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What is CR?

How has it been used in LR How it links or can link to slr Evaluate hw it can benefit and extend slr e.g. by looking deeper into the citation count and establishing author works over time, authors progression, etc What cited in and out means and there implication You can state which authors are most cited in your work What it means for your own research Summarize your conclusions Bibliography The hegemony of information technology that has contributed to the increase in articles at the researcher or reviewers disposal has created a need for an efficient and effective method to navigate through the stream of available publications. For a quick, relatively encapsulating overview of the relevant developments in a given field, within the confines stipulated by time, cognitive and other resource constraints, it is arguably vital that a tool such as the citation analysis (CA) therefore be employed. The use of a CA is a form of evaluative bibliometric application to the domain of research. The bibliometric aspect involves the use of quantitative methods to analyze literature regarding a given research domain while the evaluative aspect goes further utilising the output from the bibliometric aspect, to give insight into the who, what and how the given domain has evolved over time thus creating an overview of the path of scholarly activity in relation to the given field (Narin, 1976). Citation analysis is predicated on the assumption that the citation counts objectively reflects the quality, significance and impact of a given work, article, author(s), journal or research group within a given field (Baumgartner, 2010; Meho, 2006). The extant literature thus reveals various uses that CA has been put to. CA has been applied in various domains with different aims. It has been applied to identify leading scholars, in consumer research to identify leading scholars, most influential articles and the impact of the field within the marketing domain (Baumgartner, 2010). It has been applied in international relations to identify what publication format is mostly used by scholars in that field (Zhang, 2007). Mingers and Xu (2010) also used it to identify within the management science domain the most influential journals, the proportion of theoretical to empirical studies, and the methodology preference variations among nations. Incidences of its use as a guide by panel members in making a more objective decision in regards to judging the quality of various research groups (Butler, 2008) to making decisions in terms of how to apportion funds between different academic disciplines within a university community (Moed et al., 1985), to its adoption in mapping out future citation path of existing work has been cited (Mingers and Burrell, 2006).

The advantage of a CA can be better realised when a systematic literature review (SLR) precedes it. Considering the wide pool of publications to draw from, a SLR can initially be utilized to evaluate, aggregate and synthesize them (Armitage and Keeble-Allen, 2008; Brereton et al., 2007; Petticrew and Roberts, 2006) in a systematic, transparent and replicable manner (Denyer and Tranfield, 2006; Smith et al., 2008), thus excluding irrelevant ones and helping to reduce information overload (Booth et al., 2012). Subsequently, mathematical and statistical tools can be applied to the extracts from the SLR to perform a CA on them and to unravel the citation behaviour in the resident domain in focus. Progressing from merely identifying articles that are relevant to a given discipline domain, the result of a SLR, performing a CA on the output of the SLR produces citation counts that can be further grouped according to authors, journal, discipline, nation, time frame or any other attribute of relevance. This further grouping(s) hence can be combined in a myriad of ways or used in isolation to exemplify patterns, path, progress, contribution, influence or even gaps within the given field or by the given field on a larger field within which it is subsumed or another field to which it is related to. A practical example using my own research on intra-firm knowledge transfer showed the reduction of articles from 1010 citations to a manageable 71 citations through the initial application of a SLR method. The output of applying CA to the 71 citations revealed that the construct was developed mostly between the year 2006 to 2010 (Figure 1). However, the period of year from 2001-2005 produced the author with the greatest influence in the domain, having a citation value of 25.53%. This year category also harboured the bulk of authors and publications that had the greatest influence in the development of the construct with all of them resident in the Management field. Throughout the time span examined, out of a total of 12 influential papers only two (Marketing, International Business and Area Studies and Organization Studies) were not from the Management discipline as classified by the Association of Business Schools. The two exceptions were also the only articles published in 3 star journals where all others were in 4 star journals. As regards the pattern of development of the construct, the majority of articles focused on the human element of KT with special emphasis on relationships and networking.

Figure 1: Citation count of published articles in intra-firm knowledge transfer

In conclusion, having shown that SLR can be combined with CA to first, reduce the extant literature in an objective, unbiased manner and secondly, to aggregate and ensure inclusiveness of relevant articles, the significance of CA to the researcher, particularly in help him/her avoid re-inventing the wheel cannot be disregarded. It thus helps guide in decision making by using statistics to provide an overview of the who, what, how and where influential contributions and developments as regards any chosen construct stands in present time.

, and they were the only articles published in 3 star journals. . Only the bulk of the earliest article in the intra-firm knowledge transfer domain was in 1989 (see figure 1) with a Norwegian author in the management discipline. Subsequently, no articles resulted afterwards till the late nineties (1997) with just one more article published. The bulk of the development in the area began to surface from early 2001 with 2010 recording the highest citations.

