SSI Annual

Statistical Report,
2004

Social Security Administration
Office of Policy
Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics

Highlights 2004
Size and Scope of the Supplemental Security Income Program

About 7.0 million people received federally administered payments in December
2004.

The average monthly payment in December 2004 was $428.

Total payments for the year were more than $36 billion, including about $4 billion
in federally administered state supplementation.

Profile of Recipients

The majority were female (57 percent).

Fourteen percent were under age 18, 57 percent were aged 18 to 64, and 29
percent were aged 65 or older.

Most (82 percent) were eligible on the basis of a disability.

Almost 6 out of 10 recipients under the age of 65 were diagnosed with a mental
disorder.

More than half (56 percent) had no income other than their SSI payment.

Thirty-five percent of SSI recipients also received Social Security benefits.

Of the people receiving SSI benefits, about 2 percent were residing in a Title XIX
institution where Medicaid was paying more than half of the cost.

Despite their disabilities, about 328,000 recipients (5.6 percent) were working in
December 2004.

Preface
Since 1974, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has guaranteed a minimum
level of income for needy aged, blind, or disabled individuals. Each year, we issue a report
that presents data on the SSI program and the people who receive benefits from it. The
report covers such topics as federal benefit rates and total annual payments, federally
administered payments, state-administered supplementation, work incentives, applications, outcomes of applications, awards, denials, and suspension of benefits.
The section on federally administered payments includes a table showing country of
origin of the nearly 1.5 million SSI recipients who were born in a foreign country. Finally, in
response to numerous inquiries for data at the state level, we have provided state distributions for applications, awards, recipient rates, and receipt of Social Security and SSI on
the basis of disability.
Alfreda M. Brooks compiled the data and prepared the report for publication. Staff of
the Division of Information Resources edited the report and prepared the print and electronic versions for publication.
General questions about the report should be directed to Alfreda Brooks at
410-965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov. For specific questions about the data, contact the
person listed on each table.
This and other reports on the SSI program are available on the Web at
http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy. For additional copies, please e-mail
op.publications@ssa.gov or call 202-358-6274.

Susan Grad
Acting Associate Commissioner
for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics
September 2005

Notes
Unless otherwise specified—

all payments are federally administered payments, and

all years are calendar years.

In July 2001, the Social Security Administration made retroactive lump-sum payments to
correct an error in the cost-of-living adjustment for 2000 and 2001. The data in this report
reflect the federal benefit rate actually used for Supplemental Security Income payments
($512 for 2000; $530 for January through June 2001).
Numbers in the text and tables may not add to totals because of rounding.
Monthly data shown in tables are for the end of the given month.
The tables on Noninstitutionalized Recipients, which are based on the Survey of Income
and Program Participation (SIPP), were not updated for the SSI Annual Statistical Report,
2004. We are preparing and evaluating updated estimates from a special SIPP interview
of SSI recipients. We anticipate publishing those estimates in the SSI Annual Statistical
Report, 2005.

Contents
Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
History of the SSI Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
The Basic Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Uniform Standards and Objective Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Assistance of Last Resort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Incentives for Work and Opportunities for Rehabilitation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Administration of the SSI Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
State Supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Coordination with Other Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Tables
Federal Benefit Rates and Total Annual Payments
1.

Monthly federal SSI benefit rates, 1974–2005 (in dollars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.

Total payments, by eligibility category and source of payment,
selected years, 1974–2004 (in thousands of dollars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Federally Administered Payments
3.

Recipients, by age, December 1974–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

4.

By type of payment, sex, eligibility category, and age, December 2004 . . . . . . . 22

5.

By selected characteristics, eligibility category, and age, December 2004 . . . . . 23

6.

Recipients, by type of representative payee, eligibility category, and age,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

7.

Recipients, by type of income, eligibility category, and age, December 2004 . . .25

8.

Recipients, by receipt of Social Security, type of income, eligibility
category, and age, December 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

9.

Recipients, by state or other area, eligibility category, and age,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

10.

Average monthly payment, by state or other area, eligibility category,
and age, December 2004 (in dollars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

11.

Recipients and their average income, by type of income and marital status,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

12.

Recipients as a percentage of resident population, by state,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

13.

Foreign-born recipients, by region, country of origin, and eligibility category,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

State-Administered Supplementation
14.

By eligibility category, selected months, 1974–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

15.

By eligibility category and state, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Recipients of Social Security, SSI, or Both
16.

Persons receiving both Social Security and SSI, by type of Social Security
benefit and SSI eligibility category, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

17.

Persons aged 18–64 receiving benefits on the basis of disability and their
total and average monthly payments, December 1996–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

18.

Persons aged 18–64 receiving both Social Security and SSI on the basis
of disability and their average monthly Social Security benefit, by state or
other area and type of beneficiary, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44

Noncitizens
19.

By eligibility category, December 1982–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

20.

Distribution of recipients, by selected characteristics and citizenship status,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

21.

By state or other area and eligibility category, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

22.

By region and country of origin, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

23.

By number of months between date of U.S. residency and date of
SSI application and eligibility category, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54

Recipients Under Age 65
24.

Recipients, by diagnostic group, 1996–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

25.

By diagnostic group and age, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

26.

By diagnostic group, age, and sex, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

27.

Percentage of recipients with a representative payee, by diagnostic group
and age, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

28.

Percentage distribution, by state or other area and diagnostic group,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

29.

Average monthly payment, by state or other area and diagnostic group,
December 2004 (in dollars) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

Recipients Who Work
30.

By selected months, 1976–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

31.

Recipients participating in section 1619(a) or section 1619(b), selected
months, 1982–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

32.

By state or other area, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

33.

Recipients benefiting from specified work incentives, by state or other area,
December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
34.

Household and family characteristics, by age, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

35.

Personal characteristics, by age, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

vi ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

36.

SSI payments as a percentage of personal income, by selected
characteristics, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

37.

Percentage distribution of family income, by selected characteristics
and source, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

38.

Percentage distribution, by poverty status and selected
characteristics, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

39.

Percentage distribution, by poverty status before and after SSI payments
and age, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90

40.

Poverty gap before and after SSI payments, by selected
characteristics, 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Applications
41.

All applications, by age of applicant, 1973–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

42.

Applications for children under age 18, by selected characteristics,
1996–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

43.

Applications for adults aged 18–64, by selected characteristics,
1996–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

44.

Applications for adults aged 65 or older, by selected characteristics,
1996–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98

45.

All applications, by state or other area and age of applicant, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . 99

46.

All applicants, by year of first application and age, 1973–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Awards
47.

All awards, by age of awardee, 1974–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

48.

Awards for children under age 18, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004 . . . 106

49.

Awards for adults aged 18–64, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004 . . . . . . 107

50.

Awards for adults aged 65 or older, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004 . . 109

51.

All awards, by state or other area and age of awardee, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

52.

All persons awarded SSI, by year of first award and age, 1974–2004 . . . . . . . 112

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114
53.

Outcomes at all adjudicative levels, by age and year of application,
1992–2003. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

54.

Medical decisions at the initial adjudicative level, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

55.

Medical decisions at the reconsideration level, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

56.

Medical decisions at the hearing level or above, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

57.

Percentage distribution of final medical allowances, by age, year of
application, and reason for allowance, 1992–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123

58.

Percentage distribution of final medical denials, by age, year of application,
and reason for denial, 1992–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ vii

Suspensions
59.

Suspensions, by age of recipient and reason for suspension, 1996–2004 . . . . 129

60.

Recipients suspended, by age and reason for suspension, 1996–2004 . . . . . . 130

61.

Recipients suspended for at least 12 months, by age and reason for
suspension, 1996–2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

Appendix: Sampling Variability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

viii ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Background
The Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program is a
nationwide federal assistance program administered by
the Social Security Administration (SSA) that guarantees a minimum level of income for needy aged, blind,
or disabled individuals. In December 2004, 7.0 million
individuals received federally administered monthly SSI
benefits (including federally administered state supplementary payments) averaging $428.

reversed the historic federal and state roles with regard
to adult assistance. Under the new arrangement, SSI
would provide a uniform federal income floor, and
optional state programs would supplement that floor.
The new program was historic in that it shifted from the
states to the federal government the responsibility for
determining who would receive assistance and how
much assistance they would receive.

History of the SSI Program

The Basic Plan

Entitlement programs for the aged, blind, or disabled
have their roots in the original Social Security Act of
1935. That act established an old-age social insurance
program to be administered by the federal government
and an old-age means-tested assistance program to be
administered by the states. Similar programs for the
blind or disabled were added to the act in later years.
Means-tested assistance was intended to supplement
the incomes of individuals who were ineligible for
Social Security or whose benefits could not provide a
basic living.

The main objective of the SSI program is to provide the
basic cash support of needy aged, blind, or disabled
individuals. Congress designed the SSI program on the
basis of the following principles:

This means-tested assistance, also known as categorical adult assistance, actually comprised three separate programs—Old-Age Assistance (OAA), Aid to the
Blind (AB), and Aid to the Permanently and Totally
Disabled (APTD). Despite substantial federal financing,
those programs were essentially state programs; federal law established only broad guidelines and assistance. Federal financing was open-ended in the sense
that the federal government would provide matching
funds to support whatever payment levels the states
established. Federal law specified no maximum or minimum standards. Consequently, each state was
responsible for setting its own standards for determining who would receive assistance and how much they
would receive. As a result, eligibility requirements and
variations of payment levels differed from state to state.
Beginning in the early 1960s, this state-operated,
federally assisted welfare system drew criticism from
within and outside of government. Some of the criticism
was directed at the crazy-quilt eligibility requirements
and payment levels. Other criticism centered on specific requirements, such as lien laws and provisions
that required certain relatives to bear responsibility for
the maintenance of needy family members. The disparity in the degree of federal financial support provided to
states was also an acknowledged problem.

Eligibility requirements and benefit standards that
are nationally uniform and eligibility determinations
that are based on objective criteria

An assistance source of last resort for the aged,
blind, or disabled whose income and resources are
below specified levels

Incentives and opportunities for recipients who are
able to work or to be rehabilitated that would allow
them to reduce their dependency on public assistance

An efficient and economical method of administering the program to provide assistance

Inducements to encourage states to provide
supplementation of the basic federal benefit and
protection for former recipients of state adult assistance programs who were converted to the SSI
program

Appropriate coordination of the SSI program with
the Food Stamp program, medical assistance programs, and other programs

Uniform Standards and Objective Criteria
Before the SSI program, eligibility of aged, blind, or disabled individuals for federally funded adult assistance
depended on the state in which they lived. Benefit
amounts also varied from state to state. The SSI program replaced the state-run programs of assistance
with a program having nationally uniform standards
and objective eligibility criteria, which include the following:

Responding to these concerns, Congress passed
and the president approved the SSI program (Public
Law 92-603, enacted October 30, 1972), which

A uniform limitation on the dollar amount or value
of income and resources that an individual can
have and still qualify for federal assistance. The
countable income limits for individuals and couples

1996, or a qualified alien in one of the following categories:3

are equal to their respective federal benefit rates
and hence are increased annually according to
changes in the cost of living. The resource limit is
$2,000 in countable resources for individuals and
$3,000 for couples.

Sixty-five as the minimum age requirement for
assistance based on age.

A uniform definition of disability and blindness. The
definitions for individuals 18 years of age or older
are the same as those used for the Social Security
Disability Insurance program. To be considered
disabled, an individual must have a medically
determinable physical or mental impairment that is
expected to last (or has lasted) at least 12 continuous months or to result in death and (1) if 18 or
older, prevents him or her from doing any substantial gainful activity, or (2) if under 18, results in
marked and severe functional limitations.1 However, individuals for whom addiction to drugs or
alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the
determination of their disabilities are not eligible for
benefits.2 To be considered blind, an individual
must have central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in
the better eye with the use of a correcting lens or
have tunnel vision of 20 degrees or less.

1.

– refugees (eligibility limited to the 7-year period
after their arrival in the United States);
– asylees (eligibility limited to the 7-year period
after the date they are granted asylum);
– noncitizens who have had their deportations
withheld under section 243(h) of the INA as in
effect before April 1, 1997, or who have had
their removals withheld under section 241(b)(3)
of the INA (eligibility limited to the 7-year period
after the date that deportation or removal is
withheld);
– Cuban and Haitian entrants under section
501(e) of the Refugee Education Assistance Act
of 1980 (eligibility limited to the 7-year period
after the date they are granted entrant status);
– Amerasian immigrants admitted pursuant to
section 584 of the Foreign Operations, Export
Financing, and Related Programs Appropriations Act of 1988 and subsequent amendments
(eligibility limited to the 7-year period after their
arrival in the United States);

Uniform standards for citizenship and residency. To
be eligible for SSI, an individual must be a citizen
(or national) of the United States, an American
Indian born in Canada who is under section 289 of
the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), an
American Indian born outside the United States
who is a member of a federally recognized Indian
tribe under section 4(e) of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, a noncitizen
who was receiving SSI benefits on August 22,
Substantial gainful activity (SGA) is used to describe a level of
work activity that is substantial (that is, involves the performance
of significant physical or mental duties that are productive) and
gainful (that is, performed for remuneration or profit). Generally,
earnings from work activity of more than $810 a month in 2004
were evidence of ability to engage in SGA. Applicants who
earned more than $810 a month would generally not be considered disabled. However, SSI recipients who earned more than
$810 a month could continue to be eligible for SSI. (See the
section Incentives for Work and Opportunities for Rehabilitation.) The SGA level of $810 was increased to $830 effective
January 1, 2005. Increases in the SGA level in subsequent
years will be based on increases in the national average wage
index.
The definition of disability for individuals under age 18 reflects
amendments made by Public Law 104-193, the Personal
Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.
Prior law required a medically determinable physical or mental
impairment of comparable severity to that required for individuals aged 18 or older.

2.

– certain noncitizens who are blind or disabled
and were lawfully residing in the United States
on August 22, 1996;

The provision reflects amendments made by Title I of Public
Law 104-121, the Senior Citizens’ Right to Work Act of 1996,
enacted March 29, 1996.

2 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

– noncitizen active-duty armed forces personnel,
honorably discharged veterans, and their
spouses and dependent children; or
– lawful permanent residents who have earned or
can be credited (from their spouses or parents)
with 40 qualifying quarters of earnings.
Note that qualified alien status includes noncitizens
who have been battered or subjected to extreme cruelty in the United States by a spouse or parent (or a
member of the spouse's or parent's family) with whom
they live and who have an approved petition, or have a
petition pending, setting forth a prima facie case for
adjustment of their immigration status.
Finally, certain noncitizens may be eligible for SSI
regardless of their immigration status if they have been
determined to be victims of severe forms of trafficking

3.

These standards reflect amendments made by Public Law 104193, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, as amended by Public Law 104-208, Public
Law 105-33, and Public Law 105-306. Prior law permitted SSI
eligibility for individuals who were residents of the United States,
citizens or nationals of the United States, aliens lawfully admitted for permanent residence in the United States, or aliens permanently residing in the United States under color of law.

in persons in the United States.4 Such individuals are
treated for SSI purposes as refugees, that is, they are
eligible for SSI for 7 years after a determination is
made that they are trafficking victims.5
In addition to having to be a U.S. citizen (or
national) or in one of the potentially eligible noncitizen
categories, an individual must reside in the 50 states,
the District of Columbia, or the Northern Mariana
Islands—areas referred to here collectively as the
United States. An individual also must be physically
present in the United States for 30 consecutive days if
he or she had been outside the United States for 30 or
more consecutive days.
There are two exceptions to the residency and
physical presence requirements:

Blind or disabled children who are citizens of the
United States may continue to be eligible for payments if they are living outside the United States
with a parent who is on duty as a member of the
U.S. armed forces. This exception also applies to
blind and disabled children of military personnel
who are born overseas, become blind or disabled
overseas, or applied for SSI benefits while overseas.
Students studying abroad for not more than 1 year
may continue to be eligible for payments if the studies are sponsored by a U.S. educational institution
but cannot be conducted in the United States.

Assistance of Last Resort
As a means-tested program, SSI takes into account all
income and resources that an individual has or can
obtain. The amount of an individual's countable income
and resources are the measure of his or her need for
assistance.
Income
The amount of an individual's income is used to determine both eligibility for, and the amount of, his or her
SSI benefit. As countable income increases, an individual's SSI benefit amount decreases. Generally, ineligibility for SSI occurs when countable income equals the
federal benefit rate plus the amount of applicable feder-

4.

5.

