............................2 Pre-treatment technologies .......... Error! Bookmark not defined............... Error! Bookmark not defined............................... 7....................................................DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project.....2.......................... 4.... Error! Bookmark not defined....... Error! Bookmark not defined........................ Error! Bookmark not defined................................................... Site selection ......2....... Error! Bookmark not defined.......... 4...... Error! Bookmark not defined................ 8.................... 7........................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.. Error! Bookmark not defined.....4.. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined...............2...

....................................6 Summary of selected technologies ... 11.......... Error! Bookmark not defined.3....1.............................................1..........4 Mobile Equipment ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.............. 10......................................... 10..........................3 Engineered Landfill ...........................3 Greenbelt .1 Operation of Transport to the TSDF ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined..2... 10...............3 Leachate collection and management system .... Error! Bookmark not defined...............5.................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined... 10..1 Staff for TSDF Operation......................... Error! Bookmark not defined...... Error! Bookmark not defined............................ Operation of the TSDF........................3.................... 9........................................................................ 10...... Error! Bookmark not defined.............. Error! Bookmark not defined....................................4 Sewage Waste Management................. Error! Bookmark not defined........1 Monitoring wells .............. Error! Bookmark not defined..1 Minimizing effluent generation ......... 11.......3.... 10.. 9....... KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH ................................1 Type of landfill ......2........ Error! Bookmark not defined................... 10...........4 Landfilling of Waste ......3 Pumps ............ Error! Bookmark not defined... 9.........5.............3.......................5 Sewage water treatment system ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined.............. Error! Bookmark not defined................. 9.3 Sampling Area .10 Green Belt ....... Error! Bookmark not defined..6 Emergency alert system (Automatic Fire Alarm System (AFAS) .................... Error! Bookmark not defined......1.........8 Disposal Facility (Engineered Landfill) ...... Error! Bookmark not defined..... Error! Bookmark not defined.........2 Water Connection ..... Karnataka Page ♦ vii 9. Error! Bookmark not defined.......... Error! Bookmark not defined........... 9......... Error! Bookmark not defined.. Error! Bookmark not defined. 10..3 Empty container management .2........... 9..2 Liner system ........................2..................3 Electricity Connection ..........2...........2 Weigh Bridge and Control Building ................ 9..............3................ 9....................7 Delivery...... 11..................1 Transformer .......3 Waste Treatment and Storage .......4............................... Entrance and Security Cabin ......5...................1. 10..3......3 Other Equipment .................. 10.. 10.. Error! Bookmark not defined. Error! Bookmark not defined.............. Error! Bookmark not defined....7 Comparative account of the three existing TSDFs in India.......2... Error! Bookmark not defined............2 Rainwater harvesting. Error! Bookmark not defined....2 Operational issues........... Error! Bookmark not defined..6 Vehicle Washing Unit ......3..........5 Workshop and Garage .................................1 Road Connection... Error! Bookmark not defined....... Error! Bookmark not defined................................................... 10.. 11.. Error! Bookmark not defined.... 9..............................1........................................................ 9...................4 Control systems adopted....2...........2 Waste Reception and Analysis........... Error! Bookmark not defined.................. 10...................1.. Error! Bookmark not defined.......... 10......... 11........... 11.... Error! Bookmark not defined......2..4 Storm water management system . Error! Bookmark not defined..........1 Facility description ... Error! Bookmark not defined.3.... Error! Bookmark not defined................ Error! Bookmark not defined...9 Solar Evaporation Pond for Leachate management ................. 10.........2........... Error! Bookmark not defined.......... 10.................................1 Waiting Area.. Error! Bookmark not defined.............. Error! Bookmark not defined..............2 Basic Infrastructure & Services.....................DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project..... 10...............1..................... 9.. Error! Bookmark not defined.........................1. 9... 10.............. Error! Bookmark not defined.5 Other unique operating techniques adopted . 9.................5 Storm water Management ....................2 Wheel/truck wash systems . 10.......2.......................... 10..................1..... Infrastructure for TSDF ............................. 10................ Error! Bookmark not defined................3..2 DG Set .....2..................... Error! Bookmark not defined...........................4................. 10............ 10..... Error! Bookmark not defined.... 10.. 9.............. Treatment and Storage Area ... 11......1.....4 Administration/ Operation Building ................ 9.................................

