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Code No.311701 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) How is broad band operation is achieved in Multi-cavity Klystrons? The parameters of a two-cavity amplifier klystron are as follows : Beam Voltage : VO = 1200 V Beam Current : I O = 28 mA Frequency : f = 8 GHz Gap spacing in either cavity : d = 1 mm Spacing between the two cavities : L = 4 cm Effective shunt resistance : RSh = 40 KΩ (excluding beam loading) (i) Find the input microwave voltage V1 in order to generate a maximum output voltage V2 (ii) Determine the voltage gain (iii)Calculate the efficiency of the amplifier (iv)Compute the beam loading conductance 2.a) b) 3.a) b) What are crossed field devices ? How does a magnetron sustain its oscillations using this crossed field. Assume π mode for explaining the same. Explain the characteristic features and requirements of Transferred Electron Devices, and distinguish between junction effect and bulk effect devices. Classify the different types of solid state devices, as applicable for – (i) microwave amplifiers, (ii) microwave oscillators, (iii) microwave switches. Compare the performances of the devices under each group. Explain the principles of operation of MASERs. List out their characteristics, merits and applications. List out the merits, demerits and applications of PIN diodes. Explain the need for S-matrix at microwave frequencies, and list out its properties. Show that the impedance and admittance matrices of a reciprocal network are symmetrical. (Contd…2)

1

4.a) b) 5.a) b)

Code No.311701 6.

-2-

Set No.1

Describe , with a neat sketch, the principles of operation of a 3 port circulator. Derive the S-matrix for the circulator, when all the ports are matched. Write down the S-matrices for a clock-wise and a counter clock wise circulator. Derive the relationship between guide wavelength, cut-off wavelength and space wavelength. Give the experimental procedure to verify the above relationship.

7.a) free b) 8.a) b)

With a schematic diagram, explain the construction of a micro stripline. Mention the advantages of striplines over other transmission lines. *** *** ***

Set No.

Code No.311701 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) b) What is electronic tuning in case of Reflex Klystrons? A two-cavity klystron amplifier has the following parameters : Beam Voltage : VO = 30 KV Beam Current :IO=3A Operating Frequency : f = 10 GHz Beam coupling coefficient : βi = β0 = 1 −7 3 Dc electron charge density : ρ 0 = 10 c/m Signal voltage : V1 = 15 V Cavity shunt resistance : Rsh = 1 KΩ. Total shunt resistance including load : Rsht = 10 KΩ. Calculate : (i) The plasma frequency (ii) The reduced plasma frequency for R = 0.4 (iii) The induced voltage in the output cavity (iv) The electronic efficiency Differentiate between klystrons and TWT both being amplifiers. Mention how a TWT can be converted to an oscillator. Explain the operation of such a device. Why large tuning ranges are possible with such a device. A Gunn diode of 10 µm. device length has a doping concentration of 2 x 1014 per cubic cm., and a threshold field of 2.8 kV/cm. For an applied field of 3.2 kV/cm., determine (i) the electron drift velocity, (ii) the current density, (iii) the electron mobility, and (iv) the possible modes of oscillation, at 10 GHz. Mention the applications, frequency ranges of usage, advantages of different types of microwave junction diodes. Explain the negative resistance features and microwave characteristics of Tunnel diodes. Explain the principle of working of an SPDT microwave switch using PIN diodes. Explain the S-matrix representation of a multiport microwave network, and its significance. For a 2-port network, define the S-parameters involved, and obtain the relations for insertion loss, reflection loss and return loss in terms of S parameters. (Contd…2)

2

2.a) b) 3.a)

b) 4.a) b) 5.a) b)

Code No.311701 6.

-2-

Set No.2

With a neat sketch, describe the working of a magic Tee. What are its properties? Obtain its S-matrix and describe the applications for this microwave component. Name two methods of measuring microwave frequency. Using block diagram, give the procedure for both the methods How are the radiation losses minimized in micro stripline? Draw the field pattern generated in a micro stripline and explain the field formation. *** *** ***

7.a) b) 8.a) b)

Set No.