Trafficking of persons is generally defined as the recruitment,
harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for
labor or services through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for
the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage,
debt bondage, or slavery.
Public Law 106-386, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, enacted October 28, 2000.

ally administered state supplementary payment (state
supplementation is discussed later).
The monthly federal benefit rate is reduced dollar
for dollar by the amount of the individual's "countable"
income—that is, income minus all applicable exclusions. The result of this computation determines SSI
eligibility and the amount of the monthly benefit payable. The benefit rates are adjusted annually (in January) to reflect changes in the cost of living.
When an individual lives in the household of
another and receives support and maintenance in kind
(that is, generally, room and board) from the householder, the federal SSI benefit rate is reduced by onethird in lieu of counting the actual value of the support
and maintenance as unearned income. The value of
food or shelter-related items the individual receives in
kind from persons other than the householder (including in-kind assistance from outside the household in
which the individual lives) is counted as unearned
income, up to an amount equal to one-third of the applicable federal benefit rate plus $20.6
SSI law defines two kinds of income—earned and
unearned. Earned income is wages, net earnings from
self-employment, remuneration for work in a sheltered
workshop, royalties on published work, and honoraria
for services. All other income is unearned. The distinction between earned and unearned income is significant because different exclusions apply to each type of
income.
However, not everything an individual receives is
considered to be income. Generally, if the item received
cannot be used as, or to obtain, food, clothing, or shelter, it will not be considered as income. For example, if
someone pays an individual's medical bills or offers
free medical care, or if the individual receives money
from a social services agency that is a repayment of an
amount he or she previously spent, that value is not
considered income to the individual. In addition, some
items that are considered to be income are excluded
when determining the amount of an individual's benefit
(see Box 1).
Resources
The amount of an individual's resources is used to
determine whether he or she is eligible for SSI in a
given month. SSI law states that eligibility is restricted
to individuals who have countable resources, deter6.

SSA simplified the SSI program (70 FR 6340) by generally eliminating clothing from the definition of income and from the definition of in-kind support and maintenance, effective February 7,
2005.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 3

mined monthly, that do not exceed $2,000 ($3,000 for a
couple). The law does not define what resources are
but does stipulate what items are not considered
resources.
Regulations state that a resource is cash or other
liquid asset or any real or personal property that individuals (or their spouses) own and could convert to
cash to be used for their support and maintenance.
This definition is consistent with the general philosophy
of the SSI program that only items that can be used for
an individual's food, clothing, or shelter should be used
in determining his or her eligibility and benefit amount.
Not all resources an individual owns are counted. The
value of an item may be totally excluded or counted

only to the extent that its value exceeds specified limits
(see Box 1).
If an individual disposes of resources at less than
fair market value within the 36-month period before
applying for SSI or at any time thereafter, the individual
may be penalized. The penalty is a loss of benefits for a
number of months (up to a 36-month maximum)
obtained by dividing the uncompensated value of disposed-of resources by the federal benefit rate plus the
maximum state supplementary payment, if any, applicable to the individual's living arrangement. The penalty does not apply if, among other things, the
individual can show that the resources were disposed
of exclusively for a purpose other than establishing SSI
eligibility.

Box 1.
Income and Resource Exclusions
Income Exclusions
The principal earned income exclusions are

the first $65 per month plus one-half of the
remainder,

impairment-related work expenses of the disabled and work expenses of the blind,

income set aside or being used to pursue a plan
for achieving self-support by a disabled or blind
individual, and

infrequent or irregularly received income ($30 or
less a quarter).

life insurance policies whose total face value
does not exceed $1,500;

burial funds not in excess of $1,500 each for an
individual and spouse (plus accrued interest);

household goods and personal effects;b

an automobile if used for transportation for the
beneficiary or a member of the beneficiary’s
household;c

property essential to self-support;

resources set aside to fulfill a plan to achieve
self-support; and

amounts deposited into an individual development account, including matching funds and
interest earned on such amounts, under the
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families program or the Assets for Independence Act.

a.

Any portion of the $20 amount not used to exclude unearned
income may be used to exclude earned income.

b.

The $2,000 value limit was removed effective February 7,
2005 (70 FR 6340).

c.

SSA also changed the evaluation of automobiles as an
excludable resource, effective February 7, 2005 (70 FR
6340). Under the old rules, one automobile could be excluded
(regardless of value) if necessary for employment, medical
treatment, or essential daily activities. If not excludable under
this criteria, the current market value of one automobile (up to
$4,500) could be excluded. The new exclusion, applicable to
any one automobile used for transportation, simplifies the
evaluation of this resource.

The principal unearned income exclusions are

the first $20 per month,a

income set aside or being used to pursue a plan
for achieving self-support by a disabled or blind
individual,

state- or locally funded assistance based on
need,

rent subsidies under programs administered by
the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the value of food stamps, and

infrequent or irregularly received income ($60 or
less a quarter).

Resource Exclusions
The principal resource exclusions are

the home and land appertaining to it, regardless
of value;

4 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Filing for Other Benefits
As the program of last resort, SSI benefits are provided
to eligible individuals only to the extent that their needs
are not met by other sources. After evaluating all other
income and resources, SSI pays what is necessary to
bring an individual to the statutorily prescribed income
"floor." In keeping with this principle, SSI law requires
that SSI applicants file for other payments for which
they may be entitled, such as annuities, pensions,
retirement or disability benefits, workers’ compensation, and unemployment insurance benefits.
SSA must provide an individual with written notice
of potential eligibility for other benefits and of the
requirement to take all appropriate steps to pursue
those benefits. The individual has 30 days from receipt
of the notice to file for the benefits involved.
Eligibility Issues for Residents of Public
Institutions or Medical Facilities and Personal
Needs Allowance
State and local governments—rather than the federal
government—traditionally have taken the financial
responsibility for residents of their public institutions.
The SSI program continues this long-standing public
assistance policy. People who are residents of public
institutions for a full calendar month are generally ineligible for SSI unless one of the following exceptions
applies:

The public institution is a medical treatment facility
and Medicaid pays more than 50 percent of the
cost of care or, in the case of a child under age 18,
Medicaid, private health insurance, or both pay
more than 50 percent of the cost of care.

The public institution is a publicly operated community residence serving no more than 16 residents.

The public institution is an emergency shelter for
the homeless (payments are limited to no more
than 6 months in any 9-month period).

The recipient was eligible under section 1619(a) or
section 1619(b) for the month preceding the first
full month in the public institution and is permitted
by the institution to retain any benefits (payable for
up to 2 months).

A physician certifies that the recipient's stay in a
medical facility is likely not to exceed 3 months and
that continued SSI eligibility is needed to maintain
and provide for the expenses of the home to which
the individual will return.

Medicaid program, their monthly federal payment standard is generally reduced to $30, beginning with the
first full calendar month they are in the facility. In the
case of an individual under age 18, the $30 payment
standard is also applicable if more than half of the bill is
paid by private insurance or a combination of Medicaid
and private insurance. In these cases, the SSI program
provides up to $30 a month, which is intended to take
care of small comfort items not provided by the institution.
Deeming
In certain situations, the income and resources of others are counted in determining whether an individual's
income and resources fall below the levels established
by law. This process is called deeming and is applied in
cases in which an eligible individual lives with an ineligible spouse, an eligible child lives with an ineligible
parent, or an eligible noncitizen has a sponsor.7 In concept, the practice takes into account the responsibility
of the ineligible spouse or parent or the sponsor to provide for the basic needs of the eligible individual.

Spouse-to-Spouse Deeming. When an eligible individual lives in the same household with a spouse who
is not eligible for SSI, the ineligible spouse's income
and resources are deemed to be available to the eligible individual. In determining the amount of income and
resources available to the eligible individual, all applicable exclusions are used. In addition, a living allowance
is provided for the ineligible spouse and for any ineligible children under age 18 living in the household. The
allowance reduces the amount of income to be
deemed. Spouse-to-spouse deeming is intended to
result in the same amount of income being available to
the couple as would be available if both members of
the couple were aged, blind, or disabled and eligible for
SSI.
Deeming does not apply when the eligible individual is not living in the same household as the ineligible
spouse. However, if the ineligible spouse's absence is
temporary or is due solely to an active-duty assignment
as a member of the U.S. armed forces, deeming continues to apply.

Parent-to-Child Deeming. A child under age 18 is
subject to deeming from an ineligible natural or adoptive parent (and that parent's spouse, if any) living in
the same household. Certain amounts of the parent's
income are excluded, living allowances are provided for
7.

When individuals enter medical treatment facilities
in which more than half of the bill is paid by the

Deeming also applies to an individual who lives with an essential person (a concept carried over from the former state assistance plans). However, there are fewer than 100 of these cases
remaining.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 5

the parent(s), and an allocation is set aside for each
ineligible child under age 18 (under age 21 if a student)
who is living in the household. Deeming from an eligible parent to a child continues if the parent is absent
from the household but the absence is temporary or is
due solely to active-duty assignment as a member of
the U.S. armed forces. A child living in a household in
which all members are receiving public assistance benefits is not considered to be receiving any support, and
deeming does not apply.

Sponsor-to-Alien Deeming. The income and
resources of noncitizens are deemed to include those
of their sponsors. The way the income and resources
are deemed and the length of the deeming period
depend on whether the sponsor signed a legally
enforceable affidavit of support, as required by Public
Law 104-208, or the previous version of the affidavit.
Generally, individuals who entered the country before
1998 did so under the old version of the affidavit.8
Under the old version of the affidavit, deeming of
the sponsor's income and resources lasts until the noncitizen has been in the United States for 3 years.9 Living allowances equal to the federal benefit rate are
provided for the sponsor, and allowances equal to onehalf of the federal benefit rate are provided for each of
the sponsor's dependents. Allowances are also provided for the sponsor and his or her family members in
determining deemed resources. These allowances
reduce the amount of the sponsor's income and
resources deemed to the noncitizen.
For noncitizens admitted into the United States
under a legally enforceable affidavit of support, deeming generally applies until the noncitizen becomes a
U.S. citizen. Deeming ends before citizenship if the
noncitizen has earned, or can be credited with, 40
qualifying quarters of earnings. Children and spouses
of workers may be credited with quarters earned by the
worker. A quarter otherwise earned after 1996 does not
count as one of the required 40 if the noncitizen or
worker received federal means-tested public benefits
during the relevant period.
Also for this group of noncitizens, deeming does
not apply for specified periods if the noncitizens or their
children or parents have been battered or subjected to
extreme cruelty while in the United States or if spon-

sors left the noncitizens indigent by not providing them
with sufficient support.

Incentives for Work and Opportunities for
Rehabilitation
SSI benefits provide a basic level of assistance for individuals who are blind or disabled with limited earnings
ability because of their impairments. Nonetheless, for
recipients who want to work, the SSI program is
designed to encourage and support their work attempts
to help them achieve greater degrees of independence.
The SSI program includes a number of work incentive
provisions that enable recipients who are blind or disabled to work and retain benefits or to increase their
levels of work activity without the loss of SSI disability
status or Medicaid. These incentives provide higher
amounts of income or resource exclusions as recognition of the expenses associated with working or as
inducements to seek rehabilitation services and support for work efforts.
Earned Income Exclusion
The first $65 ($85 if the individual has no income other
than earnings) of any monthly earned income plus onehalf of remaining earnings are excluded for SSI benefit
computation purposes. This general earned income
exclusion is intended to help offset expenses incurred
when working. It ensures that SSI recipients who are
working will be rewarded for their efforts by having
greater total income than those who do not work.
Impairment-Related Work Expense Exclusion
The cost of certain impairment-related services and
items that a disabled (but not blind) individual needs to
work are excluded from earned income in determining
SSI eligibility and benefit amounts.
In calculating these expenses, amounts equal to
the costs of certain attendant care services, medical
devices, equipment, prostheses, vehicle modifications,
residential modifications to accommodate wheelchairs,
and similar items and services are deductible from
earnings. The costs of routine drugs and routine medical services are not deductible, unless they are necessary to control the disabling condition.
Work Expenses of the Blind Exclusion

8.

9.

The Immigration and Naturalization Service began using the
new, legally enforceable affidavits on December 19, 1997. However, if a potential immigrant had a visa issued before that date,
the sponsor would sign an old affidavit even if the affidavit was
signed after December 19, 1997.
For a temporary period—January through September 1996—
the deeming period was 5 years.

6 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Any expenses relating to work that a blind individual
has are excluded from earned income in determining
SSI eligibility and benefit amounts. Unlike an impairment-related work expense, a deductible expense need
not be directly related to the worker's blindness; it need

only be an ordinary and necessary work expense of the
worker.
Some frequently excluded work expenses include
transportation to and from work, meals consumed during work hours, job equipment, licenses, income or
FICA taxes, and costs of job training.
Student Earned Income Exclusion
The student earned income exclusion is an additional
exclusion for an individual who is under the age of 22
and regularly attending school. It is intended to help
defray the cost of educational training. Under current
regulations, up to $1,410 of earned income per month
but no more than $5,670 per year may be excluded.10
Plan for Achieving Self-Support
A plan for achieving self-support (PASS) allows a disabled or blind individual to set aside income and
resources to get a specific type of job or to start a business. The plan may involve setting aside funds for education or vocational training, to purchase work-related
equipment, or to pay for transportation related to the
work goal. The income and resources that are set
aside are excluded under the SSI income and
resources tests.
The individual must have a feasible work goal and
a specific savings or spending plan. The individual also
must provide a clearly identifiable accounting for the
funds that are set aside. The PASS is time limited and
must be approved by SSA. The individual must then
follow the plan and negotiate revisions as needed. SSA
monitors the approved plan by reviewing it periodically
to ensure the individual's progress toward attaining the
work goal.
Special Provisions for Disabled People Who Work
These work incentives are generally referred to by their
section number in the Social Security Act, section
1619. Under section 1619(a), disabled individuals who
would cease to be eligible because they earn more
than the substantial gainful activity level can receive
special cash benefits as long as they

continue to have the disabling condition,

have income under the amount that would cause
ineligibility for any payment under SSI income
counting rules, and

meet all other nondisability requirements for SSI
payment.

10. Under current regulations, this exclusion will be increased in
subsequent years on the basis of changes in the cost of living.

In many states, being a recipient of the special
benefit permits the individual to be eligible for Medicaid
benefits.
Under section 1619(b), "SSI recipient" status for
Medicaid eligibility purposes also is provided to an
individual

whose earnings preclude any SSI payment but are
not sufficient to provide a reasonable equivalent of
the SSI, social services, and Medicaid benefits that
the individual would have in the absence of earnings and

whose ability to continue working would be seriously inhibited by the loss of social services and
Medicaid benefits.

To qualify for extended Medicaid coverage under
section 1619(b), an individual must

have a disabling condition,

need Medicaid to work,

not be able to afford equivalent medical coverage
and publicly funded personal or attendant care that
would be lost without assistance,

meet all nondisability requirements for SSI payment other than earnings, and

have received a regular SSI cash payment in a previous month within the current period of eligibility.
(In some states, the individual must have qualified
for Medicaid in the month preceding the first month
of eligibility under section 1619.)

In determining whether individuals' earnings are
not sufficient to provide them with the equivalent benefits they would be eligible for if they stopped working,
their earnings are compared with a threshold amount
for their state of residence. Section 1619(b) status continues if the earnings are below the threshold. If earnings exceed the state threshold, an individualized
assessment of the need for Medicaid is made, and
1619(b) status may continue.
Vocational Rehabilitation and the Ticket to Work
Program
Since the beginning of the SSI program, SSA has
made provision for blind or disabled individuals who are
receiving SSI benefits to be referred to state Vocational
Rehabilitation (VR) agencies. If the state VR agency
does not accept the referral, SSA can refer recipients to
an alternate provider to receive vocational rehabilitation
services. SSA reimburses the VR agency or alternate
provider for services that result in the individual's working at the level of substantial gainful activity for a conSSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 7

tinuous period of 9 months, and in certain other limited
situations.
The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999 established a Ticket to Work program
under which a disabled beneficiary is able to obtain
vocational rehabilitation, employment, and other support services from a qualified private or public provider.
Providers of such services in this new setting are
referred to as employment networks (ENs). In addition,
the Ticket legislation provided for a new procedure for
compensating the ENs under an outcome or outcomemilestone payment system. By expanding the pool of
providers and giving the providers incentives for
achieving success, this program seeks to expand a disabled beneficiary's access to these services for assistance in finding, entering, and retaining employment
and reducing his or her dependence on cash benefits.
Regulations issued by the commissioner of Social
Security became effective January 2002. Beginning in
2002, the Ticket to Work program was gradually
phased in, and it has been in operation nationwide
since November 2003.
Individuals receiving SSI benefits who improve
medically and are therefore no longer considered disabled or blind can continue to receive SSI benefits if
they are actively participating in the Ticket to Work program or another approved VR program and if continuing or completing the program would increase the
likelihood that they would be permanently removed
from the SSI rolls. SSI benefits and Medicaid generally
continue until the rehabilitation services are completed
or until the individual ceases to participate in the
program.
Expedited Reinstatement
A disabled or blind individual whose eligibility for SSI
payments was ended because of earnings can request
expedited reinstatement of his or her SSI benefits without filing a new application. To qualify for expedited
reinstatement, the individual must make the request
within 60 months after the eligibility ended and must
have a disabling medical condition that (1) is the same
as or related to the disabling medical condition that led
to the previous period of eligibility and (2) prevents him
or her from performing substantial gainful activity. In
determining whether the individual is disabled or blind,
the medical review standard is applied. Normal nonmedical requirements for SSI eligibility still apply.
An individual requesting expedited reinstatement
may receive up to 6 months of provisional benefits
while the request is pending. These benefits generally
are not considered an overpayment if the request is
denied. Provisional benefits may include Medicaid but
8 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

do not include any state supplementary payments. Provisional benefits may be received as well by the individual's spouse at a couple's rate if the spouse was
previously eligible for SSI as a spouse.