.....6 Landfilling of Waste.....2 Cost of transportation from ideal TSDF location . 11...9 Reporting ..5 Environmental and Operational Monitoring....................... 11.......... 13............. Error! Bookmark not defined.......... Error! Bookmark not defined.............2..................4 Spreading and Compaction of Waste ....DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project.. 13...8... Error! Bookmark not defined..........3...... Error! Bookmark not defined......... Quality assurance during construction....... 11......1 District wise transportation costs ............... 13........................ 11...1 Compliance with the Manifest .....5... 11. Error! Bookmark not defined..... 13.... Error! Bookmark not defined...............1 Filling Plan .. Error! Bookmark not defined... Error! Bookmark not defined.........4...........6....... 14............5........1 Storage at the Generators Premises....................... Error! Bookmark not defined........1 Treatment Requirement ........3.............. Error! Bookmark not defined... Error! Bookmark not defined......6... 11....2 Storage Requirements ....................8 Monitoring... 11................................. Error! Bookmark not defined........ 11....... Error! Bookmark not defined....3 External Storage and Transportation..............2....................6........2 Scheduling of vehicles .......2 Sampling and Conformity Control in Laboratory Error! Bookmark not defined............. 13..... 11..................................4 House keeping and Maintenance of Buildings and Equipment ....... 11...... 11........... Error! Bookmark not defined..........3 Criteria for Waste Acceptable at Landfills for Hazardous Waste ........... 12...... Error! Bookmark not defined.................... 14..6............................ Error! Bookmark not defined........4 The Manifest System for Waste Transportation ........... Error! Bookmark not defined..............5................ Error! Bookmark not defined..6........... Error! Bookmark not defined... 14................................. 11......4............ Error! Bookmark not defined............2................................. Error! Bookmark not defined...... 11.... Error! Bookmark not defined...........8.......6 Health and Safety...8.......... 13...... Error! Bookmark not defined........................ 11....... Error! Bookmark not defined... 11.3..... 11.................7 Information and Customer/ Public Relation ..............4............................1........ 13..8................................ Error! Bookmark not defined................... Error! Bookmark not defined... Error! Bookmark not defined............................ Error! Bookmark not defined................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined................4 Waste Reception and Types of Acceptable Waste................... Error! Bookmark not defined...... Error! Bookmark not defined...................... Error! Bookmark not defined....9 Monitoring of Leachate and Surface Water ............... Error! Bookmark not defined.1 Effective distances from ideal TSDF location ...........6 Record Keeping and Reporting ....... 11........... Error! Bookmark not defined.. 11......3 Tipping of Waste .............. 11.8........ 11. 11.... Error! Bookmark not defined.2 Pre Transport Precautions ...... 11.......7 Leachate Management.. 11........................................ Determination of Location and Number of TSDF & Transfer Station ..3 Loading and Transportation ....................... 11.3............. Error! Bookmark not defined...............3 Monitoring of Groundwater ..... Error! Bookmark not defined.............................. 13..................1 Procedures for TSDF Entry/ Exit ........ 13..1 Ideal TSDF Location . KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH ...4....... 11............... 11...5 Surface Sealing ............... Transportation ................................ 11...3 Traffic Restrictions and Vehicle Washing .1..............................10 Environmental Management Systems ............ Error! Bookmark not defined......... Error! Bookmark not defined......... Error! Bookmark not defined..........4 Topography of the site: data on the landfill body... Karnataka Page ♦ viii 11.... Error! Bookmark not defined.2 Monitoring Emission Data From Landfill: Water and Leachate....................2 Initial Lift. 11......................5 Verification . 11............................. 11.3 Cost Estimation for transportation .1 Meteorological Data ... Error! Bookmark not defined...............1 Waste Collection and Transportation logistics ............... Error! Bookmark not defined. 14.5...5 Waste Flow and Basic Operation of the TSDF ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.