Figure 1: Citation count of published articles in intra-firm knowledge transfer , a journal of xxx publication and it focused only on the xxx aspects of knowledge transfer. The author with the most influential work was xxx with a CV of xxxx. Most publications in the area were found in the xxx subject group/category. The general progression in the field developed from xxx to xxx to xxxx to xxxx. development in the area

combining the CA with SLR helps to interrogate the publications resulting from the SLR

sifts through the plethora of available articles in a given domain to exclude the irrelevant ones. This process thus ensures focus on necessary articles and reduces selection bias in order to arrive at articles for a CA that would help create a relatively objective view of the intellectual growth within the discipline or area in consideration. The adoption of a systematic literature review method helps management researchers and practitioners to objectively evaluate, aggregate and synthesize the large body of research work on a certain phenomenon of interest to provide new insights (Brereton et al., 2007), give update on present state of literature on the issue or identify a potential gap (Greenhalgh et al., 2009; Leibovici and Reeves, 2005; Macpherson and Holt, 2007; Mulrow, 1994).

that would help in relation to articles that are eventually appropriated for use in a CA. articles from the plethora of available ones in a given domain. It helps remove and reduce inherent selection bias in the method.

a very useful tool, which if used in conjunction with a SLR can provide great insight to the

Schoonbaert, D., & Roelants, G. (1996). Citation analysis for measuring the value of scientific publications: quality assessment tool or comedy of errors?. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 1(6), 739-752.

739 - The major reason


for the success of these bibliometric techniques is the belief that they can somehow measure the otherwise elusive concepts of quality and influence.............................. The underlying principle of citation analysis, that the significance of a scientific paper can be measured by counting the citations it receives 740 - Therefore, listing an exhaustive inventory of all publications by a specific scientist or research group is possible only when one has access to personal or institutional publication lists. But no matter how exhaustive these may be, counting and comparing the number of publications does not say a great deal about their intrinsic quality and external impact. The basic assumption of citation analysis is that a publication is valuable in as far as it is explicitly used, i.e. cited in later papers. When such citations are counted, the impact of a great many publications on the scientific community can be measured and compared. In the absence of other reliable methods based on purely quantitative criteria, this bibliometric approach is arguably the next best thing to the direct assessment of the intrinsic quality of the publication......................... Yet citation indexes are increasingly being used to support all kinds of rankings and

comparisons of individual articles, journals, authors, institutions and even countries. By adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing the basic values, all kinds of derivative values or rankings can be constructed. Adding the values for each year since its original publication gives a total citation count of a specific paper. Adding the values of all papers by a scientist gives him or her a lifetime citation count, and combining all publications from their scientists (not dou ble-counting cooperative efforts) gives a total value for university departments, institutions or corporations (Moed & Van Raan 1988; Nederhof 1988; Nederhof et al. 1993). Dividing these totals by parameters such as the number of years covered gives averages or impact ratios. Comparing year-specific values shows evolutions, etc., etc......................................... These tools have been warmly welcomed by science policy makers and university administrators (Wade i975), while they have been abhorred by many individual scientists, either on moral grounds, because of bad personal experiences, or by finding faults on several levels (Dumont 1989; Tainer ~991)Some reject the general assumptions of citation analysis, others criticize specific factors or resent the way in which results were interpreted in specific cases.................................. 742...........The citation indexes gather bibliographic citations only from journal articles, not from books, book chapters, conference proceedings, grey literature, etc. In fact, these non-article publications are duly included as cited references, but not as citing source items. Within the journals category, only a limited number are scanned for citations............................ Although IS1 currently use some 4500 source journals for their SCI, this may be less than 10% of all available scientific serials (Hamilton 1990). This of course does not imply that 90% of all important science is plainly discarded. Bibliometric rules such as Bradfords law of scattering (Bradford 1950) and Garfields law of concentration (Garfield 1971) illustrate that in science a relatively small core accounts for most of the quality and impact................................ 743 - A principle sometimes referred to as the Matthew effect (Merton 1968) explains that in scientific literature also success breeds success. Both authors and journals get cited more easily once they have a substantial basis [744] to start from. This may be true for various reasons, including the citers being lured by author celebrity and journal status, or simply because these authors write quality papers and tend to present their best work to top journals. These have a relatively wide distribution and are indexed by the major abstracting services, so these scientists works become more visible, and hence more citable.

Bornmann, L., Mutz, R., Neuhaus, C., & Daniel, H. D. (2008). Citation counts for research evaluation: standards of good practice for analyzing bibliometric data and presenting and interpreting results. Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, 8(1), 93-102.