Administration of the SSI Program
The framers of Supplemental Security Income chose
the Social Security Administration to administer the
program because the basic system for paying monthly
benefits to a large number of individuals was already in
place in the form of the Social Security program.
Application Process
Individuals can make appointments to apply for SSI
benefits at any one of the approximately 1,300 SSA
field offices around the country or through SSA teleservice centers. The claims process includes the application interview, the obtaining of necessary evidence and
documentation, and the adjudication of the claim. Many
individuals file for benefits under the SSI and the OldAge, Survivors, and Disability Insurance programs at
the same time. Potential claimants initially contact SSA
by phone or mail or in person. Field office personnel
conduct an interview with the claimant, the claimant’s
representative, or both.
SSA corroborates information provided by applicants for SSI through independent or collateral
sources. Generally, the basic responsibility for obtaining evidence lies with the claimant, although SSA often
gives advice on ways to obtain the needed information.
Because of the special circumstances of the SSI population (for example, financial need, old age, or illness),
SSA makes special efforts to assist claimants in obtaining the necessary proofs.
With regard to disability and blindness claims, SSA
makes determinations of all of the nonmedical eligibility
factors, and each state's Disability Determination
Services (DDS) makes determinations of the medical
eligibility factors.
Applicants and recipients are required to report
events and changes of circumstances that may affect
their SSI eligibility and benefit amounts. Such reports
are required, for example, when an individual has a
change in the amount of income or resources, changes
living arrangements, or leaves the United States. Failure or delay in submitting a required report can result in
a penalty being assessed against the individual’s SSI
benefit.

Determinations of Eligibility
SSI applications have no retroactivity and become
effective in the month after the month of filing or the
month after all eligibility requirements are met, whichever is later. Eligibility for benefits is determined on a
current monthly basis. SSI recipients are required to
have their nonmedical eligibility factors redetermined
periodically, generally every 1 to 6 years depending on
their specific situation.
In addition to these nonmedical reviews, medical
reviews are conducted on disabled or blind recipients to
determine whether they continue to be disabled or
blind. For administrative efficiency the medical reviews
are done most often on disabled or blind recipients
whose medical conditions are considered likely to
improve. Medical reviews are required for disabled or
blind recipients, for example, under the following circumstances:

when earnings of recipients exceed the substantial
gainful activity level

at least once every 3 years for recipients under the
age of 18 whose medical conditions are considered likely to improve

within 12 months after birth for recipients whose
low birth weight is a contributing factor material to
the determination of their disability unless the commissioner determines that the impairment is not
expected to improve within 12 months of the child's
birth

within 1 year after attainment of the age of 18 and
using the adult eligibility criteria for recipients
whose eligibility for SSI benefits was established
under the disabled child eligibility criteria

Representative Payees
When SSI recipients are incapable of managing their
benefits, SSA appoints representative payees for them,
and their SSI benefits are sent to the representative
payees. In many cases the representative payee is a
spouse, parent, or other close relative who will act in
the recipient's best interest. In some cases, an SSAapproved organization may be appointed, and some
organizations have been authorized by SSA to collect a
fee from the benefit for acting as payee. The fee cannot
exceed the lesser of 10 percent of the benefit amount
or a specified amount ($32 a month in 2005, $61 a
month for disabled recipients who also have a drug
addiction or alcoholism condition).
Representative payees may use an SSI recipient's
benefit only for the use and benefit of the recipient and
must account for all benefits received. Representative

payees also are required to report any changes that
may affect SSI recipients' eligibility and payment
amount and may be held liable for certain overpayments that occur.
Appeal Rights
Recipients must be informed in writing in advance of
adverse actions that SSA plans to take and must be
given the opportunity to request that their benefits continue pending a decision at the first level of appeal.
Attorney Fees
At any time, an individual may appoint a representative
in any dealings with the Social Security Administration.
If such a representative is an attorney, he or she must
be in good standing, have the right to practice law
before a court, not be disqualified or suspended from
acting as a representative in dealings with Social Security, and not be prohibited by any law from acting as a
representative. If the individual is not an attorney, he or
she must meet qualifications specified by the commissioner (for example, be of good character and able to
provide valuable service to claimants).
A representative may charge and receive a fee for
his or her services, but the Social Security Administration generally decides how much the fee will be.
Although the Social Security Act does not establish a
maximum fee, most attorneys use an options process
that limits their maximum fee to the lesser of 25 percent
of the retroactive payment or $5,300.11
Advance Payments
The SSI program has provisions that help respond to
the immediate needs of new claimants. These procedures are in addition to state and local programs
designed to help those in need pending decisions on
their SSI status.

Emergency Advance Payments. A new claimant who
faces a financial emergency and who has a strong likelihood of being found eligible may receive up to
1 month of SSI benefits—the federal payment amount
plus any applicable state supplement. The amount paid
is recovered from later SSI payments (in full from the
first payment or in increments over no more than a
6-month period, depending on the circumstances).
However, if the claim is subsequently not allowed
because of not finding disability or blindness, repayment is waived. If the claim is disallowed for other rea-

11. Fee agreements before February 1, 2002, were limited to the
lesser of 25 percent of the retroactive payment or $4,000.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 9

sons, the amount paid is an overpayment and is
processed as such.

continue to receive mandatory state supplementary
payments.

Presumptive Disability or Blindness. Up to 6 months
of payments may be made to an individual applying for
benefits on the basis of disability or blindness when the
available evidence reflects a high degree of probability
that the impairment will meet the definition of disability
or blindness and the individual is otherwise eligible.
These payments are not considered overpayments if
the individual is later determined not to be disabled or
blind.

Administration of State Supplementary Payments

State Supplementation
In designing the SSI program, Congress recognized
that states, in many instances, would want to provide a
higher level of income maintenance than was available
under the federal program. At the same time, states
were given the option to either provide no supplementation to the federal assistance payments or supplement those payments on the basis of their views of
the needs of their citizens. They were mandated to
ensure that their citizens would not receive lower benefits under the federal program than they had under the
former state program.

A state may administer its supplementary program or
enter into an agreement under which SSA will make eligibility determinations and payments on behalf of the
state. Under state administration, the state pays its own
program benefits and absorbs the full administrative
costs. Under federal administration, states are required
to pay SSA a fee of $9.06 for each supplementary payment issued in fiscal year 2005. Fees are scheduled to
rise in succeeding fiscal years.
States that administer their own supplementary
payment programs establish their own eligibility criteria.
States with federally administered programs must
adhere to SSI eligibility criteria in all aspects except
additional income exclusions.
Mandatory Passalong

State supplementation can be optional or mandatory.

It was originally the view of Congress that increases in
the federal SSI benefit rate would eventually replace
state supplementary payments. However, public reaction to states reducing their supplementary payment
amounts when SSI payments were increased led Congress to mandate that states pass along SSI benefit
increases resulting from cost-of-living adjustments.

Optional State Supplementary Payment Programs.
For individuals who first became eligible for SSI in 1974
or later, each state could supplement federal payments
to whatever extent it found appropriate with respect to
the needs of its citizens and the resources of the state.
In 2004, 45 states had optional state supplementary
payment programs.

To meet the pass-along requirement, a state may
either maintain each state payment level from year to
year (the payment levels method), or it may spend the
same amount of money, in the aggregate, that it spent
for supplementary benefits in the 12-month period preceding the increase in the SSI benefit rate (the total
expenditures method).

Some states provide supplementary payments to
all individuals eligible for SSI benefits; others may limit
them to certain SSI recipients, such as the blind or residents of domiciliary care facilities, or may extend them
to persons ineligible for SSI because of excess income.
States' flexibility in setting supplementary payments,
however, has been significantly restricted by mandatory passalong provisions (described below).

Coordination with Other Programs

Types of State Supplementation

Mandatory State Supplementary Payment Programs. States are required to maintain the income
levels from December 1973 of individuals who were
transferred from the former state adult assistance programs to the SSI program in 1974, except for Texas,
which until 1999 had a constitutional bar against mandatory state supplementation.12 Because of the
increases in federal benefits, only a few individuals

10 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

SSI benefits are not the only form of assistance available to needy aged, blind, or disabled individuals. Medicaid, food stamps, and temporary state assistance are
also important in keeping individuals from sliding further into poverty. SSA plays a limited but important role
in helping states with regard to administration of the
Medicaid and Food Stamp programs, and provisions in
the SSI statute ensure that payments made by states
or under the Social Security program are not duplicated
by SSI benefits.

12. The requirement does not affect West Virginia, since SSI federal
benefit rates in 1973 exceeded the applicable income standards
under the state’s adult assistance programs.

Windfall Offset
If a person receives SSI payments and is later determined to be entitled to retroactive Social Security benefits, such retroactive benefits are reduced by the
amount of SSI payments the person would not have
been eligible for had the Social Security benefits been
paid in the month they were due. This process, called
the windfall offset, was enacted to prevent windfall payments to individuals when Social Security and SSI payments were paid for the same period.
Medicaid Determinations
Generally, SSI recipients are categorically eligible for
Medicaid. A state may use SSI eligibility criteria for
determining Medicaid eligibility, or it may use its own
criteria as long as the criteria are no more restrictive
than the state's January 1972 medical assistance standards. Forty states use SSI criteria, and 11 states use
eligibility criteria that are more restrictive than those of
the SSI program.
States also may enter into agreements with SSA
for SSA to make Medicaid eligibility determinations on
their behalf as long as the eligibility requirements of the
state's Medicaid plans are the same as those for the
SSI program. Under these agreements, SSA determines only when an individual is eligible for Medicaid;
SSA does not determine Medicaid ineligibility. SSA has
agreements with 33 states to determine eligibility for
Medicaid.

The law also provides for Social Security offices to
take food stamp applications from potentially eligible or
eligible SSI households that are not already receiving
food stamps and do not have a food stamp application
pending. Food stamp applications from SSI households may be taken in connection with initial SSI claims
or at the time of a redetermination. Food stamp applicants have the option of applying at Social Security
offices or at state food stamp offices if expedited service is required. Social Security offices forward the food
stamp application and any supporting documents to
the local food stamp offices within 1 day of taking the
application. Eligibility is determined by the food stamp
office.
Interim Assistance Reimbursement
SSA may enter into agreements under which states or
local governments are reimbursed for basic needs
assistance provided during the period that an eligible
individual's SSI application for benefits was pending or
the individual's SSI benefits were suspended and subsequently reinstated (the interim period). Thirty-nine
states have interim assistance agreements with SSA.

Continued Medicaid eligibility is provided in SSI law
for certain Social Security beneficiaries who lose SSI
eligibility because of either an entitlement to Social
Security benefits or an increase in Social Security benefits resulting from

cost-of-living adjustments

actuarial increases in widow(er)s benefits

changes in the definition of disability for widow(er)s
benefits

increases in disabled adult child benefits

Food Stamp Applications
SSI recipients in all states, except California, may be
eligible for food stamps. Under agreements entered
into by the secretary of Agriculture and SSA, Social
Security offices notify Social Security and SSI applicants and recipients of their potential benefits under
the Food Stamp program and make food stamp applications available to them.13

13. California “cashes out” food stamps, and SSI recipients receive
a cash payment in their state supplementary payment in lieu of
food stamps.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 11

Federal Benefit Rates
and Total Annual Payments

Federal Benefit Rates and Total Annual Payments
Table 1.
Monthly federal SSI benefit rates, 1974–2005 (in dollars)
Individual

Couple

Own
household

Another's
household

Own
household

Another's
household

Medicaid
facility

Essential
person
increment

January 1974
July 1974

140.00
146.00

93.34
97.34

210.00
219.00

140.00
146.00

25.00
25.00

70.00
73.00

July
July
July
July
July

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

157.70
167.80
177.80
189.40
208.20

105.14
111.87
118.54
126.27
138.80

236.60
251.80
266.70
284.10
312.30

157.74
167.87
177.80
189.40
208.20

25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00

78.90
84.00
89.00
94.80
104.20

July 1980
July 1981
July 1982
July 1983
January 1984

238.00
264.70
284.30
304.30
314.00

158.67
176.47
189.54
202.87
209.34

357.00
397.00
426.40
456.40
472.00

238.00
264.67
284.27
304.27
314.67

25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00

119.20
132.60
142.50
152.50
157.00

January
January
January
January
January

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

325.00
336.00
340.00
354.00
368.00

216.67
224.00
226.67
236.00
245.34

488.00
504.00
510.00
532.00
553.00

325.34
336.00
340.00
354.67
368.67

25.00
25.00
25.00
25.00
30.00

163.00
168.00
170.00
177.00
184.00

January
January
January
January
January

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

386.00
407.00
422.00
434.00
446.00

257.34
271.34
281.34
289.34
297.34

579.00
610.00
633.00
652.00
669.00

386.00
406.67
422.00
434.67
446.00

30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00

193.00
204.00
211.00
217.00
223.00

January
January
January
January
January

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

458.00
470.00
484.00
494.00
500.00

305.34
313.34
322.67
329.34
333.34

687.00
705.00
726.00
741.00
751.00

458.00
470.00
484.00
494.00
500.67

30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00

229.00
235.00
242.00
247.00
250.00

January
January
January
January
January
January

2000 a
2001 a
2002
2003
2004
2005

513.00
531.00
545.00
552.00
564.00
579.00

342.00
354.00
363.34
368.00
376.00
386.00

769.00
796.00
817.00
829.00
846.00
869.00

512.67
530.67
544.67
552.67
564.00
579.34

30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00
30.00

257.00
266.00
273.00
277.00
282.00
290.00

Starting date

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Office of Program Management.
a. Data reflect the correction of an error in the consumer price index.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 15

Federal Benefit Rates and Total Annual Payments
Table 2.
Total payments, by eligibility category and source of payment, selected years, 1974–2004
(in thousands of dollars)
State supplementation
Year

Total

Federal
SSI

All recipients

Federally
administered

State
administered

a

1974
1975
1980
1985
1990

5,245,719
5,878,224
7,940,734
11,060,476
16,598,680

3,833,161
4,313,538
5,866,354
8,777,341
12,893,805

1,263,652
1,402,534
1,848,286
1,972,597
3,239,154

148,906
162,152
226,094
310,538
465,721

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

27,627,658
28,791,924
29,052,089
30,216,345
30,922,953

23,919,430
25,264,878
25,457,387
26,404,793
26,805,156

3,117,850
2,987,596
2,913,181
3,003,415
3,300,976

590,378
539,450
681,521
808,137
816,821

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

31,564,439
33,060,819
34,566,844
35,604,829
36,961,099

27,290,248
28,705,503
29,898,765
30,688,029
31,886,509

3,381,451
3,460,353
3,820,234
4,005,249
4,178,849

892,740
894,963
847,845
911,551
895,741

Aged
1974
1975
1980
1985
1990

2,503,407
2,604,792
2,734,270
3,034,596
3,736,104

1,782,742
1,842,980
1,860,194
2,202,557
2,521,382

631,292
673,535
756,829
694,114
1,038,006

89,373
88,277
117,247
137,925
176,716

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

4,467,146
4,507,202
4,531,973
4,424,877
4,712,333

3,374,772
3,449,407
3,479,948
3,327,856
3,524,355

864,450
833,091
823,581
838,375
921,332

227,924
224,705
228,444
258,646
266,646

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

4,811,048
4,958,644
5,085,554
5,147,380
5,173,378

3,595,384
3,708,527
3,751,491
3,758,070
3,773,901

942,530
955,549
1,051,301
1,098,805
1,133,324

283,073
294,568
282,762
290,505
266,153
(Continued)