15............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.............. 17............................................ Estimation of Liabilities Cost for HW-TSDF Karnataka.... 16. 20...... 16..................... 19.................. 20................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined..........1 Ground water........... Error! Bookmark not defined.....1 Applicable Legislative Framework.................... Error! Bookmark not defined.. Error! Bookmark not defined........................ 17.................... Error! Bookmark not defined............................. 19...............................................3 Insurance ...............3 Air Quality............ 17..... Error! Bookmark not defined..DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project... Error! Bookmark not defined.................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined......... Error! Bookmark not defined............1 Phase wise investment cost ............................ Error! Bookmark not defined........ 18.................... Karnataka Page ♦ ix 14.............................4 Disaster Management Fund ..9 Conclusions and Recommendations.....3 Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act.......... Error! Bookmark not defined......1......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.4 Phase 4 cost ......................................1 Phase 1 cost ................ Error! Bookmark not defined........... Error! Bookmark not defined............ 19......6 Socio-economics ......7 Costing of gate fee........... 19..... 17.......5 Insurance ................... Error! Bookmark not defined............. 20.....2 Super Fund ... 18................................3..........................................................1............................................. 17....................... 16........ 18................ 16.................... 17...... 19..................................... 17. 1981 ...........2 Assumptions used for the analysis ..... Error! Bookmark not defined......4 Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act.............................. Error! Bookmark not defined...............................................3 Phase 3 cost ..........8 Profit and loss statement.......... Error! Bookmark not defined.........7 Natural Disasters ..............................................................1 The Hazardous Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules (HWMH Rules)........... Environmental Aspects .........................6 Loan Servicing Statement ........ 19.. Error! Bookmark not defined........................ 1974 .......... Error! Bookmark not defined...... Legal considerations .. Financial Feasibility............................... 19.... Error! Bookmark not defined...4 Environmental Relief Fund (ERF) ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.......... 17... Error! Bookmark not defined.............................................3....................................Quantitative Risks.5 State Environmental Clearance ... 17......................... Error! Bookmark not defined......... 1989 as amended in January 2000 and May 2003 . Error! Bookmark not defined............ 19.............................1. 19....................... 19...............3 Operation cost.... 3 Conceptual Design of Transfer Station North ............ Error! Bookmark not defined...1......................... Cost Estimates......... Error! Bookmark not defined..... 18.......... Error! Bookmark not defined................. Error! Bookmark not defined............. 20................... 1974 and Water Cess Act............................... Error! Bookmark not defined.................... Project Implementation Schedule ...........1..............1.................... 18.....................5 Post Closure Phase cost............................ Error! Bookmark not defined.............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.......... 18..... Error! Bookmark not defined.............................. 17..... 16..................2 Phase 2 cost ...................3 Means of finance ............................................................4 Noise Quality........ Error! Bookmark not defined........5 Traffic volume. 18................................ Error! Bookmark not defined........... 17...... Error! Bookmark not defined.............. 17. Error! Bookmark not defined........................ Error! Bookmark not defined.............................................1 Methodology for financial analysis............ Error! Bookmark not defined........ Error! Bookmark not defined.........1.. 18........1 Introduction and Background..................9 Other Risks Associated ................2 Surface Water Quality .................1....... Error! Bookmark not defined. Error! Bookmark not defined.........1.....5 Calculation of funds ..........3....3....... Error! Bookmark not defined................3 Treatment expenses ......... 18.. 17............................................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined....2 Estimation of overhead expenses .. Error! Bookmark not defined.4 Depreciation ................. KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH .........8 Landfill Stability. Error! Bookmark not defined...................................................................... 18...............1 Wages and salaries during operation .....2 EIA Notification and Environmental Public Hearing Error! Bookmark not defined........................................ 20....2 Summary of investment/fixed cost............. 20........... 20......................1................... 16........

.... 20.......................... Error! Bookmark not defined.........................7 The Central Motor Vehicles Act...........12 Requirement of Environmental Statement ....... Error! Bookmark not defined... Figure .. List of figures Figure ........... 20. Error! Bookmark not defined.....2.4 Ready Recknor: Hazardous Wastes Management .....................11 The Petroleum Act 1934 and The Petroleum Rules 1976 .14 Projection of HW growth based on pre-treatment including sectoral growth . Figure ...... Error! Bookmark not defined............ Error! Bookmark not defined..............................13 SSHW quantity growths in the next 20 years ..... Error! Bookmark not defined......DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project.1............................ 21................1................ 1948 & Rules .............4 Projections of SSHW quantities for the 20 yrs of operation of TSDF (without waste minimization)...13 Land Acquisition .... 20....... Figure ...... Error! Bookmark not defined...1...... Error! Bookmark not defined..... Error! Bookmark not defined................. Error! Bookmark not defined................... Error! Bookmark not defined........1..2 Guidelines For Owner/Operator Of Hazardous Waste Storage Treatment And Disposal Facility. 20........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.......1..2 Guidelines related to Hazardous Wastes Landfills..... Error! Bookmark not defined..... Error! Bookmark not defined.....2.......................... Error! Bookmark not defined. 