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Contents

Differentiation

11.1 Introducing Dierentiation 2

11.2 Using a Table of Derivatives 11

11.3 Higher Derivatives 24

11.4 Dierentiating Products and Quotients 29

11.5 The Chain Rule 38

11.6 Parametric Dierentiation 44

11.7 Implicit Dierentiation 51

Learning

In this Workbook you will learn what a derivative is and how to obtain the derivative of

many commonly occurring functions. You will learn of the relationship between a derivative

and the tangent line to a curve. You will learn something of the limiting process which

arises in many areas of mathematics. You will learn how to use a table of derivatives to

obtain the derivative of simple combinations of functions. Finally, you will learn how to take

higher derivatives

outcomes

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Introducing

Differentiation

_

`

11.1

Introduction

Dierentiation is a technique which can be used for analysing the way in which functions change. In

particular, it measures how rapidly a function is changing at any point. In engineering applications

the function may, for example, represent the magnetic eld strength of a motor, the voltage across

a capacitor, the temperature of a chemical mix, and it is often important to know how quickly these

quantities change.

In this Section we explain what is meant by the gradient of a curve and introduce dierentiation as

a method for nding the gradient at any point.

_

`

Prerequisites

Before starting this Section you should . . .

understand functional notation, e.g. y =f(x)

be able to calculate the gradient of a straight

line

_

Learning Outcomes

On completion you should be able to . . .

explain what is meant by the tangent to a

curve

explain what is meant by the gradient of a

curve at a point

calculate the derivative of a number of simple

functions from rst principles

2 HELM (2005):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

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1. Drawing tangents

Look at the graph shown in Figure 1a. A and B are two points on the graph, and they have been

joined by a straight line. The straight line segment AB is known as a chord. We have lengthened

the chord on both sides so that it extends beyond both A and B.

x

y

x

y

A

B

A

B

x

y

A

1

2

Figure 1a Figure 1b Figure 1c

In Figure 1b we have moved point B nearer to point A before drawing the extended chord. Imagine

what would happen if we continue moving B nearer and nearer to A. You can do this for yourself by

drawing additional points on the graph. Eventually, when B coincides with A, the extended chord is

a straight line which just touches the curve at A. This line is now called the tangent to the curve

at A, and is shown in Figure 1c.

If we know the position of two points on the line we can nd the gradient of the straight line and

can calculate the gradient of the tangent. We dene the gradient of the curve at A to be the

gradient of the tangent there. If this gradient is large at a particular point, the rate at which the

function is changing is large too. If the gradient is small, the rate at which the function is changing

is small. This is illustrated in Figure 2. Because of this, the gradient at A is also known as the

instantaneous rate of change of the curve at A. Recall from your knowledge of the straight line,

that if the line slopes upwards as we look from left to right, the gradient of the line is positive,

whereas if the line slopes downwards, the gradient is negative.

x

y

x

y

The gradient of the tangent at P is small, so the The gradient of the tangent at Q is large so the rate

P

Q

rate at which the function is changing is small. rate at which the function is changing is large.

Figure 2

HELM (2005):

Section 11.1: Introducing Dierentiation

3

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Key Point 1

The gradient of the curve at a point, P, is equal to tan where is the angle the tangent line at

P makes with the positive x axis.

x

y

P

Figure 3

Task

Draw in, by eye, tangents to the curve shown below, at points A to E. State

whether each tangent has positive, negative or zero gradient.

A

B

C

D

E

x

y

Your solution

Answer

A negative, B zero, C positive, D zero, E negative

In the following subsection we will see how to calculate the gradient of a curve precisely.

4 HELM (2005):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

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2. Finding the gradient at a specic point

In this subsection we shall consider a simple function to illustrate the calculation of a gradient. Look

at the graph of the function y(x) = x

2

shown in Figure 4. Notice that the gradient of the graph

changes as we move from point to point. In some places the gradient is positive; at others it is

negative. The gradient is greater at some points than at others. In fact the gradient changes from

point to point as we move along the curve.

x

y

A(1,1)

B(4,16)

y = x

2

4 3 2 1 2

the slope is

negative here

the slope is

positive here

5

10

15

1 3 4

Figure 4

Inspect the graph carefully and make the following observations:

(a) A is the point with coordinates (1, 1).

(b) B is the point with coordinates (4, 16).

(c) We can calculate the gradient of the line AB from the formula

gradient =

dierence between y coordinates

dierence between x coordinates

Therefore the gradient of chord AB is equal to

16 1

4 1

=

15

3

= 5. The gradient of AB is not the

same as the gradient of the graph at A but we can regard it as an approximation, or estimate of the

gradient at A. Is it an over-estimate or under-estimate ?

Task

Add the point C to the graph in Figure 4 where C has coordinates (3, 9). Draw

the line AC and calculate its gradient.

Your solution

gradient =

HELM (2005):

Section 11.1: Introducing Dierentiation

5

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Answer

9 1

3 1

= 4. Would you agree that this is a better estimate of the gradient at A than using AB?

We now carry the last task further by introducing point D at (2, 4) and point E at (1.5, 2.25) as

shown in Figure 5. The gradient of AD is found to be 3 and the gradient of AE is 2.5.

x

y

A(1,1)

B(4,16)

y = x

2

1 2

5

10

15

3 4

D(2,4)

E(1.5, 2.25)

Figure 5

Observe that each time we carry out this procedure, and move the second point closer to A, the

gradient of the line drawn is getting closer and closer to the gradient of the tangent at A. If we

continue, the value we eventually obtain is the gradient of the tangent at A whose value is 2 as we

will see shortly. This procedure illustrates how we dene the gradient of the curve at A.