16 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Federal Benefit Rates and Total Annual Payments
Table 2.
Total payments, by eligibility category and source of payment, selected years, 1974–2004
(in thousands of dollars)—Continued
State supplementation
Year

Total

Federal
SSI

Federally
administered

State
administered

Blind
1974
1975
1980
1985
1990

130,195
130,936
190,075
264,162
334,120

91,308
92,427
131,506
195,183
238,415

34,483
34,813
54,321
64,657
90,534

4,404
3,696
4,248
4,322
5,171

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

375,512
371,869
374,857
366,452
390,877

298,238
298,897
302,656
291,050
309,295

69,203
65,894
65,189
67,137
73,028

8,071
7,077
7,012
8,265
8,554

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

394,484
407,371
426,409
419,352
421,817

312,144
323,895
335,405
325,878
327,446

73,688
74,729
81,049
83,415
85,364

8,636
8,747
9,955
10,058
9,007

Disabled
1974
1975
1980
1985
1990

2,601,936
3,142,476
5,013,948
7,754,588
12,520,568

1,959,112
2,378,131
3,874,655
6,379,601
10,134,007

597,876
694,186
1,037,137
1,213,826
2,110,615

44,948
70,159
102,156
161,161
275,946

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

22,778,547
23,905,578
24,006,254
25,304,721
25,719,050

20,246,415
21,516,579
21,685,421
22,785,879
22,971,506

2,184,197
2,088,610
2,024,410
2,097,903
2,306,615

347,935
300,389
296,423
420,939
440,929

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

26,198,350
27,611,303
28,996,405
29,966,210
31,257,856

23,399,442
24,695,630
25,844,055
26,630,775
27,785,246

2,365,233
2,430,077
2,687,884
2,823,028
2,960,160

479,635
485,596
496,634
536,782
512,450

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Office of Financial Management, Division of Finance.
a. Includes data on state-administered state supplementation not distributed by category.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov; Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 17

Federally Administered
Payments

Federally Administered Payments
Table 3.
Recipients, by age, December 1974–2004
Under age 18

Aged 18–64

Aged 65 or older

Year

Total

Number

Percentage
of total

Number

Percentage
of total

Number

Percentage
of total

1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

3,996,064
4,314,275
4,235,939
4,237,692
4,216,925
4,149,575

70,900
107,026
125,412
147,355
165,899
177,306

1.8
2.5
3.0
3.5
3.9
4.3

1,503,155
1,699,394
1,713,594
1,736,879
1,747,126
1,726,553

37.6
39.4
40.5
41.0
41.4
41.6

2,422,009
2,507,855
2,396,933
2,353,458
2,303,900
2,245,716

60.6
58.1
56.6
55.5
54.6
54.1

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

4,142,017
4,018,875
3,857,590
3,901,497
4,029,333

190,394
194,890
191,570
198,323
211,587

4.6
4.8
5.0
5.1
5.3

1,730,847
1,702,895
1,655,279
1,699,774
1,780,459

41.8
42.4
42.9
43.6
44.2

2,220,776
2,121,090
2,010,741
2,003,400
2,037,287

53.6
52.8
52.1
51.3
50.6

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

4,138,021
4,269,184
4,384,999
4,463,869
4,593,059

227,384
241,198
250,902
255,135
264,890

5.5
5.6
5.7
5.7
5.8

1,879,168
2,010,458
2,118,710
2,202,714
2,301,926

45.4
47.1
48.3
49.3
50.1

2,031,469
2,017,528
2,015,387
2,006,020
2,026,243

49.1
47.3
46.0
44.9
44.1

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

4,817,127
5,118,470
5,566,189
5,984,330
6,295,786

308,589
397,162
556,470
722,678
841,474

6.4
7.8
10.0
12.1
13.4

2,449,897
2,641,524
2,910,016
3,148,413
3,335,255

50.9
51.6
52.3
52.6
53.0

2,058,641
2,079,784
2,099,703
2,113,239
2,119,057

42.7
40.6
37.7
35.3
33.7

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

6,514,134
6,613,718
6,494,985
6,566,069
6,556,634

917,048
955,174
879,828
887,066
847,063

14.1
14.4
13.5
13.5
12.9

3,482,256
3,568,393
3,561,625
3,646,020
3,690,970

53.5
54.0
54.8
55.5
56.3

2,114,830
2,090,151
2,053,532
2,032,983
2,018,601

32.5
31.6
31.6
31.0
30.8

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

6,601,686
6,688,489
6,787,857
6,902,364
6,987,845

846,784
881,836
914,821
959,379
993,127

12.8
13.2
13.5
13.9
14.2

3,744,022
3,811,494
3,877,752
3,953,248
4,017,108

56.7
57.0
57.1
57.3
57.5

2,010,880
1,995,159
1,995,284
1,989,737
1,977,610

30.5
29.8
29.4
28.8
28.3

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 21

Federally Administered Payments
Table 4.
By type of payment, sex, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
Category
Type of payment and sex

Total

Aged

Blind

Age
Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

Number
All payments
Male
Female

6,987,845
2,985,434
4,002,411

1,211,167
371,795
839,372

75,924
34,104
41,820

5,700,754
2,579,535
3,121,219

993,127
645,851
347,276

4,017,108
1,747,851
2,269,257

1,977,610
591,732
1,385,878

Federal SSI
Male
Female

6,694,577
2,855,894
3,838,683

1,110,757
335,749
775,008

70,469
31,562
38,907

5,513,351
2,488,583
3,024,768

989,893
643,755
346,138

3,870,809
1,671,769
2,199,040

1,833,875
540,370
1,293,505

State supplementation
Male
Female

2,497,589
1,067,127
1,430,462

601,078
205,142
395,936

33,765
15,101
18,664

1,862,746
846,884
1,015,862

260,525
170,942
89,583

1,327,931
596,746
731,185

909,133
299,439
609,694

Total payments (thousands of dollars)
All payments
Male
Female

3,224,059
1,431,804
1,792,255

426,926
137,578
289,348

35,916
16,149
19,768

2,761,217
1,278,078
1,483,139

538,306
350,693
187,613

1,985,048
866,258
1,118,790

700,706
214,854
485,852

Federal SSI
Male
Female

2,862,021
1,273,360
1,588,661

329,545
101,709
227,836

28,604
12,882
15,722

2,503,872
1,158,768
1,345,103

519,587
338,535
181,052

1,787,344
771,740
1,015,604

555,090
163,085
392,005

362,038
158,445
203,594

97,381
35,869
61,512

7,312
3,266
4,046

257,346
119,310
138,036

18,719
12,158
6,561

197,703
94,518
103,186

145,616
51,769
93,847

State supplementation
Male
Female

Average monthly payment

a

(dollars)

All payments
Male
Female

428.29
441.70
418.35

350.53
368.01
342.81

463.44
460.87
465.51

444.40
452.11
438.06

505.98
506.67
504.69

446.55
444.93
447.79

352.47
361.31
348.70

Federal SSI
Male
Female

395.36
408.92
385.33

295.13
301.23
292.49

398.15
397.94
398.32

415.59
423.66
408.99

490.19
490.94
488.78

415.91
412.50
418.48

301.21
300.34
301.57

State supplementation
Male
Female

138.07
140.63
136.16

160.44
173.21
153.84

210.69
208.89
212.14

129.51
131.49
127.87

66.44
65.73
67.80

137.97
146.69
130.91

158.69
171.38
152.48

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
a. Averages are not obtained simply by dividing the total dollars by the number of recipients. Averages exclude payments made in the
current month for prior-month eligibility, such as back pay for new awards, so that large retroactive payments do not distort the
averages.
CONTACT: Art Kahn (410) 965-0186 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

22 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Federally Administered Payments
Table 5.
By selected characteristics, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
Age

Category
Characteristic

Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

Number
All recipients

6,987,845

1,211,167

75,924

5,700,754

993,127

4,017,108

1,977,610

Sex
Male
Female

2,985,498
4,002,347

371,800
839,367

34,107
41,817

2,579,591
3,121,163

645,851
347,276

1,747,879
2,269,229

591,768
1,385,842

Living arrangement
Own household
Another’s household
Parent’s household
Medicaid institution
Unknown

5,711,571
294,902
830,359
138,761
12,252

1,098,406
90,387
...
20,345
2,029

64,334
4,081
5,609
1,842
58

4,548,831
200,434
824,750
116,574
10,165

131,393
33,349
813,484
13,932
969

3,758,314
158,833
16,875
74,343
8,743

1,821,864
102,720
...
50,486
2,540

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen

6,310,866
676,979

868,947
342,220

67,599
8,325

5,374,320
326,434

989,401
3,726

3,798,558
218,220

1,522,907
454,703

Average monthly payment (dollars)
All recipients

428.29

350.53

463.44

444.40

505.98

446.55

352.47

Sex
Male
Female

418.35
441.70

342.81
368.01

465.53
460.87

438.06
452.11

504.69
506.67

447.79
444.93

348.70
361.31

Living arrangement
Own household
Another’s household
Parent’s household
Medicaid institution
Unknown

427.56
385.81
511.92
37.99
384.60

351.39
403.31
...
38.55
365.10

468.64
446.03
553.44
37.57
463.08

445.44
376.64
511.63
37.91
389.50

552.98
370.58
511.76
47.68
482.12

457.11
379.23
519.51
37.11
373.14

357.89
400.85
...
36.53
372.02

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen

420.86
475.79

300.27
459.44

447.91
561.67

440.08
492.03

505.86
526.69

442.43
495.44

312.22
466.59

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 23

Federally Administered Payments
Table 6.
Recipients, by type of representative payee, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
Category

Age

Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

6,987,845

1,211,167

75,924

5,700,754

993,127

4,107,108

1,977,610

Without payee

4,494,575

1,166,120

56,405

3,272,050

876

2,670,336

1,823,363

With payee
Natural or adoptive parents
Spouse
Natural, adoptive, or stepchild
Grandparent
Other relative
Nonmental institution
Mental institution
Financial organization
Social agency
Public official
Other

2,493,270
1,405,334
61,052
94,819
92,805
347,808
126,572
76,932
2,560
124,877
14,597
145,914

45,047
305
1,915
18,364
26
11,178
6,744
1,245
37
2,088
540
2,605

19,519
11,609
224
668
637
2,419
1,316
740
11
1,018
81
796

2,428,704
1,393,420
58,913
75,787
92,142
334,211
118,512
74,947
2,512
121,771
13,976
142,513

992,251
810,941
36
296
68,102
67,370
5,757
2,941
120
20,028
1,273
15,387

1,346,772
592,634
52,314
49,567
24,651
237,871
95,022
67,415
2,298
95,238
11,110
118,652

154,247
1,759
8,702
44,956
52
42,567
25,793
6,576
142
9,611
2,214
11,875

Type of payee
All recipients

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

24 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Federally Administered Payments
Table 7.
Recipients, by type of income, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
Category
Type of income
All recipients

a

No other income
Earned income
Unearned income
Social Security benefits
Veterans’ benefits
Income based on need
Workers’ compensation
Support from absent parents
Pensions
Support and maintenance
Asset income b
Other c

Age

Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

6,987,845

1,211,167

75,924

5,700,754

993,127

4,017,108

1,977,610

3,880,471

425,720

40,823

3,413,928

740,662

2,414,071

725,738

238,529

14,155

4,107

220,267

2,237

213,640

22,652

2,441,374
70,051
15,263
5,063
129,535
59,498
272,980
225,194
77,903

693,426
29,666
178
355
...
39,333
80,920
80,827
12,746

27,124
568
56
14
883
418
2,565
3,240
832

1,720,824
39,817
15,029
4,694
128,652
19,747
189,495
141,127
64,325

70,026
1,335
9,993
14
126,424
49
41,322
13,465
2,989

1,243,356
23,045
5,076
4,162
3,111
12,439
132,213
101,961
56,408

1,127,992
45,671
194
887
...
47,010
99,445
109,768
18,506

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of unearned income or
both earned and unearned income.
b. Includes income received as rent, interest, dividends, and royalties.
c. Does not include income deemed from a spouse or parent.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 25

Federally Administered Payments
Table 8.
Recipients, by receipt of Social Security, type of income, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
Category

Age

Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

6,987,845

1,211,167

75,924

5,700,754

993,127

4,017,108

1,977,610

With Social Security
No other income
Earned income only
Unearned income only a
Both earned and unearned
income a

2,441,374
2,054,601
97,012
277,425

693,426
546,221
9,952
135,416

27,124
22,776
1,468
2,688

1,720,824
1,485,604
85,592
139,321

70,026
60,873
267
8,837

1,243,356
1,063,711
81,155
88,879

1,127,992
930,017
15,590
179,709

12,336

1,837

192

10,307

49

9,611

2,676

Without Social Security
No other income
Earned income only
Unearned income only a
Both earned and unearned
income a

4,546,471
3,880,471
141,517
507,015

517,741
425,720
4,203
86,614

48,800
40,823
2,639
5,000

3,979,930
3,413,928
134,675
415,401

923,101
740,662
1,970
179,766

2,773,752
2,414,071
132,485
212,036

849,618
725,738
7,062
115,213

17,468

1,204

338

15,926

703

15,160

1,605

Type of income
All recipients

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
a. Includes recipients with in-kind unearned income.
CONTACT: Art Kahn (410) 965-0186 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

26 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Federally Administered Payments
Table 9.
Recipients, by state or other area, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
Category
State or area

Age

Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

6,987,845

1,211,167

75,924

5,700,754

993,127

4,017,108

1,977,970

163,002
10,781
94,400
87,928
1,183,002

19,218
2,170
13,169
10,390
348,333

1,002
100
933
822
21,765

142,782
8,511
80,298
76,716
812,904

27,556
1,078
16,315
16,321
95,154

98,836
6,683
55,295
51,675
578,944

36,610
3,020
22,790
19,932
508,904

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

54,131
51,536
13,452
20,856
412,970

8,371
6,767
1,293
2,048
94,688

537
477
110
164
3,042

45,223
44,292
12,049
18,644
315,240

6,583
6,378
3,106
4,235
78,586

33,981
32,748
7,947
12,304
197,811

13,567
12,410
2,399
4,317
136,573

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

199,898
22,251
20,993
255,624
96,191

28,209
6,510
1,723
30,522
6,106

2,080
191
213
2,382
958

169,609
15,550
19,057
222,720
89,127

31,413
1,438
3,744
43,167
19,815

116,203
12,293
14,191
155,020
63,861

52,282
8,520
3,058
57,437
12,515

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

42,618
38,476
179,438
169,549
31,641

3,694
3,393
14,872
19,604
2,589

791
372
1,480
1,738
216

38,133
34,711
163,086
148,207
28,836

6,540
6,801
25,825
30,897
3,274

28,977
25,130
118,946
100,522
22,885

7,101
6,545
34,667
38,130
5,842

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

92,776
169,205
219,337
70,745
125,180

15,379
44,272
17,131
9,865
16,341

688
3,952
1,788
719
1,082

76,709
120,981
200,418
60,161
107,757

14,300
17,127
36,506
9,982
21,850

53,781
104,301
146,604
44,793
71,253

24,695
47,777
36,227
15,970
32,077

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

116,131
14,558
22,100
32,129
13,029

10,006
1,173
2,090
8,159
903

932
134
246
693
137

105,193
13,251
19,764
23,277
11,989

18,709
1,887
3,338
5,597
1,702

76,973
10,224
14,864
17,909
9,502

20,449
2,447
3,898
8,623
1,825

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

150,151
51,656
626,593
195,654
7,966

33,447
8,605
131,604
26,557
1,048

1,016
494
3,079
1,882
81

115,688
42,557
491,910
167,215
6,837

21,164
6,623
69,282
34,795
937

78,665
29,461
334,873
110,939
5,135

50,322
15,572
222,438
49,920
1,894

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

245,401
77,100
58,842
316,917
29,703

15,421
8,431
7,565
31,745
4,015

1,963
820
661
2,307
204

228,017
67,849
50,616
282,865
25,484

41,401
12,371
7,875
53,969
3,909

167,931
48,675
38,446
199,599
18,549

36,069
16,054
12,521
63,349
7,245

All areas
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 27

Federally Administered Payments
Table 9.
Recipients, by state or other area, eligibility category, and age, December 2004—Continued
Category
State or area