20..................1..........9 The Factories Act.........10 Key sectors and the corresponding cumulative SSHW......................... Figure ...7 Ranking of SSHW based on HW categories....... Bangalore Error! Bookmark not defined.........3 Underground strata of Dobbasapete site .......... Error! Bookmark not defined.....5 Priority ranking of industries generating SSHW ..............8 The Public Liability Insurance (PLI) Act.......10 The Explosives Act 1984 & Rules 1993 ...............8 Key categories of SSHW quantities .. 1991 ....... Figure ............4 Proportion of three types of HW in Karnataka .... Error! Bookmark not defined... 20................. Error! Bookmark not defined......5 Guidelines for Setting up of Operating Facility: Hazardous Waste Management ..... Figure ...................2........6 Industrial distribution of SSHW . ANNEXES ...... Figure . Karnataka Page ♦ x 20........2 Land details of TSDF Dobbaspete site......... Error! Bookmark not defined.......................... 1989 .... Error! Bookmark not defined.......... KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH ...... 21...........6 Manufacture Storage & Import of Hazardous Chemicals (MSIHC) Rules 1989 and amendment 2000 .. Error! Bookmark not defined..................................3 Criteria for Hazardous Waste Landfills ...... Figure .... 20.....1 Guidelines For Transportation of Hazardous Waste ....................... 21............... Figure ...... 1988 and Rules................ Error! Bookmark not defined................. Error! Bookmark not defined............ Figure .......... 20.................1 Operator Model or Management Structure with Fund flow for the TSDF ....... Error! Bookmark not defined..........5 Projections of SSHW quantities (after waste minimization) for the 20 yrs of operation of TSDF Error! Bookmark not defined. 21. 20............. Error! Bookmark not defined. Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure .Error! Bookmark not defined..........6 Drawings TSDF Dobbasapete .2. 21.. Error! Bookmark not defined..... 21........ Error! Bookmark not defined........... 21............. Figure . 20..........................1 Government of Karnataka site clearance order for Dobbasapete......................12 Key districts contributing to SSHW in Karnataka......... 20.................. Error! Bookmark not defined............15 Comparative Annual Industrial Sales growth for Karnataka & India Error! Bookmark not defined..... 20.......... Error! Bookmark not defined.............1..................1...2.....9 Sector-wise distribution of SSHW ..3 Site Location Map of Proposed Hazardous Waste TSDF Site near Dobbasapete.... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure ......2 Site Map with survey numbers and boundaries ..................................11 Sector wise distribution of SSHW .. Error! Bookmark not defined.. 20............... Figure ....

...3 Distribution of SSHW .... Figure ..................... Error! Bookmark not defined..............13 Sectorwise Industrial Growth ...........16 Mechanical stabilizers ..........12 Storage area requirements for additives ............. Table .................. Error! Bookmark not defined.. Table . Table .............. Error! Bookmark not defined... Figure ............2 Overall summaries of results of quantification of HW in Karnataka ................................................................ Table .....24 Monitoring aspects for topography .................22 Sampling frequency for leachate ................ Table ................. Figure ...4 Characterisation of HW in Karnataka .26 Constructions and Operation Schedule – Phase 3 .............. Error! Bookmark not defined.......25 Collection factors for loading efficiencies ...................... Table .22 Effective distances for transport of SSHW from ideal TSDF location (Shimoga) .....21 Manifest System .............. Error! Bookmark not defined.......................15 Summary of selected technologies . Table .. Table ... Table .........6 Projected SSHW quantities in TPA after waste minimization for the first 5 years ..............18 Mobile Equipment for TSDF operation ....... Table ... Table .................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.............. Table ..... Error! Bookmark not defined..... Figure ........................... Error! Bookmark not defined............25 Constructions and Operation Schedule – Phase 2 ........17 Master plan of the proposed TSDF at Dobbasapete .........1 Database summary used for quantification........................ Error! Bookmark not defined......... Figure . Error! Bookmark not defined..8 Projection of SSHW based on sectoral growth rates and type of pre-treatment ...DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project........1999 to 2003 ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.23 Implementation Schedule (Tender and Construction Phase).. Error! Bookmark not defined.17 Comparative account of technology ................7 Projection of HW growth for twenty years in TPA for selected categories .................... Error! Bookmark not defined........................... Error! Bookmark not defined.... Error! Bookmark not defined......26 Determination of number of trips for various vehicle capacities ....... Error! Bookmark not defined........... Table ....19 TSDF Operation Staff .19 Basic operation flow chart for a TSDF ......................24 Constructions and Operation Schedule – Phase 1 ......... Table ....... Error! Bookmark not defined...21 Collection protocol of Meteorological data.. Figure .23 Groundwater monitoring ................. Karnataka Page ♦ xi Figure .......5 Sector wise projections of SSHW quantities in TPA for the first 5 years Error! Bookmark not defined...................................... Error! Bookmark not defined......... Error! Bookmark not defined...... Figure .... Error! Bookmark not defined.. Figure .......... Error! Bookmark not defined....... Error! Bookmark not defined.... Error! Bookmark not defined........ Figure ....................14 Quantities of HW after treatment.........................16 Comparative account of general information of the existing three TSDFs in India .........18 Flow Diagram of HW Movement within the TSDF..... Error! Bookmark not defined.......9 Capture Rates for HW of different origin for the next 20 years. Table .. Table ... Error! Bookmark not defined............ Error! Bookmark not defined.................. List of Tables Table ..... Table ............. Error! Bookmark not defined..........20 Standards prescribed for leachate quality... Figure ...........27 Constructions and Operation Schedule – Phase -4 .... Error! Bookmark not defined..... Error! Bookmark not defined. Figure .... Error! Bookmark not defined... Error! Bookmark not defined....11 Estimation of area required for drying of SSHW based on type of stabilisation . Error! Bookmark not defined...................................... Table ....................... Table ......... Table .10 Projected volume of pre-treatment of different HW at TSDF for 20 yrs of operation ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.............. Error! Bookmark not defined. Error! Bookmark not defined............. Table ... Table .. Error! Bookmark not defined.. Table ................. Error! Bookmark not defined... Table ............... Table ......... KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH .........20 Multi-container Vehicles for Waste Collection .........