3. Finding the gradient at a general point

We now carry out the previous procedure more mathematically. Consider the graph of y(x) = x

2

in

Figure 6. Let point A be any point with coordinates (a, a

2

), and let point B be a second point with

x coordinate (a + h).

The y coordinate at A is a

2

, because A lies on the graph y = x

2

.

Similarly the y coordinate at B is (a + h)

2

.

Therefore the gradient of the chord AB is

(a + h)

2

a

2

h

This simplies to

a

2

+ 2ha + h

2

a

2

h

=

2ha + h

2

h

=

h(2a + h)

h

= 2a + h

This is the gradient of the line AB. As we let B move closer to A the value of h gets smaller and

smaller and eventually tends to zero. We write this as h 0.

Now, as h 0, the gradient of AB tends to 2a. Thus the gradient of the tangent to the curve at

point A is 2a. Because A is an arbitrary point, this result gives us a formula for nding the gradient

of the graph of y = x

2

at any point: the gradient is simply twice the xxx coordinate there. For

example when x = 3 the gradient is 2 3, that is 6, and when x = 1 the gradient is 2 1, that is 2

as we saw in the previous subsection.

6 HELM (2005):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

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A(a,a

2

)

B(a+h, (a+h)

2

)

h

x

y

Figure 6

Generally, at a point whose coordinate is x the gradient is given by 2x. The function, 2x which

gives the gradient of y = x

2

is called the derivative of y with respect to x. It has other names too

including the rate of change of y with respect to x.

A special notation is used to represent the derivative. It is not a particularly user-friendly notation

but it is important to get used to it anyway. We write the derivative as

dy

dx

, pronounced dee y over

dee x or dee y by dee x or even dee y, dee x.

dy

dx

is not a fraction - so you cant do things like cancel the ds - just remember that it is the symbol

or notation for the derivative. An alternative notation for the derivative is y

.

Key Point 2

The derivative of y(x) is written

dy

dx

or y

(x) or simply y

Exercises

1. Carry out the procedure above for the function y = 3x

2

:

(a) Let A be the point (a, 3a

2

).

(b) Let B be the point (a + h, 3(a + h)

2

).

(c) Find the gradient of the line AB.

(d) Let h 0 to nd the gradient of the curve at A.

2. Carry out the procedure above for the function y = x

3

:

(a) Let A be the point (a, a

3

).

(b) Let B be the point (a + h, (a + h)

3

).

(c) Find the gradient of the line AB.

(d) Let h 0 to nd the gradient of the curve at A.

HELM (2005):

Section 11.1: Introducing Dierentiation

7

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Answers

1. gradient AB = 6a + 3h, gradient at A = 6a. So, if y = 3x

2

,

dy

dx

= 6x,

2. gradient AB = 3a

2

+ 3ah + h

2

, gradient at A = 3a

2

. So, if y = x

3

,

dy

dx

= 3x

2

.

4. Differentiation of a general function from rst principles

Consider the graph of y = f(x) shown in Figure 7.

(x, f(x))

(x+h, f(x+h))

h

x

y

y=f(x)

A

B

x

y

y=f(x)

A

Figure 7: As h 0 the chord AB becomes the tangent at A

Carefully make the following observations:

(a) Point A has coordinates (x, f(x)).

(b) Point B has coordinates (x + h, f(x + h)).

(c) The straight line AB has gradient

f(x + h) f(x)

h

(d) If we let h 0 we can nd the gradient of the graph of y = f(x) at the arbitrary

point A, provided we can evaluate the appropriate limit on h. The resulting limit is the

derivative of f with respect to x and is written

df

dx

or f

(x).

8 HELM (2005):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

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Key Point 3

Denition of Derivative

Given y = f(x), its derivative is dened as

df

dx

=

f(x + h) f(x)

h

in the limit as h tends to 0.

This is written

df

dx

= lim

h0

f(x + h) f(x)

h

In a graphical context, the value of

df

dx

at A is equal to tan which is the tangent of the angle that

the gradient line makes with the positive x-axis.

Example 1

Dierentiate f(x) = x

2

+ 2x + 3 from rst principles.

Solution

df

dx

= lim

h0

f(x + h) f(x)

h

= lim

h0

[(x + h)

2

+ 2(x + h) + 3] [x

2

+ 2x + 3]

h

= lim

h0

x

2

+ 2xh + h

2

+ 2x + 2h + 3 x

2

2x 3]

h

= lim

h0

2xh + h

2

+ 2h

h

= lim

h0

{2x + h + 2}

= 2x + 2

HELM (2005):

Section 11.1: Introducing Dierentiation

9

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Exercises

1. Use the denition of the derivative to nd

df

dx

when

(a) f(x) = 4x

2

, (b) f(x) = 2x

3

, (c) f(x) = 7x + 3, (d) f(x) =

1

x

.

(Harder: try (e) f(x) = sin x and use the small angle approximation sin if is small and

measured in radians.)

2. Using your results from Exercise 1 calculate the gradient of the following graphs at the given

points:

(a) f(x) = 4x

2

at x = 2, (b) f(x) = 2x

3

at x = 2, (c) f(x) = 7x + 3 at x = 5,

(d) f(x) =

1

x

at x = 1/2.

3. Find the rate of change of the function y(x) =

x

x + 3

at x = 3 by considering the interval

x = 3 to x = 3 + h.

Answers

1. (a) 8x, (b) 6x

2

, (c) 7, (d) 1/x

2

, (e) cos x.

2. (a) 16, (b) 24, (c) 7, (d) 4

3. 1/12

10 HELM (2005):

Workbook 11: Dierentiation

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