Age

Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

105,223
12,469
160,521
472,347
21,646

12,880
1,727
17,482
109,119
2,147

1,434
101
1,589
6,345
261

90,909
10,641
141,450
356,883
19,238

18,073
1,822
22,208
74,205
3,848

61,520
7,495
101,866
238,539
13,999

25,630
3,152
36,447
159,603
3,799

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

12,915
134,531
111,895
75,982
90,026
5,645

1,219
21,275
14,275
4,481
8,564
439

103
1,320
937
583
939
48

11,593
111,936
96,683
70,918
80,523
5,158

1,496
21,043
13,760
8,263
15,844
834

8,831
77,710
72,661
55,304
58,128
3,945

2,588
35,778
25,474
12,415
16,054
866

735

133

13

589

181

381

173

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

28 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Federally Administered Payments
Table 10.
Average monthly payment, by state or other area, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
(in dollars)
Age

Category
Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

428.29

350.53

463.44

444.40

505.98

446.55

352.47

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

374.41
386.74
405.51
360.67
559.10

178.98
272.73
292.14
159.69
505.63

363.61
387.12
411.82
360.81
616.65

400.85
416.04
424.14
388.07
580.51

497.50
443.43
494.74
491.63
606.46

398.85
420.92
421.05
384.58
594.06

216.12
291.90
304.37
192.46
510.60

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

381.02
404.29
391.49
430.42
394.73

297.97
326.83
253.44
266.92
318.22

392.27
415.62
376.11
397.48
394.30

396.33
416.02
406.42
448.60
417.77

463.70
489.63
470.51
496.62
487.23

400.07
418.07
397.51
453.42
408.33

293.63
324.46
268.83
300.05
321.95

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

371.79
436.54
382.87
426.76
397.55

211.57
364.09
207.80
339.27
226.36

395.95
435.12
379.79
419.79
368.09

398.18
466.89
398.90
438.85
409.65

488.58
469.86
473.01
501.87
489.25

402.27
472.44
393.50
438.47
399.94

234.09
379.17
225.80
338.96
241.67

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

369.78
383.60
392.43
390.90
363.59

209.75
240.00
186.83
198.03
165.07

353.63
399.02
401.12
378.52
385.83

385.76
397.58
411.09
416.63
381.30

470.20
481.19
501.65
503.04
477.93

382.23
391.47
414.69
417.10
386.25

227.79
253.67
235.13
231.31
201.63

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

408.08
437.64
424.10
397.97
369.42

318.39
370.22
292.20
311.93
172.89

398.61
474.66
416.79
406.59
358.13

426.16
461.20
435.45
412.02
399.45

481.06
531.26
501.04
482.82
497.18

429.63
453.65
435.27
406.18
399.96

319.10
369.12
301.60
322.13
215.13

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

385.96
376.56
367.53
396.43
376.51

218.12
188.97
220.27
311.64
251.41

385.93
402.36
378.88
457.67
379.82

402.02
392.98
383.08
424.48
386.00

495.19
477.65
474.60
479.54
450.22

398.57
395.86
378.72
411.37
387.84

239.50
218.46
234.46
311.58
249.68

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

414.80
377.14
460.63
358.55
337.26

354.51
241.56
385.73
188.44
198.59

411.72
392.77
433.12
365.70
384.63

432.26
404.52
480.89
385.55
358.18

497.37
496.50
521.61
477.04
454.96

431.93
409.56
489.75
382.02
359.39

353.39
265.73
398.03
224.16
220.50

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

417.72
382.12
395.38
437.48
429.75

268.03
204.90
289.18
287.59
313.39

393.42
387.94
406.13
415.71
400.19

428.07
404.12
411.19
454.50
448.30

499.95
493.24
482.52
517.82
543.47

426.94
404.97
410.31
454.11
444.99

280.82
227.55
295.52
317.15
329.24

State or area
All areas

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 29

Federally Administered Payments
Table 10.
Average monthly payment, by state or other area, eligibility category, and age, December 2004
(in dollars)—Continued
Category
State or area

Age

Total

Aged

Blind

Disabled

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

368.74
352.51
376.56
362.37
394.04

189.82
192.05
187.10
247.40
323.67

372.10
387.85
399.29
390.34
404.89

394.09
378.37
399.79
397.17
401.83

482.13
465.24
494.71
485.51
454.83

394.24
377.86
404.10
396.63
397.80

228.08
228.08
228.16
254.32
319.38

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

387.02
375.38
423.16
401.34
386.42
367.55

198.38
268.51
369.05
181.33
234.63
167.55

395.64
372.83
416.36
392.11
393.62
414.63

406.84
395.75
431.28
415.36
402.51
384.34

537.59
475.97
485.77
493.88
484.70
478.95

406.50
394.92
432.14
422.85
395.99
381.56

234.64
274.08
364.33
244.52
255.31
197.85

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

441.18

341.57

448.00

425.51

515.63

444.51

355.99

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

30 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Federally Administered Payments
Table 11.
Recipients and their average income, by type of income and marital status, December 2004
Eligible individual
with no spouse

Type of income
Total a

Average
income
Number (dollars)

Eligible individual with eligible spouse
Individual

Eligible individual with ineligible spouse

Spouse

Individual

Spouse

Average
income
Number (dollars)

Average
income
Number (dollars)

Average
income
Number (dollars)

Average
income
Number (dollars)

6,106,250

...

280,770

...

280,770

...

313,290

...

313,290

...

3,439,520

...

146,250

...

156,810

...

190,260

...

134,370

...

With income
2,666,730
132,890
Earned income only
2,415,360
Unearned income only
Both earned and unearned
118,480
income

406
338
399

134,520
1,890
130,620

401
651
391

123,960
2,400
118,770

343
557
329

123,030
4,300
116,520

411
597
397

178,920
97,240
70,440

814
1,081
402

616

2,010

805

2,790

751

2,210

752

11,240

1,082

With earned income a
Wages
Self-employment income

251,370
233,790
19,040

286
293
185

3,900
2,800
1,130

531
638
252

5,190
3,840
1,390

476
569
204

6,510
4,440
2,100

532
651
273

108,480
85,330
24,620

1,061
1,163
646

2,533,840
2,078,360
58,220
16,080
4,040

399
439
193
285
353

132,630
111,410
990
70
230

391
435
253
174
341

121,560
103,880
880
270
260

329
358
201
153
511

118,730
94,640
8,460
850
500

396
442
138
116
472

81,680
36,290
9,700
28,870
1,160

373
472
391
125
783

128,210
45,720
224,620
186,610
68,970

200
172
137
5
220

...
7,120
16,430
14,900
2,180

...
136
104
5
132

...
4,650
15,180
10,160
1,900

...
125
104
5
124

...
2,220
15,650
9,930
4,020

...
207
122
10
314

...
2,800
660
6,230
7,790

...
282
117
18
516

No other income

With unearned income a
Social Security benefits
Veterans’ benefits
Income based on need
Workers’ compensation
Support from absent
parents
Pensions
Support and maintenance
Asset income b
Other c

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable.
a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned
income or both earned and unearned income.
b. Includes income received as rent, interest, dividends, and royalties.
c. Does not include income deemed from a spouse or parent.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 31

Federally Administered Payments
Table 12.
Recipients as a percentage of resident population, by state, December 2004
Recipients
State
United States

Resident population a
293,655,404

b

Number

Percentage of
resident population

6,987,845

2.4

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

4,530,182
655,435
5,743,834
2,752,629
35,893,799

163,002
10,781
94,400
87,928
1,183,002

3.6
1.6
1.6
3.2
3.3

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

4,601,403
3,503,604
830,364
553,523
17,397,161

54,131
51,536
13,452
20,856
412,970

1.2
1.5
1.6
3.8
2.4

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

8,829,383
1,262,840
1,393,262
12,713,634
6,237,569

199,898
22,251
20,993
255,624
96,191

2.3
1.8
1.5
2.0
1.5

2,954,451
2,735,502
4,145,922
4,515,770
1,317,253

42,618
38,476
179,438
169,549
31,641

1.4
1.4
4.3
3.8
2.4

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

5,558,058
6,416,505
10,112,620
5,100,958
2,902,966

92,776
169,205
219,337
70,745
125,180

1.7
2.6
2.2
1.4
4.3

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

5,754,618
926,865
1,747,214
2,334,771
1,299,500

116,131
14,558
22,100
32,129
13,029

2.0
1.6
1.3
1.4
1.0

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

8,698,879
1,903,289
19,227,088
8,541,221
634,366

150,151
51,656
626,593
195,654
7,966

1.7
2.7
3.3
2.3
1.3

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

11,459,011
3,523,553
3,594,586
12,406,292
1,080,632

245,401
77,100
58,842
316,917
29,703

2.1
2.2
1.6
2.6
2.7

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

(Continued)

32 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Federally Administered Payments
Table 12.
Recipients as a percentage of resident population, by state, December 2004—Continued
Recipients
State
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

Resident population a

Number

Percentage of
resident population

4,198,068
770,883
5,900,962
22,490,022
2,389,039

105,223
12,469
160,521
472,347
21,646

2.5
1.6
2.7
2.1
0.9

621,394
7,459,827
6,203,788
1,815,354
5,509,026
506,529

12,915
134,531
111,895
75,982
90,026
5,645

2.1
1.8
1.8
4.2
1.6
1.1

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

SOURCES: U.S. Census Bureau and Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record
format), 100 percent data.
a. Population estimates for the United States as of July 1, 2004, as reported by the U.S. Census Bureau.
b. Includes 735 recipients in the Northern Mariana Islands.
CONTACT: Art Kahn (410) 965-0186 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 33

Federally Administered Payments
Table 13.
Foreign-born recipients, by region, country of origin, and eligibility category, December 2004
Region and country of origin

Total

Aged

Blind and disabled

All areas

1,482,608

711,418

771,190

North America
U.S. territories
Puerto Rico
Other a
Other

182,231
173,600
168,718
4,882
8,631

25,851
23,360
22,703
657
2,491

156,380
150,240
146,015
4,225
6,140

Latin America
Mexico
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Other

547,824
239,091
92,011
63,636
153,086

275,166
118,809
48,563
22,963
84,831

272,658
120,282
43,448
40,673
68,255

Africa
Somalia
Cape Verde Islands
Ethiopia
Other

19,856
3,997
1,366
2,721
11,772

8,296
1,708
860
920
4,808

11,560
2,289
506
1,801
6,964

474,166
100,790
73,264
32,998
69,843
197,271

281,812
43,204
62,607
6,836
57,201
111,964

192,354
57,586
10,657
26,162
12,642
85,307

36,264
8,876
6,579
3,831
16,978

16,586
4,165
2,950
2,446
7,025

19,678
4,711
3,629
1,385
9,953

130,101

67,021

63,080

84,772
8,023
6,886
8,375
7,764
11,522
42,202

33,730
4,571
2,974
2,756
4,497
4,174
14,758

51,042
3,452
3,912
5,619
3,267
7,348
27,444

7,394

2,956

4,438

Asia
Vietnam
China
Laos
Philippines
Other
Middle East
Lebanon
Syria
Turkey
Other
Former Soviet Republics
Europe
Portugal
Italy
United Kingdom
Poland
Former Yugoslavia
Other
Other or unknown areas

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: Foreign-born means born in an area not served by the Supplemental Security Income program.
a. Includes American Samoa, Guam, and Virgin Islands.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (401) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

34 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

State-Administered
Supplementation

State-Administered Supplementation
Table 14.
By eligibility category, selected months, 1974–2004
Total payments
(thousands of dollars)

Number
All
recipients a

Month

Aged

All
Blind Disabled recipients a

Aged

Average monthly payment
(dollars)

All
Blind Disabled recipients a

Aged

Blind Disabled

January 1974
December 1980

358,293 251,926
249,474 134,555

8,502 96,926
3,649 104,367

14,884
19,920

9,237
10,435

517
356

5,102
8,995

41.54
79.85

36.66
77.55

60.86
97.45

52.64
86.18

December
December
December
December
December

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

254,656
279,297
271,656
270,084
274,537

114,721
123,291
111,116
112,742
111,053

3,032
3,123
3,114
3,094
3,081

128,683
143,981
146,598
152,915
159,149

24,971
29,586
30,112
33,382
35,937

10,314
12,584
11,860
13,294
13,770

358
374
392
399
428

13,777
16,017
17,253
19,172
21,211

98.06
105.93
110.85
123.60
130.90

89.90
102.07
106.74
117.91
124.00

117.95
119.69
125.92
128.83
138.84

107.06
111.24
117.69
125.37
133.28

December
December
December
December
December

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

285,530
307,891
312,807
313,538
322,039

115,890
119,960
117,826
115,447
115,545

3,042
3,595
3,552
3,602
3,506

166,598
182,990
190,045
193,056
201,245

39,274
46,324
46,652
47,455
49,644

13,770
13,770
18,103
18,411
19,501

451
610
627
658
666

23,274
27,544
27,358
27,837
28,922

137.50
150.46
149.14
151.35
154.15

118.82
114.79
153.64
159.48
168.71

148.20
169.97
176.86
182.69
189.49

139.70
150.52
143.95
144.19
143.35

December
December
December
December
December

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

299,603
310,211
656,970
660,685
674,837

114,451
114,587
130,652
138,225
139,420

3,577
3,414
4,543
4,635
4,647

179,542
186,955
281,274
310,000
322,879

43,011
47,248
65,580
68,035
73,350

17,619
19,326
19,218
21,951
23,302

673
586
562
710
739

24,138
26,720
24,721
35,433
39,041

143.36
152.31
99.82
102.97
108.70

154.26
168.65
147.09
158.80
167.14

188.05
171.65
123.70
153.18
159.15

134.44
142.92
87.88
114.30
120.92

December
December
December
December
December

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

682,867
689,163
552,567
547,965
552,346

144,644
143,654
138,851
134,084
131,126

4,645
4,564
4,527
4,574
4,371

325,916
333,294
332,044
332,059
338,171

75,767
75,142
70,241
67,695
68,825

24,226
23,490
23,361
22,291
21,697

719
725
742
736
748

40,443
40,760
41,110
39,622
41,337

110.95
109.03
127.12
123.54
124.60

167.49
163.52
168.24
166.24
165.47

154.79
158.85
163.91
160.91
171.13

124.09
122.29
123.81
119.32
122.24

2004
January
February
March

559,609 134,035
543,034 131,450
546,645 131,530

4,209 342,182
4,365 328,183
4,388 331,775

66,942
68,515
69,290

20,794
22,270
22,016

715
733
742

40,347
40,537
41,486

119.62 155.14 169.87
126.62 169.42 167.93
126.76 167.38 169.09

117.91
123.52
125.04

April
May
June

568,278 135,300
551,340 132,539
554,220 132,847

4,297 349,763
4,436 335,573
4,436 338,272

67,212
68,491
69,257

20,751
22,172
21,939

714
732
737

40,664
40,609
41,535

118.27 153.37 166.16
124.23 167.28 165.01
124.96 165.15 166.14

116.26
121.01
122.78

July
August
September

568,414 134,638
553,051 132,065
555,034 132,089

4,294 350,754
4,396 337,792
4,416 339,851

66,834
68,938
69,679

20,463
22,196
22,028

722
738
749

40,568
41,026
41,858

117.58 151.99 168.14
124.65 168.07 167.88
125.54 166.77 169.61

115.66
121.45
123.47

October
November
December

568,025 133,998
552,401 131,646
552,346 131,126

4,267 350,903
4,407 337,732
4,371 338,171

67,045
68,499
68,825

20,723
22,014
21,697

728
752
748

40,511
40,755
41,337

118.03 154.65 170.61
124.00 167.45 170.64
124.60 165.47 171.13

115.45
120.67
122.24

SOURCE: Data reported to the Social Security Administration by the 31 states that administer their own supplementary program.
NOTES: All data are subject to revision.
Excludes optional supplementation data for Missouri and North Dakota.
a. Includes data not distributed by category.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 37

State-Administered Supplementation
Table 15.
By eligibility category and state, December 2004
Total payments
(thousands of dollars)

Number
State

All
recipients a

All applicable
states

Aged

552,346 131,126

All
Blind Disabled recipients a

4,371 338,171

Aged

Average monthly payment
(dollars)

All
Blind Disabled recipients a

Aged

Blind Disabled

68,825

21,697

748

41,337

124.60 165.47 171.13

122.24

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Colorado
Connecticut

434
151
14,980
5,014
457
...
33,724 24,626
16,343
4,992

6
69
...
15
91

277
9,897
457
9,083
11,260

24
4,252
23
7,389
6,701

8
1,291
...
5,248
2,373

...
21
...
4
50

16
2,940
23
2,137
4,277

56.31
56.19
...
283.88 257.51 305.09
50.00
...
...
219.09 213.12 243.87
410.03 475.45 554.77

56.36
297.08
50.00
235.23
379.86

Florida
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa

14,800
12,398
30,501
1,140
4,448

6,197
2,099
6,674
525
1,138

5
25
109
6
...