...41 Fixed cost summary ................ Error! Bookmark not defined........................ Error! Bookmark not defined........ Error! Bookmark not defined........ Karnataka Page ♦ xii Table ............. Table ..........53 Quantities to be processed in TPA ................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.. Table .................... Error! Bookmark not defined.... Table ....27 Requirement of number of vehicles for different logistic groups............................... Table .......... Error! Bookmark not defined.....................................43 Wages and salaries during Post closure stage............................... Table ... Table .............................56 Total Direct Costs for the TSDF during 20 yrs .............................. Table ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.................................................31 District wise transportation costs .........60 List of Applicable Key Legislation for Setting up and Operation of proposed Hazardous Wastes TSDF in Karnataka...................................... Table ................................................... Table .............55 Variable costs.......40 Summary of the Post closure phase cost ............. Table ...29 Cost of Transportation –7 t vehicle ... Table ...................... Error! Bookmark not defined.... Table ......... Error! Bookmark not defined........... Error! Bookmark not defined......... Table ..... Table ......28 Cost of Transportation – 18 t vehicle ............................33 District wise effective and total cost of transportation from each district to ideal TSDF location at Shimoga ........ Error! Bookmark not defined................. directly to TSDF Dobbasapete......58 Income statement..... Table . Error! Bookmark not defined...................51 Preconstruction insurance cost ........36 Summary of the phase -1 cost ............ Table ..................49 Depreciation computed as per Company’s Act ..................................................45 Cost of use of equipment for treatment... Table ............. Error! Bookmark not defined......... Error! Bookmark not defined............ in Lakhs... Table .............42 Wages and salaries during landfill period.......... Error! Bookmark not defined. KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH ....................... Error! Bookmark not defined.......... Error! Bookmark not defined. Error! Bookmark not defined.......................................... Table ......................................34 Cost of transportation from specific districts North of Bangalore......................... Table ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.... Table ....... Table .......48 Disaster Management fund for twenty years .............cost of Operations Rs................................................. Error! Bookmark not defined......... Error! Bookmark not defined....... Table .......... Table .........54 Unit costs of Treatment Rs... Table ................................32 Effective distances for transport of SSHW from ideal TSDF location (Shimoga)..............50 Depreciation computed as per Income Tax Act ............... Error! Bookmark not defined........39 Summary of the phase -4 cost ............. Error! Bookmark not defined.....44 Estimates of Overhead Expenses.. Error! Bookmark not defined..........47 Yearly Treatment Costs of HW received at TSDF (per ton basis)........... Table ....57 Year wise Average Gate Fee......... Error! Bookmark not defined.............................. Table . Error! Bookmark not defined..... Error! Bookmark not defined....... Error! Bookmark not defined.......... Error! Bookmark not defined.......................30 The costs for transportation based on the logistics grouping Error! Bookmark not defined............. Table ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.................................. Error! Bookmark not defined.37 Summary of the phase -2 cost ..................DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project.............. Table .. Table .38 Summary of the phase -3 cost ............. Table ................/ Ton ...... Table ...... Error! Bookmark not defined......46 Cost of use of additives.59 Net profit & loss as per CA & as per IT................................35 Economics of transporting fractional loads through a transfer station Error! Bookmark not defined.......52 Loan Servicing Statement . Table ..