93 - The impact of a piece


of research is the degree to which it has been useful to other researchers (Shadbolt et al. 2006, p. 202; see also Bornmann & Daniel 2007a)................................... In research evaluation, citation counts are being used for evaluation and comparison of the research

performance of individual researchers, departments, and research institutions (Garfield et al. 1978, Adam 2002) as well as the scientific impact of nations (May 1997, King 2004).................................. Citation counts are attractive raw data for the evaluation of research output. Because they are unobtrusive measures that do not require the cooperation of a respondent and do not themselves contaminate the response (i.e. they are non-reactive) (Smith 1981, p. 84), citation rates are seen as an objective quantitative indicator for scientific success and are held to be a valuable complement to qualitative methods for research evaluation, such as peer review (Garfield & Welljamsdorof 1992, Daniel 2005). 94 - For many years, the citation indexes had a unique position among bibliographic databases because of their multidisciplinary nature and indexing of cited references.................... However, their coverage is restricted....................... However, Thomson Scientific is no longer the only database offering citation indexing......................... The availability of citation data in additional bibliographic databases opens up the possibility of extending the data sources for performing citation analysis, and particularly for including other document types of written scholarly communication, such as books, chapters in edited books, and conference proceedings. The inclusion of other document types may contribute to the validity of bibliometric analysis when evaluating fields in which the internationally oriented scientific journal is not the main medium for communicating research findings (Moed 2005).

Kear, R., & Colbert-Lewis, D. (2011 see below for complete ref.
Pg 470 - Bibliometrics, the application of mathematical and statistical analysis to books, journals, and other publications, 1 allows us to choose journal collections, assist with applications for research funding, evaluate journal status, and find significant contributors in a subject area............................ Citation Map. Web of Knowledge created this tool that depicts backwards and forwards citation of an article using a map format. The backwards feature represents the citations in the current selected document, and the forward feature represents the documents that have cited the current selected document. This tool gives dynamic representation of the impact that a document has on a field, a topic area, or trend

The generally good pattern of correspondence between quantitative indicators and peer judgements has often led to them being characterised as objective measures in contrast to the subjective character of the peer review. However, it should be remembered that the indicators themselves are based in part on peer decisionsjournal articles embody the peer evaluations that have led to acceptance for publication, and grant success embodies the peer assessment of applications (Weingart 2003).,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,Bibliometric indicators can make peer review more transparent and counterbalance its shortcomings (van Raan & van Leeuwen 2002, Tijssen

2003, Aksnes & Taxt 2004). They are seen as a useful resource in cases of doubt within panel discussions of peers (Moed & van Raan 1988). In addition, bibliometric indicators can be used to highlight gaps in the knowledge of peersas triggers to the recognition of anomalies (Bourke et al. 1999, p. 1). Where the indicators do not align with peer evaluation, then the reasons must be sought. It may be due to problems with the indicators, or it may be that the experts have an incomplete knowledge of the research they are assessing. Inconsistencies between quantitative data and peer review are likely to trigger additional, deeper analyses of the performance of units being evaluated by those conducting the assessment.

Citation counts used to show performance of individual researchers, depts., research institutions, nations (Bornmann et al., 2008; Schoonbaert & Roelants (1996); Moed and Luwel, 1999

Noyons, E. C., Moed, H. F., & Luwel, M. (1999). Combining mapping and citation analysis for evaluative bibliometric purposes: A bibliometric study. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 50(2), 115-131. Schoonbaert, D., & Roelants, G. (1996). Citation analysis for measuring the value of scientific publications: quality assessment tool or comedy of errors?. Tropical Medicine & International Health, 1(6), 739-752. Kear, R., & Colbert-Lewis, D. (2011). Citation searching and bibliometric measures Resources for ranking and tracking. College & Research Libraries News, 72(8), 470-474. Mingers, J., & Xu, F. (2010). The drivers of citations in management science journals. European Journal of Operational Research, 205(2), 422-430. Booth, A., Papaioannou, D., & Sutton, A. (2012) "Systematic approaches to a successful literature review", London, Sage Publications Ltd.

Other examples can be seen in its use in apportioning funds in university (Moed, 1985) It has been used to help reIt has thus been used by many scholars in identifying contributions within a given field by authors, journal, university, research groups (butler, 2008), government-led research or a nation

Moed, H. F., Burger, W. J. M., Frankfort, J. G., & Van Raan, A. F. (1985). The use of bibliometric data for the measurement of university research performance. Research Policy, 14(3), 131-149.

Narin, F. (1976). Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity (pp. 206-219). Washington, D. C: Computer Horizons. Meho, L. I. (2006). The rise and rise of citation analysis. arXiv preprint physics/0701012.

Butler, L. (2008). Using a balanced approach to bibliometrics: quantitative performance measures in the Australian Research Quality Framework. Ethics in Science and Environmental politics, 8(1), 8392. Baumgartner, H. (2010). Bibliometric reflections on the history of consumer research. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20(3), 233-238.