8,598
10,274
23,718
609
3,310

730
686
2,324
297
1,438

272
88
611
107
--

...
...
10
...
--

458
597
1,703
189
--

49.31
43.82
55.34
41.95
76.18
91.52
260.53 203.81
323.36
--

...
...
92.46
...
--

53.27
58.07
71.79
310.34
--

Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine
Maryland
Michigan

4,406
4,797
32,557
2,973
67,090

1,627
-4,856
---

24
-95
---

2,755
-27,606
---

1,380
38
615
641
2,719

488
-135
---

4
-2
---

888
-478
---

313.16 299.84 171.58
7.92
--18.89
27.72
23.47
215.66
--40.53
---

322.25
-17.32
---

Minnesota
Missouri
Nebraska
New Hampshire
New Mexico

40,320
8,865
5,574
16,784
177

7,634
2,796
1,627
8,174
--

192
873
47
339
--

32,494
5,196
4,200
8,271
--

7,708
2,217
519
873
18

821
695
113
146
--

36
337
...
58
--

6,852
1,185
405
669
--

191.18 107.53 185.55
250.09 248.58 385.55
93.16
85.25
...
51.99
17.82 170.57
100.00
---

210.86
228.14
96.36
80.90
--

North Carolina
North Dakota b
Oklahoma
Oregon b
South Carolina

24,056 12,376
355
c
76,939 19,262
16,972
4,710
2,981
1,333

89
c
480
706
11

11,591
203
57,197
11,556
1,637

10,759
160
3,152
1,681
936

5,042
c
680
1,480
409

53
c
20
30
4

5,665
90
2,452
171
524

447.26 407.37 593.66
449.43
c
c
40.97
35.32
42.58
99.03 314.16
41.84
314.08 306.59 346.91

488.72
444.33
42.86
14.84
319.96

South Dakota
Texas
Virginia
Washington
Wisconsin
Wyoming

3,641
10,371
6,301
20
95,173
2,769

-134
14
c
1,007
32

-7,538
3,584
14
84,171
2,675

190
51
1,654
10
9,584
56

-25
656
...
939
d

-...
4
...
110
d

-25
994
10
8,535
54

52.05
--4.92
9.26
...
262.51 242.80 283.36
513.00
...
...
100.70
93.95 109.24
20.52
e
e

-3.32
277.30
714.29
101.40
20.19

-2,699
2,703
c
9,995
62

SOURCE: Data reported to the Social Security Administration by the 31 states that administer their own supplementary program.
NOTES: All data are subject to revision.
Excludes optional supplementation data for Missouri and North Dakota.
. . . = not applicable; -- = not available.
a. Includes data not distributed by category.
b. Estimated data.
c. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals.
d. Less than $500.
e. Not computed on base of less than $500.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

38 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients of Social
Security, SSI, or Both

Recipients of Social Security, SSI, or Both
Table 16.
Persons receiving both Social Security and SSI, by type of Social Security benefit and SSI
eligibility category, December 2004
Percentage of all
Social Security beneficiaries

Number receiving SSI

All Social
Security
beneficiaries a

Total

Aged

Blind and
disabled

Total

Aged

Blind and
disabled

47,707,330

2,454,900

691,410

1,763,490

5.1

1.4

3.7

Retirement
Worker aged 65 or older
Men
Women
Worker aged 62–64
Men
Women
Wives and husbands
Aged 65 or older
Aged 62–64
Under age 62 with
children
Disabled adult children
Aged 65 or older
Aged 18–64
Children under age 18 and
students aged 18–19

33,024,800
27,285,620
14,065,120
13,220,500
2,686,350
1,372,950
1,313,400
2,569,560
2,265,180
261,870

1,040,840
779,490
309,580
469,910
33,430
21,380
12,050
129,340
116,750
11,610

563,580
503,240
193,600
309,640
0
0
0
60,310
60,310
0

477,260
276,250
115,980
160,270
33,430
21,380
12,050
69,030
56,440
11,610

3.2
2.9
2.2
3.6
1.2
1.6
0.9
5.0
5.2
4.4

1.7
1.8
1.4
2.3
0
0
0
2.3
2.7
0

1.4
1.0
0.8
1.2
1.2
1.6
0.9
2.7
2.5
4.4

42,510
192,390
990
191,400

980
94,380
390
93,990

0
b
b
0

980
b
b
93,990

2.3
49.1
39.4
49.1

0
b
b
0

2.3
b
b
49.1

290,880

4,200

0

4,200

1.4

0

1.4

Survivors
Nondisabled widow(er)s
Aged 65 or older
Aged 60–64
Disabled widow(er)s
Widowed mothers and
fathers
Parents
Disabled adult children
Aged 65 or older
Aged 18–64
Children under age 18 and
students aged 18–19

6,730,320
4,431,020
3,979,110
451,910
209,700

446,830
224,250
217,820
6,430
36,120

126,980
124,070
124,070
0
0

319,850
100,180
93,750
6,430
36,120

6.6
5.1
5.5
1.4
17.2

1.9
2.8
3.1
0
0

4.8
2.3
2.4
1.4
17.2

182,900
2,030
506,990
67,640
439,350

4,600
100
159,270
22,070
137,200

b
b
2,800
2,800
0

b
b
156,470
19,270
137,200

2.5
4.9
31.4
32.6
31.2

b
b
0.6
4.1
0

b
b
30.9
28.5
31.2

1,397,680

22,490

0

22,490

1.6

0

1.6

Type of Social Security benefit
Total

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 41

Recipients of Social Security, SSI, or Both
Table 16.
Persons receiving both Social Security and SSI, by type of Social Security benefit and SSI
eligibility category, December 2004—Continued

Type of Social Security benefit
Disability
Worker under age 65
Men
Women
Wives and husbands
Aged 65 or older
Aged 62–64
Under age 62 with
children
Disabled adult children
aged 18–64
Children under age 18 and
students aged 18–19

Percentage of all
Social Security beneficiaries

Number receiving SSI

All Social
Security
beneficiaries a

Total

Aged

Blind and
disabled

Total

Aged

Blind and
disabled

7,952,210
6,192,210
3,373,410
2,818,800
154,070
26,350
35,940

967,230
863,420
377,140
486,280
10,570
3,210
2,050

850
0
0
0
850
850
0

966,380
863,420
377,140
486,280
9,720
2,360
2,050

12.2
13.9
11.2
17.3
6.9
12.2
5.7

0
0
0
0
0.6
3.2
0

12.2
13.9
11.2
17.3
6.3
9.0
5.7

91,780

5,310

0

5,310

5.8

0

5.8

65,870

45,790

0

45,790

69.5

0

69.5

1,540,060

47,450

0

47,450

3.1

0

3.1

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Master Beneficiary Record, 10 percent sample.
NOTE: Social Security is the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) program.
a. Includes special age-72 beneficiaries.
b. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

42 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients of Social Security, SSI, or Both
Table 17.
Persons aged 18–64 receiving benefits on the basis of disability and their total and average
monthly payments, December 1996–2004
Average monthly payment a
(dollars)

Total payments
(millions of dollars)

Number

Year

Total

Social
Security
only

Both Social
Security
SSI only
and SSI

Social
Security
only

Both Social
Security
SSI only
and SSI

Social
Security
only

Both Social
Security
SSI only
and SSI

1996
1997
1998
1999

7,689,664
7,811,748
8,086,259
8,399,309

4,122,152
4,250,155
4,440,264
4,703,774

2,559,750
2,550,105
2,618,615
2,650,586

1,007,762
1,011,488
1,027,380
1,044,949

3,072
3,245
3,444
3,691

1,222
1,257
1,313
1,346

584
604
622
643

744.60
762.80
775.00
784.10

456.00
458.10
467.90
477.60

546.90
557.10
564.30
576.70

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

8,599,465
8,791,338
9,106,014
9,445,573
9,773,201

4,850,835
4,979,844
5,228,262
5,492,325
5,756,093

2,690,446
2,732,020
2,768,782
2,811,647
2,850,815

1,058,184
1,079,474
1,108,970
1,141,601
1,166,293

3,975
4,299
4,629
5,024
5,464

1,408
1,491
1,544
1,603
1,686

675
719
747
790
829

818.80
862.60
884.60
914.10
947.80

489.00
506.80
522.50
533.50
545.90

594.90
615.20
625.20
638.20
655.20

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Disabled Beneficiaries and Dependents Master Beneficiary Record file and the Supplemental
Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: Social Security counts include disabled workers, disabled widow(er)s, and disabled adult children. SSI counts include recipients of
federal SSI, federally administered state supplementation, or both.
a. Averages are not obtained simply by dividing the total dollars by the number of recipients. Averages exclude payments made in the
current month for prior-month eligibility, such as back pay for new awards, so that large retroactive payments do not distort the
averages.
CONTACT: Art Kahn (410) 965-0186 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 43

Recipients of Social Security, SSI, or Both
Table 18.
Persons aged 18–64 receiving both Social Security and SSI on the basis of disability and their average
monthly Social Security benefit, by state or other area and type of beneficiary, December 2004
Number of SSI recipients with
Social Security disability

Average monthly
Social Security benefit (dollars)

Workers Widow(er)s

Adult
children

Total

1,166,293

858,850

33,072

274,371

454.74

469.42

445.59

409.88

32,235
1,722
14,975
18,068
180,433

22,869
1,397
11,538
13,150
139,540

1,192
35
342
658
3,699

8,174
290
3,095
4,260
37,194

437.92
426.81
432.22
438.22
537.52

461.30
440.67
447.10
460.57
546.49

435.67
422.62
431.47
447.89
524.32

372.84
360.55
376.83
367.72
505.22

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

11,017
8,720
2,553
2,204
58,018

8,721
6,353
1,921
1,718
44,082

188
252
46
71
1,489

2,108
2,115
586
415
12,447

436.14
428.38
447.08
437.31
430.92

450.02
448.06
449.56
457.04
446.47

407.28
411.29
466.33
405.19
433.80

381.29
371.31
437.45
361.15
375.51

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

34,395
3,011
4,774
32,141
19,929

24,049
1,961
3,764
23,643
15,602

1,331
76
80
993
431

9,015
974
930
7,505
3,896

442.16
487.08
435.20
417.47
424.15

464.88
488.52
445.82
431.75
433.59

436.00
435.37
426.93
429.72
444.57

382.45
488.21
392.94
370.86
384.10

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

10,757
8,710
32,563
25,599
8,459

8,217
6,729
23,683
16,367
6,340

190
168
1,407
1,224
180

2,350
1,813
7,473
8,008
1,939

429.61
432.01
428.30
420.18
435.11

439.82
443.20
450.67
449.78
452.88

443.64
426.28
420.03
436.25
450.31

392.75
391.00
358.99
357.21
375.56

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

13,217
32,870
41,084
13,663
22,391

9,736
25,561
28,532
10,417
15,399

331
733
1,007
193
998

3,150
6,576
11,545
3,053
5,994

437.71
479.88
437.69
420.36
431.75

452.87
501.66
435.59
431.86
461.02

451.01
450.73
439.18
419.26
432.57

389.46
398.47
442.73
381.20
356.40

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

25,403
3,472
5,654
5,070
3,553

19,102
2,561
4,276
4,191
2,728

706
93
66
82
45

5,595
818
1,312
797
780

425.26
436.48
430.36
455.30
436.66

440.21
441.88
443.79
467.39
452.00

429.26
414.79
415.30
454.90
439.85

373.71
422.04
387.36
391.74
382.86

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

22,129
8,532
85,769
38,301
2,063

16,183
6,233
59,725
27,715
1,396

544
252
2,469
1,221
39

5,402
2,047
23,575
9,365
628

458.46
425.22
494.36
435.47
417.36

471.02
447.28
495.85
454.58
431.75

434.54
426.05
457.18
437.08
416.00

423.25
357.93
494.47
378.71
385.47

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

42,426
14,120
12,157
52,123
6,234

32,045
10,410
9,606
37,521
4,863

1,237
481
209
1,572
100

9,144
3,229
2,342
13,030
1,271

411.63
422.19
435.20
451.02
474.35

422.47
437.14
444.65
463.24
490.91

424.38
431.84
446.69
449.44
437.96

371.95
372.57
395.39
416.01
413.86

State or area
All areas

Total
a

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

Workers Widow(er)s

Adult
children

(Continued)

44 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients of Social Security, SSI, or Both
Table 18.
Persons aged 18–64 receiving both Social Security and SSI on the basis of disability and their average
monthly Social Security benefit, by state or other area and type of beneficiary, December 2004—Continued
Number of SSI recipients with
Social Security disability
State or area

Total

Workers Widow(er)s

Average monthly
Social Security benefit (dollars)
Adult
children

Total

Workers Widow(er)s

Adult
children

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

19,409
2,808
31,174
65,943
4,212

13,099
1,951
22,133
48,162
3,215

799
67
1,222
2,371
70

5,511
790
7,819
15,410
927

431.95
415.45
431.95
430.06
424.56

454.67
426.64
452.97
450.14
436.95

432.15
396.44
419.28
429.88
440.58

377.92
389.45
374.45
367.32
380.37

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

3,632
24,462
19,148
13,617
19,718
1,393

2,628
17,431
15,294
9,116
14,674
1,128

90
782
319
586
305
19

914
6,249
3,535
3,915
4,739
246

467.20
431.57
434.66
421.72
427.94
430.27

478.70
451.43
444.24
446.24
437.65
440.02

468.74
438.24
432.89
437.95
422.27
443.11

433.97
375.33
393.36
362.20
398.26
384.60

SOURCES: Social Security Administration, Disabled Beneficiaries and Dependents Master Beneficiary Record file and the Supplemental
Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: SSI counts include recipients of federal SSI, federally administered state supplementation, or both. They do not include
beneficiaries whose own Social Security number is not on the Master Beneficiary Record. Social Security beneficiaries who are entitled to
both a primary and a secondary benefit are counted only once in this table.
a. Includes data not distributed by state or area.
CONTACT: Art Kahn (410) 965-0186 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 45

Noncitizens

Noncitizens
Table 19.
By eligibility category, December 1982–2004
Total

Aged

Blind and disabled

Year

Number

Percentage of all
SSI recipients

Number

Percentage of all
SSI recipients

Number

Percentage of all
SSI recipients

1982
1983
1984

127,900
151,200
181,100

3.3
3.9
4.5

91,900
106,600
127,600

5.9
7.0
8.3

36,000
44,600
53,500

1.6
1.9
2.1

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

210,800
244,300
282,500
320,300
370,300

5.1
5.7
6.4
7.2
8.1

146,500
165,300
188,000
213,900
245,700

9.7
11.2
12.9
14.9
17.1

64,300
79,000
94,500
106,400
124,600

2.4
2.8
3.2
3.5
4.0

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

435,600
519,660
601,430
683,150
738,140

9.0
10.2
10.8
11.4
11.7

282,400
329,690
372,930
416,420
440,000

19.4
22.5
25.4
28.2
30.0

153,200
189,970
228,500
266,730
298,140

4.6
5.2
5.6
5.9
6.2

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

785,410
724,990
650,830
669,630
684,930

12.1
11.0
10.0
10.2
10.4

459,220
417,360
367,200
364,980
368,330

31.8
29.5
27.0
27.4
28.2

326,190
307,630
283,630
304,650
316,600

6.3
5.9
5.5
5.8
6.0

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

692,590
695,650
703,515
696,772
676,979

10.5
10.4
10.4
10.1
9.7

364,470
364,550
364,827
356,298
342,220

28.3
28.9
29.1
28.9
28.3

328,120
331,100
338,688
340,474
334,759

6.2
6.1
6.1
6.0
5.8

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 49

Noncitizens
Table 20.
Distribution of recipients, by selected characteristics and citizenship status, December 2004
Citizens

Noncitizens

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

6,310,866

100.0

676,979

100.0

989,401
740,589
653,701
994,424
984,560
425,284
785,413
737,494

15.7
11.7
10.4
15.8
15.6
6.7
12.4
11.7

3,726
15,428
22,655
43,829
80,651
55,987
215,226
239,477

0.6
2.3
3.3
6.5
11.9
8.3
31.8
35.4

Sex
Male
Female

2,734,428
3,576,438

43.3
56.7

251,006
425,973

37.1
62.9

Living arrangement
Own household
Another’s household
Parent’s household
Medicaid institution