approximately 20 yrs of operation and 30 years of post-closure period. In spite of new technologies.1 Background Industrial activities do generate considerable amount of waste. the formation of a ‘Contracting Authority (CA)’ was contemplated. For the construction and commissioning phase. is in the process of evolving an effective Hazardous Waste Management (HWM) strategy for Karnataka. The basic design would be provided by the HAWA project with the overall responsibility for design to be vested with the PO. Government of Karnataka (GoK) at lease rate of Rs. 0. waste treatment and management strategies like reduce. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 0. The source of revenue for the PO would be the gate fee collected for the HW on per ton basis. Hence. it was decided to have a monitoring control by a Government Agency. A separate project called ‘HAWA project’ has been conceived to carryout this activity. amended 2003. Land for the TSDF is to be leased by the Department of Forest. the Karnataka Industrial Area Development Board (KIADB) would be the CA and a separate registered society.3 Site selection KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH . 0. 1989. such wastes are termed as Hazardous Wastes. Operate & (Transfer) –DBOO(T)” and to be given to a Private Operator (PO) who would be selected through a National Competitive Bidding procedure. improved production. reuse and recycle. Ecology & Environment (DFEE).100/acre/yr for 1 year of construction. Establishment of a technically sound. Build. Own. The KSPCB would undertake the environmental monitoring as per the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules.2 Operator Model The TSDF is proposed to be of “Design. Karnataka Page ♦ 13 0. Because of their characteristic quality of being corrosive or flammable. The Land along with the facility is to be transferred to GoK after satisfactory completion of post closure phase. under the ‘Special Purpose Vehicle SPV’ would take over this function. Transportation of the HW from the industries could be by the industries. Storage and Disposal Facility (TSDF) is one such activity of the cooperation. which includes the treatment and disposal cost. operationally sustainable Treatment. Karnataka State Pollution Control Board (KSPCB) with technical assistance of German Technical Cooperation and consultancy by ERM GmbH. As the proposed TSDF is the first of its kind in Karnataka and would be a monopoly for the initial few years. there is still a certain quantity of waste that needs to be disposed in a scientific way. Some of the waste generated by certain industries is hazardous in nature. or by the PO or a third party. toxic or persistent in nature.DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project. or reactive.

6 HW Inventory The total Scientific Storage Hazardous Waste (SSHW) or landfillable Hazardous Waste is about 38. The presence of two National Highways. Bangalore dated 21. TDPS factory and service road leading to National Highway NH-4 in the south and agricultural land in the west.4 Site Description – Dobbasapete Site Dobbasapete site is about 48 km Northwest of Bangalore city. Category 32.7 HW Characterization The SSHW is characterized into 57 sub-categories as per schedule 1 & 2 of HW Rules. Thimmanayakanahalli & Pemmanahalli villages. The field permeability value of soil in the area is 2.736 TPA excluding 13. The site has a natural gradient of 2. which has been effectively used in the design of leachate collection system as no pumping of leachate is envisaged and flow is by gravity.3 from schedule-1. Nelamangala Taluk. In Karnataka just 15 industries contribute to 70% of the SSHW and just 10 categories contribute to 80% of SSHW.3 – sludge containing adsorbable organic halides from pulp & paper is the highest category and chemical sector (24%) is highest industrial sector contributing to SSHW. 2003. A Natural clay barrier extending from a depth of 20m and extending upto 30 m exists in the site making it suitable for landfill construction.04.5 Site suitability The ground water table in the site is below 60 m as against the minimum 2m requirement of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB). GoK is in the process of acquiring this Land and is expected to be completed by December 2004. which is process dust from iron and steel industries (this category can be classified as HW only after chemical analysis). The extent of land required for the TSDF is 105. 0. 0. 0.DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project.5 x 10-8 m/s which is highly suitable in setting up a landfill as the rate of percolation of contaminants in case of an accident will be very low.No. A Public Hearing was also completed successfully for the site. FEE 293 ECO 2002. Shimoga (23%) district is the highest contributor of SSHW followed by Bangalore Urban (19%).2%. 0. adjacent to Dobbasapete KIADB industrial estate. An Environment Impact Assessment’ study was carried out for this site. Subsequently site clearance was accorded by the GoK vide its order GO . Karnataka Page ♦ 14 The site selected for setting up the TSDF is ‘Dobbasapete site’ after examining 21 candidate sites in Karnataka.18 acres.5 x 10-7 m/s to 2. Category 32. The site is bounded by National Highway – NH 207 in the North. It is located in Bangalore Rural District. reducing accidents.2004. a dry nallah in the east. which is sludge containing adsorbable organic KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH . Sompura Hobli.1 category of HW. especially the one which connects the entrance of TSDF which has a 4 lane highway will help in smooth traffic flow.