Code No.311701 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --1.a) Explain the transit time effect as it affects high frequency amplifying devices. b) A two cavity klystron amplifier has the following characteristics . voltage gain = 15db, input power= 5mw, Rsh of input cavity=30kΩ R sh of output cavity =40kΩ, Rl (load impedance) = 40kΩ. Determine (i) The input( rms) voltage , (ii) The output (rms ) voltage , (iii) The power delivered to the load. 2.a) b) 3.a) b)

3

What is a magnetron? How is it different in principle of operation from that of a TWT? Explain why helix structure is preferred in a TWT. Compare the power output, efficiency, merits and demerits of IMPATT and TRAPATT diodes. List out their applications. Distinguish between the different modes of operation of Gunn diodes, with neat schematics. How are they classified ?

4.a) Draw the equivalent circuit of a Tunnel diode, identifying the various parameters. Hence explain the series and parallel loading applications of Tunnel diodes. b) Draw the equivalent circuit of a typical parametric amplifier and explain the parameters involved. 5.a) b) 6. Distinguish between the S and Z matrices for a multiport network, and obtain the relation between them. Obtain the S-matrix of a 2 port network, when its terminal reference planes are shifted outwards by a lengh L. Describe with a neat sketch, the working of a 4-port directional coupler, and obtain S-matrix when the coupling factor is 3dB. List out the different types of directional couplers. What are the different types of Microwave DETECTORS? Explain their characteristics and applications. Explain the application of 'THERMOCOUPLE' as a sensor, in microwave measurements. Derive an expression for characteristic impedance of a micro stripline.

7.a) b) 8.a)

Set Explain the factors affecting characteristic impedance of a micro stripline. No. *** *** *** Code No.311701 III B.Tech. I-Semester Regular Examinations, November-2003 MICROWAVE ENGINEERING (Electronics and Telematics) Time: 3 hours Max.Marks:80 Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks --b)

4

1.a) b)

Explain: velocity modulation and current modulation. A two cavity klystron amplifier has the following specifications . Beam voltage Vo=900V, Beam current Io=30mA, Frequency f=8GHZ Gap spacing in either cavity d=1mm Spacing between centers of cavities L=4cm, Effective shunt impedance R sh =49GΩ. Determine (i) The electron velocity (ii) The dc transit time of electron (iii) The input voltage for maximum output voltage (iv) The voltage gain in decibels. What is critical magnetic field as it is used in connection with magnetrons? Describe π-mode of oscillation in a cavity magnetron.

2.a) b)

3.a) A Gunn diode has electron drift velocity of 2.5 x 105 m/sec., electron mobility of 0.015 sq.m./V.sec. , and a dielectric constant of 13. Determine the criterion for classifying the modes of operation. If the device length is 12 µm., calculate the doping concentration. Explain the relations used. b) List out and compare the typical and maximum values of power output, efficiency and noise performance of different types of microwave solid state devices. 4.a) b) 5.a) b) Describe the characteristics and specialities of parametric amplifiers. Hence explain the amplification mechanism with neat illustrations. Bring out the microwave applications of crystal diodes. Establish the conditions for the S-matrix to be unitary. A 2-port lossless, reciprocal network of characteristic impedance Z o. is terminated in a load ZL (ZL ≠ Zo). Derive an expression for its input reflection coefficient, in terms of s parameters and load reflection coefficient. On what principles the working of a Directional Coupler is based ? With a neat sketch describe the working of two-hole directional coupler. Write down the S-matrix. Define and explain the following: Coupling, Directivity and Isolation. Comment on the ideal and practical values of directvity in such couplers.

6.

Code No.311701 7.a) b) 8.a) b)

-2-

(Contd…2) Set No.4

Give the relationship between unloaded Q and loaded Q of a cavity. Explain how the above relationship can be proved using an appropriate test setup. Explain the concepts of propagation delay time for a stripline. Is the Effective dielectric constant of a micro strip line a function of Relative dielectric constant? Justify. *** *** ***

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