5,124,803
231,132
826,084
128,847

81.2
3.7
13.1
2.0

598,676
63,719
3,609
10,975

88.4
9.4
0.5
1.6

Income
Social Security
Worker beneficiary
Auxiliary beneficiary
Earnings

2,262,288
1,536,307
725,981
259,590

35.8
24.3
11.5
4.1

179,086
132,236
46,850
8,743

26.5
19.5
6.9
1.3

4,223,176
260,246

66.9
4.1

267,080
33,022

39.5
4.9

1,827,444

29.0

376,877

55.7

Characteristic
Total
Age
Under 18
18–29
30–39
40–49
50–59
60–64
65–74
75 or older

SSI payment
Federal SSI only
State supplementation only
Both federal SSI and state
supplementation

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

50 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Noncitizens
Table 21.
By state or other area and eligibility category, December 2004
Total

Aged

Blind and disabled

676,979

342,220

334,759

752
866
9,531
569
249,682

410
360
4,344
279
124,333

342
506
5,187
290
125,349

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

4,816
4,266
365
698
68,308

2,502
2,188
238
332
37,044

2,314
2,078
127
366
31,264

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

6,046
3,016
796
19,371
1,216

3,628
2,001
345
10,088
687

2,418
1,015
451
9,283
529

1,147
1,377
1,224
2,286
584

449
630
587
1,143
152

698
747
637
1,143
432

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

6,499
21,666
9,183
8,432
398

4,448
12,359
3,866
2,975
190

2,051
9,307
5,317
5,457
208

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

2,398
138
950
3,674
470

1,090
46
374
2,527
217

1,308
92
576
1,147
253

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

20,669
4,542
101,327
3,414
178

12,162
1,992
48,414
1,792
59

8,507
2,550
52,913
1,622
119

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

4,516
1,432
4,765
11,808
3,629

2,419
847
2,316
5,058
1,348

2,097
585
2,449
6,750
2,281

State or area
All areas
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 51

Noncitizens
Table 21.
By state or other area and eligibility category, December 2004—Continued
Total

Aged

Blind and disabled

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

750
193
1,557
60,716
1,488

402
63
814
32,201
689

348
130
743
28,515
799

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

198
6,531
14,053
137
4,268
59

65
4,144
5,950
76
1,535
26

133
2,387
8,103
61
2,733
33

25

16

9

State or area

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

52 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Noncitizens
Table 22.
By region and country of origin, December 2004
Total

Aged

Blind and disabled

All areas

676,979

342,220

334,759

Latin America
Mexico
Cuba
Dominican Republic
Other

330,077
159,516
49,625
40,581
80,355

164,518
80,345
24,496
14,981
44,696

165,559
79,171
25,129
25,600
35,659

Africa
Somalia
Cape Verde Islands
Ethiopia
Other

12,260
3,398
922
1,898
6,042

5,333
1,473
592
686
2,582

6,927
1,925
330
1,212
3,460

212,393
45,731
29,761
22,145
19,244
95,512

112,116
18,135
24,892
4,613
14,659
49,817

100,277
27,596
4,869
17,532
4,585
45,695

Middle East
Lebanon
Syria
Turkey
Other

12,584
3,032
2,333
1,419
5,800

6,097
1,490
1,096
961
2,550

6,487
1,542
1,237
458
3,250

Former Soviet Republics

60,978

32,681

28,297

Europe
Portugal
Former Yugoslavia
Great Britain
Poland
Other

34,713
4,286
8,590
3,529
3,213
15,095

15,433
2,508
3,045
1,398
1,758
6,724

19,280
1,778
5,545
2,131
1,455
8,371

Other areas

6,505

2,385

4,120

Unknown

7,469

3,657

3,812

Region and country of origin

Asia
Vietnam
China
Laos
Philippines
Other

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 53

Noncitizens
Table 23.
By number of months between date of U.S. residency and date of SSI application and eligibility category,
December 2004
Months
All recipients
0–11 a
12–23
24–35
36–47
48–59
60–71
72–83
84–119
120 and over
State conversions

b

Unknown

Total

Aged

Blind and disabled

676,979

342,220

334,759

94,382
31,191
26,857
63,134
35,832
50,747
35,587
87,292
247,891

51,773
12,645
11,215
40,891
18,070
30,860
18,876
43,846
112,710

42,609
18,546
15,642
22,243
17,762
19,887
16,711
43,446
135,181

1,955

382

1,573

2,111

952

1,159

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
a. Includes an estimated 3,331 persons whose records indicate that they applied in the same month that their residence began.
b. Persons who were converted in 1973 from the state Old-Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the Permanently and Totally
Disabled programs to the SSI program.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

54 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Under Age 65

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 24.
Recipients, by diagnostic group, 1996–2004
Diagnostic group
Total
Congenital anomalies
Endocrine, nutritional,
and metabolic
diseases
Infectious and parasitic
diseases
Injuries
Mental disorders a
Retardation
Other
Neoplasms
Diseases of the—
Blood and bloodforming organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Genitourinary
system
Musculoskeletal
system and
connective tissue
Nervous system
and sense organs
Respiratory system
Skin and subcutaneous tissue
Other
Unknown c

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

4,375,650

4,441,420

4,533,060

4,538,033

4,590,806

4,693,315

4,792,526

4,912,627

5,010,235

73,510

56,987

58,440

57,094

58,593

62,730

65,999

70,084

73,146

187,200

168,685

179,273

186,317

178,184

172,371

164,994

160,047

155,513

74,630
119,860

68,707
92,586

73,426
95,321

73,538
97,762

73,510
100,046

73,513
103,284

72,499
105,313

71,676
107,051

70,236
108,670

1,244,420
1,332,010
64,860

1,032,435
1,165,248
54,804

1,067,247
1,232,642
53,526

1,062,530
1,294,064
51,326

1,059,769
1,419,469
51,491

1,085,032
1,523,835
51,802

1,093,759
1,629,652
52,699

1,099,557
1,743,224
53,376

1,096,223
1,846,743
54,687

b
215,350
28,630

b
181,068
29,009

b
185,267
30,310

b
186,909
31,940

b
188,069
34,017

b
188,982
36,197

27,009
189,017
38,518

27,475
188,745
40,400

27,631
187,274
42,165

b

b

b

b

b

b

43,994

44,694

44,908

318,720

281,514

300,895

318,388

334,879

354,108

373,402

390,646

407,042

441,670
117,470

344,870
104,506

356,266
108,122

365,529
107,046

371,211
107,490

384,411
109,004

393,439
109,609

400,302
110,694

405,239
110,871

b
157,320
0

b
150,011
710,990

b
178,692
613,633

b
193,372
512,218

b
153,846
460,232

b
164,129
383,917

6,855
85,625
340,143

7,082
94,310
303,264

7,245
97,398
275,244

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
a. Beginning in 2000, approximately 60,000 persons previously shown under Other Diagnoses are shown under Other Mental Disorders.
b. Before 2002, diagnosis was reported under Other.
c. Before 1997, diagnosis was imputed where missing.
CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 57

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 25.
By diagnostic group and age, December 2004
Diagnostic group

All ages

Under 5

5–12

13–17

18–21

22–29

30–39

40–49

50–59

60–64

676,356 1,038,253 1,065,211

481,271

Number
Total
Congenital, anomalies,
and metabolic
diseases
Infectious and parasitic
diseases
Injuries
Mental disorders
Retardation
Other
Neoplasms
Diseases of the—
Blood and bloodforming organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Genitourinary
system
Musculoskeletal
system and
connective tissue
Nervous system
Respiratory system
Skin and subcutaneous tissue
Other
Unknown

5,010,235

157,947

472,506

362,674

269,246

486,771

73,146

19,873

21,235

8,020

8,106

7,268

4,323

2,514

1,322

485

155,513

1,516

2,894

2,127

1,693

4,679

13,981

35,597

61,290

31,736

70,236
108,670

224
1,058

1,264
2,373

1,076
1,857

533
3,695

2,282
11,446

13,518
18,850

28,174
28,262

18,469
27,772

4,696
13,357

1,096,223
1,846,743
54,687

7,767
35,164
2,241

87,335
235,919
5,027

122,563
162,863
2,492

114,868
85,636
2,094

199,417
161,288
3,079

218,512
256,601
4,354

201,736
436,789
11,184

111,265
358,485
16,328

32,760
113,998
7,888

27,631
187,274
42,165

1,980
1,917
2,888

6,258
1,864
1,674

4,184
984
720

2,817
1,201
726

4,128
3,861
1,659

3,275
9,186
3,763

2,699
30,558
11,694

1,682
79,029
14,209

608
58,674
4,832

44,908

564

1,213

1,039

1,514

4,404

8,200

12,345

11,676

3,953

407,042
405,239
110,871

1,165
15,608
8,871

3,188
45,552
12,665

3,232
30,448
4,973

3,131
34,915
1,567

8,682
59,205
2,290

28,119
61,763
4,970

86,428
69,649
16,259

165,132
61,526
35,332

107,965
26,573
2,394

7,245
97,398
275,244

242
50,918
5,951

528
30,050
13,467

269
7,491
8,336

205
2,678
3,867

523
2,304
10,256

1,026
1,063
24,852

1,875
1,265
61,225

1,817
1,163
98,147

760
466
48,576

(Continued)

58 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 25.
By diagnostic group and age, December 2004—Continued
Diagnostic group

All ages

Under 5

5–12

13–17

18–21

22–29

30–39

40–49

50–59

60–64

Average monthly payment (dollars)
Total
Congenital anomalies
Endocrine, nutritional,
and metabolic
diseases
Infectious and parasitic
diseases
Injuries
Mental disorders
Retardation
Other
Neoplasms
Diseases of the—
Blood and bloodforming organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Genitourinary
system
Musculoskeletal
system and
connective tissue
Nervous system
and sense organs
Respiratory system
Skin and subcutaneous tissue
Other
Unknown

458.04

494.24

519.88

511.72

509.36

467.90

434.31

435.37

446.94

413.32

494.93

508.88

516.13

501.58

512.78

483.34

428.10

369.61

374.78

333.61

432.23

500.66

502.96

492.44

482.94

430.91

426.87

442.06

438.11

395.91

447.58
419.19

529.46
503.23

510.81
502.32

475.43
479.72

498.72
470.03

448.03
425.25

432.91
401.24

445.67
404.28

462.33
429.54

410.09
405.69

458.71
474.80
417.17

534.11
520.75
495.57

526.99
520.92
501.00

517.43
512.73
489.66

513.90
509.66
464.28

480.13
458.19
407.42

431.49
443.77
391.81

412.20
457.48
401.90

401.21
473.91
404.13

379.48
447.83
372.81

482.33
418.18
440.87

525.80
499.31
497.51

522.81
503.61
510.58

510.98
490.73
495.86

504.79
474.61
476.42

460.02
430.64
397.35

440.38
406.98
393.69

427.76
418.99
433.12

427.85
430.36
449.06

398.68
394.53
416.26

429.02

490.51

511.80

496.98

476.85

421.54

411.22

429.97

432.04

392.54

416.58

508.51

513.80

502.53

502.77

431.44

391.88

407.33

430.51

399.06

451.77
454.22

510.77
526.14

511.11
523.79

499.08
515.39

507.28
501.76

474.58
458.50

422.45
441.99

409.04
451.79

416.88
442.01

398.84
396.82

437.55
480.22
470.77

539.20
455.26
455.97

516.16
519.57
507.43

493.68
507.94
499.04

506.13
514.77
492.54

443.75
486.72
499.89

401.14
425.80
501.19

420.11
416.45
444.75

434.65
437.99
479.62

407.29
391.85
448.88

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 59

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 26.
By diagnostic group, age, and sex, December 2004
Under age 18

All ages
Percent
Diagnostic group
Total
Congenital anomalies
Endocrine, nutritional,
and metabolic
diseases
Infectious and parasitic
diseases
Injuries
Mental disorders
Retardation
Other
Neoplasms
Diseases of the—
Blood and bloodforming organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Genitourinary
system
Musculoskeletal
system and
connective tissue
Nervous system
and sense organs
Respiratory system
Skin and subcutaneous tissue
Other
Unknown

Aged 18–64

Percent

Percent

Number

Total

Male Female

Number

Total

Male Female

Number

Total

Male Female

5,010,235

100.0

47.8

52.2

993,127

100.0

65.0

35.0 4,017,108

100.0

43.5

56.5

73,146

100.0

51.9

48.1

49,128

100.0

61.2

38.8

24,018

100.0

48.8

51.2

155,513

100.0

24.4

75.6

6,537

100.0

53.5

46.5

148,976

100.0

23.2

76.8

70,236
108,670

100.0
100.0

57.3
61.1

42.7
38.9

2,564
5,288

100.0
100.0

52.1
50.2

47.9
49.8

67,672
103,382

100.0
100.0

57.6
61.2

42.4
38.8

1,096,223
1,846,743
54,687

100.0
100.0
100.0

51.8
49.7
42.6

48.2
50.3
57.4

217,665
433,946
9,760

100.0
100.0
100.0

58.8
61.7
73.6

41.2
878,558
38.3 1,412,797
26.4
44,927

100.0
100.0
100.0

49.4
42.4
39.8

50.6
57.6
60.2

27,631
187,274
42,165

100.0
100.0
100.0

48.6
46.3
47.5

51.4
53.7
52.5

12,422
4,765
5,282

100.0
100.0
100.0

55.6
57.2
54.6

44.4
42.8
45.4

15,209
182,509
36,883

100.0
100.0
100.0

41.6
46.1
46.5

58.4
53.9
53.5

44,908

100.0

48.4

51.6

2,816

100.0

54.8

45.2

42,092

100.0

47.7

52.3

407,042

100.0

34.4

65.6

7,585

100.0

59.8

40.2

399,457

100.0

34.1

65.9

405,239
110,871

100.0
100.0

47.6
40.8

52.4
59.2

91,608
26,509

100.0
100.0

48.2
55.9

51.8
44.1

313,631
84,362

100.0
100.0

45.2
33.4

54.8
66.6

7,245
97,398
275,244

100.0
100.0
100.0

35.6
55.2
45.5

64.4
44.8
54.5

1,039
88,459
27,754

100.0
100.0
100.0

64.5
51.8
61.2

35.5
48.2
38.8

6,206
8,939
247,490

100.0
100.0
100.0

32.9
51.1
43.8

67.1
48.9
56.2

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

60 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 27.
Percentage of recipients with a representative payee, by diagnostic group and age, December 2004
All ages
Diagnostic group
Total
Congenital anomalies
Endocrine, nutritional, and
metabolic diseases
Infectious and parasitic diseases
Injuries
Mental disorders
Retardation
Other
Neoplasms
Diseases of the—
Blood and blood-forming
organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Genitourinary system
Musculoskeletal system and
connective tissue
Nervous system and
sense organs
Respiratory system
Skin and subcutaneous tissue
Other
Unknown

Under age 18

Aged 18–64

Number

Percentage
with payee

Number

Percentage
with payee

Number

Percentage
with payee

5,010,235

46.7

993,127

99.9

4,017,108

33.5

73,146

85.9

49,128

100.0

24,018

57.1

155,513
70,236
108,670

7.8
12.4
19.8

6,537
2,564
5,288

99.9
99.6
99.9

148,976
67,672
103,382

3.7
9.1
15.7

1,096,223
1,846,743
54,687

72.7
50.8
23.4

217,665
433,946
9,760

99.9
99.9
99.9

878,558
1,412,797
44,927

66.0
35.7
6.7

27,631
187,274
42,165
44,908

53.8
10.5
19.2
10.7

12,422
4,765
5,282
2,816

100.0
99.8
100.0
99.8

15,209
182,509
36,883
42,092

16.1
8.2
7.6
4.7

407,042

4.9

7,585

99.9

399,457

3.1

405,239
110,871
7,245
97,398
275,244

43.2
27.3
18.9
95.1
43.5

91,608
26,509
1,039
88,459
27,754

99.9
100.0
100.0
100.0
99.9

313,631
84,362
6,206
8,939
247,490

26.7
4.5
5.3
46.7
37.1

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 61

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 28.
Percentage distribution, by state or other area and diagnostic group, December 2004

State or area
All areas

Endocrine,
nutritional, Infectious
and
and
Total
Congenital metabolic parasitic
Number Percent anomalies diseases diseases