viz. An additional quantity of about one lakh tons of HW from illegal dumpsites will also be available by 2006. 0. Nevertheless. cement.DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project. are drying. appropriate technologies based on the types of HW. Karnataka Page ♦ 15 halides from Pulp and paper industries. Reduction of waste due to pre-treatment and increase due to additives were also considered for the projections.10 Infrastructure The facilities that are proposed in the TSDF are as follows: KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH . which has an extra thick clay liner (CL). environmental considerations and cost effectiveness has to be considered while selecting the technologies. The HW thus characterized reveals that the type of treatment required could be grouped into four types.8 HW Projections HW inventorisation for the base year (2003) was required to be projected for the next 20 years. stabilization (lime. Empty containers (metal) which have residues of HW is recommended to be pressed using a drum press and then landfilled and the plastic drums are recommended to be shredded. flyash. The leachate collection system to be used is leachate pipes 0.1. The type of landfill recommended is of ‘Above & Below ground’ and the liner system to be used is modified single composite liner. The HW projections were undertaken based on industrial sectoral growth and waste minimization factors. 2% shredding and the rest direct landfilling. it is required to project the waste quantity from 2006 to 2025. About 40% HW requires drying. As the TSDF will not start receiving HW until 2006.9 Technology alternatives Various technologies are available for treating and disposing the HW. flyash & cement).86 lakh tons. Hence the design capacity of the landfill was considered to be eight lakh tons. A capture rate was also applied to the waste for each year.. Thus the projected landfill material for 20 years was estimated to be 7.851 t of accumulated SSHW from industries will also be available by 2006 for the TSDF. Four types of stabilisation are required for which the manual stabilisation method is recommended using wheel loaders.1. about 83% requires stabilization. The second highest category is 34. is the highest category of waste generated in Karnataka besides 13. this waste will be accepted by the TSDF only if fresh HW generated from industries is not available. As about 40% of HW in Karnataka requires drying the technology chosen was solar drying as against belt filter press which generates effluent which also needs additional treatment.98. which are flue gas cleaning residue from air and water purifiers. shredding and direct landfilling. About 1. 0. However.

six days/ week) might be considered what would require a limited increase of operational staff. The treated HW is placed in different cells in five phases in the landfill. Administrative staff office. The approximate period of operation is 20 years. stabilization (cement. a separate truck is provided to carry the HW from the receiving area to the landfill. They are allowed only till the receiving station. it will be sent for treatment. it will be landfilled. 0.12 Transportation . shredding.Heuristics KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH . Weigh Bridge and Control Building to undertake the initial inventory/manifest control and Sampling Area to take waste samples which have to be analyzed in the laboratory are proposed. a Vehicle washing area for trucks if it gets contaminated with HW is provided. Separate monsoon storage is also provided in the facility. Hence. Karnataka Page ♦ 16 A Waiting Area for the trucks with HW. After appropriate treatment like drying. the waste is stored in Storage rooms. flyash and or lime).11 Operation of TSDF A total number of 36 staff has been proposed in order to ensure a one shift operation of the TSDF (8 hours/day. five days/week). In case that waste quantities increase an extension up to a 1. A Receiving or Delivery area where each type of waste is received in different compartments is also present. The waste received in the TSDF needs to be treated. The facility will have an administration/Operation Building which consists of an Analytical Laboratory. A Security Cabin. A workshop to repair the vehicles and other equipment and an empty container storage shed is also present. Meeting room . This is undertaken to avoid mandatory wheel wash and subsequently effluent generation. The Disposal Facility is an Engineered Landfill and the associated environment treatment facilities like Solar evaporation pond with a minimum effluent treatment facility and Rain water harvesting pond is provided. Canteen and Kitchen and Cloak Rooms and Toilets. 0. Room for KSPCB/CA representative. This is undertaken in the block of buildings with the following facilities. The waste thus received is treated in different cubical in the treatment building. Besides. The HW received will first be subjected to a chemical examination (finger print analysis) to match with the declared waste. Sample Storage area.5 shift operation (12 hours/ day. If the HW is found conforming to the norms. Public Relations Office / Information Centre.DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project. The vehicle which collects HW from the industries is not allowed into the landfilling area. Prior to the treatment.

15 • • • • • • Project Implementation Schedule Timeframe for tendering 90 days starting September 2004 Evaluation and finalizing of tendering 60 days after tender submission February 2005. 3. this does not include cost of Transfer station infrastructure. 0. 0.DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project.85 lakhs.15/-. 596/ t of waste.17. Shimoga as it has the lowest effective distance of 155 km. the next best location of Dobbasapete was selected. However.68. feasibility of setting up an intermediate transfer station was examined. The SSHW quantities which are greater than 6 t in a quarter but lower than 17 t will be transported by a 7t vehicle. 690 per ton of waste. This transfer station location was identified near Harihar. Selection of Private Operator. Karnataka Page ♦ 17 The inventory data of each industry has been analyzed to segregate industries based on the tonnage of SSHW generated in a period of 90 days. Effective cost if a transfer station is set up will reduce the transportation cost by 1.3.64%. then the fractional quantity is collected by a 7 t vehicle and transported to the TSDF in order to conform to the 90 day rule. Group A – to & fro trip in 1 day (150 km).690/t. However due to site characteristics. Total cost of transportation/qtr is Rs. This was used to calculate the transportation logistics cost. Group B – to & fro in 2 days (150 – 350 km) and Group C – to & fro in 3 days (> 350 km). The transport network could be grouped into three groups based on the distances to be traveled. March 2005. which implies an effective cost of Rs. The balance quantities will be transported by a 7 t vehicle by conveniently combining with similar compatible wastes from other industries in the vicinity. The overall weighted average cost per tonne km for 18 t vehicle is Rs.13 Number & Location of TSDF With the present quantities of HW in Karnataka only one TSDF is economical. 0. a transfer station in the first phase is not justified. Mobilisation of resources for PO by April 2005 Start of construction April 2005 Establishment of SPV by Dec 2005 ERM GmbH KSPCB / GTZ . The weighted average cost per ton km over an effective distance of 218 km is Rs. Hence. Full load of 7 ton vehicle is 77. whereas for Dobbasapete is 218 km.67/. If the third option is not feasible.and for 7 t vehicle is Rs. The number of trips required for Full load of 18 T vehicle is 519. Thus 14 numbers of 18 t vehicle and 6 numbers of 7t vehicles are required to transport SSHW in Karnataka to the TSDF. SSHW quantities in multiples of 17 t will be transported by an 18 t vehicle. with the present quantity of HW. 1.14 Requirement of transfer station Since Dobbasapete has higher transport costs. Effective cost of transportation to Shimoga from all the districts is Rs. Corresponding cost for Dobbasapete is 16% more Rs. Moments study results showed that the ideal location for TSDF is at Honnali (near Harihar). partial load of 7 ton vehicle is 139 and fractional load of 7 ton vehicle is 23 trips.

1800/t with GoI grant KSPCB / GTZ ERM GmbH .5 lakhs Premium/yr.18 Financial Analysis The Debt .87 lakhs + interest on it (maintained as Escrow account by CA) • Disasters/accidents during operations & post closure – upfront corpus of Rs. The phase 1 cost is Rs.DPR HAWA Hazardous Waste Management Project.13. There are about nine different tariff based on type of treatment required and the range will be between Rs. the average Gate Fee would be Rs.170/t of HW.excluding the transportation cost. 37.1850/t with out GoI grant and to Rs. Karnataka Page ♦ 18 • • Construction time 1 yr (end: March 2006) Commissioning of TSDF – April 2006 0. The equipment cost is Rs.989/t excluding transportation cost and Rs.15.100/t Providing interest subsidy to 6% will reduce the gate fee to Rs.600 to Rs. which is inclusive of 10% contingency.1869/.46 Crores and the landfill cost is Rs. 0.49 crores including 10% contingency.2 crore to PO will reduce the gate fee by Rs. 0. 0.42 Crores.4 Crores.02 Crores (Rupees Thirty Seven Crores).1500/.4.17 Project Cost Estimation Total project cost is Rs.24. The Debt Service Coverage Ratio (DSCR) value with the above gate fee would be 1.169 lakhs + interest on it (maintained by CA/GoK) • Compensation for affected people – Rs. (insurance company to be given by discretion of DC.37 Crores.including transportation cost. Called ERF) The liability cost would amount to Rs.4.19 • • Economic instruments recommended Government of India (GoI) grant of Rs.16 Liability Cost Liability cost is computed for: • Post closure monitoring of 30 yrs – yearly deposit of Rs.53 and an ROE of 17%.Equity ratio considered is 70:30. For a project cost of Rs. The cost of buildings is estimated to be Rs.