Mental disorders
Injuries

Total Retardation

Other Neoplasms

5,010,235

100.0

1.5

3.1

1.4

2.2

58.7

21.9

36.9

1.1

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

126,392
7,761
71,610
67,996
674,098

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.1
1.7
2.1
1.4
1.6

3.5
2.7
2.8
3.6
2.7

0.8
1.1
0.7
0.6
1.6

2.5
3.3
2.4
2.5
2.7

55.1
54.1
60.0
56.9
55.6

27.0
14.7
18.9
30.8
14.6

28.1
39.4
41.1
26.2
41.0

1.0
1.3
1.0
1.2
1.2

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

40,564
39,126
11,053
16,539
276,397

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

2.3
1.1
1.4
0.6
1.6

2.7
3.0
2.8
2.3
2.8

1.0
2.5
2.1
3.9
2.4

3.0
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.4

52.6
59.8
59.9
62.1
59.1

18.7
17.4
23.5
21.9
19.2

33.9
42.4
36.4
40.2
39.9

1.2
0.9
0.9
0.8
1.3

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

147,616
13,731
17,935
198,187
83,676

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.5
1.1
2.1
1.3
1.5

3.6
2.5
2.7
3.0
3.7

1.8
0.9
0.5
1.2
0.6

2.2
2.4
2.2
1.7
1.7

54.3
63.7
62.5
65.1
63.7

26.9
15.7
20.9
24.8
29.5

27.4
48.0
41.6
40.3
34.1

1.2
1.2
1.0
0.9
1.0

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

35,517
31,931
144,771
131,419
26,159

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.7
1.8
1.0
1.3
1.2

3.3
3.9
3.0
3.5
2.9

0.4
0.5
0.4
1.1
0.5

1.8
2.3
1.7
2.2
1.9

63.8
61.3
63.9
54.4
64.1

27.8
25.3
25.8
30.0
19.7

36.1
36.0
38.1
24.5
44.4

1.0
1.0
0.9
1.1
0.9

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

68,081
121,428
183,110
54,775
93,103

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.4
1.1
1.2
1.5
1.1

2.7
2.1
3.3
2.1
3.7

2.9
2.1
0.7
0.7
0.8

2.2
1.8
1.7
2.3
2.1

56.7
63.7
63.4
67.6
56.8

22.7
13.1
24.6
20.9
25.6

34.0
50.6
38.8
46.7
31.2

1.1
0.9
0.9
0.8
1.0

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

95,682
12,111
18,202
23,506
11,204

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.5
2.0
2.3
2.6
1.9

4.0
3.0
3.4
2.7
2.2

0.7
0.4
0.7
1.4
0.6

2.5
2.9
2.7
2.5
1.8

58.1
54.7
57.5
54.0
67.3

25.0
20.4
25.7
16.2
18.5

33.0
34.3
31.8
37.8
48.8

1.1
1.3
1.1
1.4
0.8

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

99,829
36,084
404,155
145,734
6,072

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.4
1.9
1.2
1.5
2.4

2.5
3.3
2.7
3.4
2.3

2.3
0.6
3.3
1.3
0.4

2.0
3.4
1.8
2.1
2.7

56.3
53.1
56.1
59.2
61.8

18.7
18.4
17.4
30.0
27.4

37.6
34.7
38.7
29.1
34.5

1.2
1.2
1.2
1.1
1.0

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

209,332
61,046
46,321
253,568
22,458

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.2
1.6
1.5
1.1
1.1

3.3
3.9
2.9
3.0
2.3

0.6
0.6
0.8
1.2
1.3

1.4
2.2
2.6
1.8
1.7

67.3
57.5
57.3
62.0
66.0

26.6
29.3
18.2
22.3
20.4

40.7
28.2
39.0
39.7
45.5

0.8
1.2
1.1
0.9
0.8
(Continued)

62 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 28.
Percentage distribution, by state or other area and diagnostic group, December 2004—Continued
Diseases of the—

State or area
All areas

Blood and
bloodforming
organs

Musculo- Nervous
Skin and
skeletal
system
CircuGenito- system and
and Respi- subcutalatory Digestive urinary connective
ratory
neous
sense
system
tissue
system system
tissue
organs system

Other Unknown

0.6

3.7

0.8

0.9

8.1

8.1

2.2

0.1

1.9

5.5

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

1.0
0.2
0.3
0.6
0.3

4.4
3.2
2.7
4.4
3.8

0.8
1.2
0.9
0.9
1.0

0.9
0.5
1.0
0.7
1.1

8.9
12.2
8.6
9.8
10.2

7.9
9.8
9.1
8.5
9.1

3.1
1.7
1.8
2.4
1.7

0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1

3.4
2.2
2.7
2.3
1.4

5.6
4.6
3.8
3.8
5.6

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

0.2
0.5
0.7
0.9
0.8

2.6
3.2
3.0
3.4
4.0

1.2
0.7
0.8
0.5
1.0

0.9
0.8
1.0
1.9
0.9

10.7
7.4
8.0
6.3
6.3

11.9
8.1
7.8
6.6
7.1

2.1
2.2
2.8
1.7
2.3

0.2
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.2

2.4
1.5
2.2
1.5
1.9

4.9
6.2
4.5
5.5
5.9

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

1.1
0.2
0.1
0.6
0.4

4.6
4.1
2.4
3.2
3.0

0.9
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.8

1.2
1.2
0.5
0.9
0.7

7.5
7.4
7.6
5.1
5.8

8.1
7.7
9.6
7.3
8.3

2.6
1.8
1.4
2.2
2.2

0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1

2.5
1.2
1.8
1.9
1.8

6.9
3.7
4.8
4.9
4.8

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

0.3
0.4
0.2
1.0
0.1

2.4
2.7
3.6
5.5
2.7

0.7
0.8
0.7
0.7
0.7

0.6
0.8
0.5
1.1
0.4

7.8
7.3
8.7
8.6
10.5

9.0
9.3
6.4
8.0
6.6

1.9
1.9
2.9
2.4
1.7

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.2

1.8
1.9
1.7
2.5
0.9

3.5
4.0
4.3
6.1
4.6

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

0.8
0.3
0.5
0.3
1.1

4.1
2.7
3.4
2.1
4.9

0.7
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.6

1.2
0.5
0.8
0.7
0.9

5.9
7.9
6.5
5.5
6.3

8.3
7.6
7.3
8.9
7.4

2.0
2.0
2.0
1.1
2.9

0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2

2.2
1.1
1.9
2.6
3.7

7.6
5.4
5.6
3.2
6.4

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

0.6
0.2
0.4
0.5
0.1

3.4
2.6
2.9
3.7
2.3

0.9
1.1
1.0
1.2
0.6

0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.3

8.8
11.7
9.0
9.5
6.6

7.9
11.1
10.1
9.7
9.0

2.3
2.3
1.9
2.4
1.5

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

1.9
2.0
1.9
2.4
1.2

5.5
3.7
4.1
4.9
3.7

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

0.8
0.2
0.6
0.7
0.1

4.2
2.9
4.7
3.8
2.9

0.8
1.2
0.7
0.9
1.0

1.1
1.2
0.8
0.9
0.8

7.5
12.6
8.7
7.5
7.9

9.0
9.8
7.2
7.4
11.1

3.0
2.0
2.9
2.4
1.3

0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1

3.1
1.7
1.2
2.1
1.7

4.6
4.6
6.7
5.6
2.8

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

0.5
0.4
0.2
0.4
0.3

2.6
3.8
2.7
3.3
2.9

0.6
0.9
1.1
0.8
0.8

0.7
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.5

5.0
9.2
9.9
8.1
7.4

6.5
9.6
9.9
6.6
6.3

1.9
2.5
1.8
2.3
2.1

0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2

1.4
1.8
2.7
1.4
1.4

6.2
3.9
4.6
6.2
5.0

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 63

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 28.
Percentage distribution, by state or other area and diagnostic group, December 2004—Continued

State or area

Endocrine,
nutritional, Infectious
and
and
Total
Congenital metabolic parasitic
Number Percent anomalies diseases diseases

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

79,593
9,317
124,074
312,744
17,847

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.4
2.4
1.2
2.1
3.4

3.0
2.5
2.8
4.4
2.5

1.1
0.5
0.7
1.4
0.4

2.4
2.6
1.9
2.6
2.1

57.6
57.7
61.5
50.3
59.8

28.7
22.9
28.2
18.3
23.5

28.9
34.9
33.3
32.0
36.4

1.1
1.1
1.0
1.5
1.0

10,327
98,753
86,421
63,567
73,972
4,779

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.5
1.5
1.6
0.9
2.1
2.0

3.1
3.0
2.8
4.0
3.0
2.6

0.6
1.1
0.9
0.4
0.6
0.5

2.1
2.0
2.1
2.2
1.9
2.9

63.5
59.0
61.0
60.3
62.8
57.6

18.6
27.2
16.9
31.0
23.2
23.1

44.9
31.8
44.2
29.3
39.6
34.6

0.7
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.9
1.0

562

100.0

4.8

1.4

1.1

2.7

36.8

13.7

23.1

1.1

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

Mental disorders
Injuries

Total Retardation

Other Neoplasms

(Continued)

64 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 28.
Percentage distribution, by state or other area and diagnostic group, December 2004—Continued
Diseases of the—

State or area

Blood and
bloodforming
organs

Musculo- Nervous
system
Skin and
skeletal
and Respi- subcutaCircuGenito- system and
sense
ratory
neous
latory Digestive urinary connective
organs system
tissue
system
system system
tissue

Other Unknown

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

1.3
0.2
0.5
0.6
0.1

4.4
2.7
3.5
4.8
1.6

0.8
1.1
0.7
1.2
0.9

1.1
1.0
0.7
1.4
0.8

6.8
10.4
7.9
10.1
6.2

8.0
11.2
6.8
10.5
11.5

2.9
2.3
2.3
1.9
1.5

0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1

2.5
1.8
2.1
2.8
2.8

5.5
2.4
6.2
4.2
5.2

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

0.1
0.7
0.3
0.1
0.6
0.1

2.1
3.8
2.5
3.7
2.4
3.0

0.9
0.8
1.0
0.7
0.8
0.9

0.3
1.1
0.6
0.4
0.7
0.4

9.5
8.0
8.7
8.7
6.2
9.5

7.8
7.6
8.4
6.5
9.0
11.6

1.9
2.3
1.7
2.9
1.6
2.7

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2

0.8
2.0
1.9
1.1
2.4
2.2

5.0
6.0
5.3
7.1
4.8
2.8

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

0.9

5.7

0.4

4.3

7.7

20.1

2.3

1.6

6.6

2.7

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 65

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 29.
Average monthly payment, by state or other area and diagnostic group,
December 2004 (in dollars)

State or area
All areas

Endocrine,
nutritional,
and
Congenital metabolic
Total anomalies
diseases

Infectious
and
parasitic
diseases

Mental disorders
Injuries

Total

Retardation

Other Neoplasms

458.04

494.93

432.23

447.58

419.19 468.81

458.71 474.80

417.17

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

422.50
420.94
439.81
411.60
593.43

477.41
469.89
484.33
477.42
611.06

383.71
438.62
424.05
386.29
558.37

372.67
412.86
386.54
360.70
542.59

374.20
414.39
400.90
367.61
550.89

441.73
422.19
447.19
434.59
609.66

452.20
413.29
455.75
439.04
612.57

431.68
425.51
443.27
429.35
608.63

371.28
399.33
411.38
371.79
528.26

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

409.28
429.27
418.16
468.87
433.11

458.13
468.66
443.53
435.89
465.39

397.69
441.66
394.59
435.04
396.30

360.94
451.11
373.71
453.21
407.89

372.59
385.50
377.56
429.80
378.80

417.60
427.26
431.21
479.22
448.08

419.15
413.62
428.17
444.81
447.50

416.74
432.86
433.18
498.00
448.36

378.54
393.24
400.08
417.14
389.34

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

423.37
475.11
406.54
454.01
420.56

477.96
448.32
461.91
472.04
464.16

395.51
436.30
379.43
451.33
405.04

397.53
423.79
382.84
439.85
377.59

378.29
432.91
369.46
416.77
370.83

438.23
485.34
413.05
461.48
430.61

445.32
490.04
408.04
459.34
434.24

431.27
483.81
415.57
462.80
427.46

388.96
413.61
361.56
414.08
373.11

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

394.66
406.56
433.44
440.90
398.67

434.85
449.90
475.61
483.65
449.95

395.34
393.12
410.20
423.75
401.08

359.52
338.54
361.19
408.58
356.69

356.42
355.86
377.18
400.32
365.93

402.37
413.76
449.47
458.58
405.22

390.98
408.92
454.42
457.31
398.73

411.15
417.17
446.13
460.13
408.09

366.67
369.79
386.77
402.05
366.56

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

441.66
464.98
450.16
420.69
425.43

462.34
498.45
480.91
468.91
474.82

426.50
460.73
440.55
414.82
396.34

430.76
483.47
400.42
414.19
377.63

394.42
422.83
422.66
398.14
372.46

450.96
466.28
459.40
422.59
440.80

450.82
443.09
462.52
408.32
439.67

451.05
472.29
457.42
428.97
441.72

409.62
444.85
407.72
408.56
377.85

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

416.09
406.06
392.08
426.47
395.57

471.82
466.44
454.27
471.73
438.15

395.65
388.70
402.41
389.37
384.83

358.12
338.91
353.33
398.37
350.10

375.16
394.52
339.68
364.64
353.51

427.01
407.90
399.10
438.34
396.81

427.03
406.35
406.53
445.50
390.06

426.99
408.82
393.09
435.26
399.37

371.17
383.27
374.12
379.22
380.16

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

447.24
427.70
496.76
406.41
372.58

478.17
477.59
508.58
456.40
430.61

442.72
411.78
480.10
378.02
403.16

437.07
391.33
504.29
365.18
386.27

407.06
392.14
452.65
364.23
393.41

453.90
440.39
507.04
420.75
369.04

450.19
437.38
484.81
420.07
347.04

455.74
441.99
517.02
421.45
386.51

416.23
409.89
454.92
363.30
376.16

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

442.89
425.03
422.57
445.33
464.51

460.11
482.63
459.90
462.46
526.14

437.96
398.08
396.54
428.17
451.71

393.59
374.96
364.14
428.64
461.14

378.28
387.57
398.90
404.13
410.05

451.19
438.69
426.51
456.04
470.99

451.21
444.90
425.79
443.04
471.78

451.17
432.25
426.85
463.33
470.63

394.54
391.11
411.36
406.99
432.07
(Continued)

66 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 29.
Average monthly payment, by state or other area and diagnostic group,
December 2004 (in dollars)—Continued
Diseases of the—

State or area
All areas

Blood and
bloodforming
organs

Musculo- Nervous
skeletal
system
Skin and
Genito- system and
and Respi- subcutaCircusense
ratory
latory Digestive urinary connective
neous
system
system system
tissue
organs system
tissue

Other Unknown

482.33

418.18

440.87

429.02

416.58

451.77

454.22

437.55

480.22

470.77

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

467.98
380.21
460.13
473.22
615.07

362.67
393.59
404.46
347.02
548.59

405.71
409.54
423.11
393.01
561.46

375.88
454.90
404.67
358.61
538.56

343.70
408.46
400.24
333.89
545.81

417.64
425.12
439.75
403.42
585.75

438.20
389.70
432.82
379.95
587.62

387.11
420.81
392.00
404.58
569.75

491.35
383.56
489.70
489.87
584.80

415.98
463.89
448.38
389.50
642.91

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

391.41
468.73
423.64
484.95
463.74

381.31
415.07
362.11
426.00
385.60

412.87
421.25
395.59
479.44
410.97

368.43
431.84
374.90
442.59
403.89

377.90
417.53
372.37
442.10
371.75

411.64
421.75
423.81
458.21
424.71

405.17
453.77
417.48
467.83
425.63

426.54
418.40
386.79
461.20
384.42

354.59
465.33
434.47
449.10
448.29

456.49
456.79
408.76
482.77
445.85

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

459.58
454.64
425.12
482.19
475.82

373.65
435.44
366.17
416.51
371.54

403.37
457.27
384.85
425.29
397.54

393.65
449.73
399.55
433.62
390.90

359.62
464.43
371.53
420.77
367.48

429.44
464.43
397.27
435.77
405.05

420.56
451.92
374.81
463.62
402.47

391.25
528.50
486.68
451.09
411.18

456.85
451.83
445.67
480.29
470.48

423.47
509.21
432.21
450.25
432.59

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

431.80
465.01
457.55
476.62
431.78

358.57
364.27
376.07
389.53
375.31

395.11
395.44
399.24
411.92
360.52

381.82
396.76
395.92
402.98
408.81

371.00
358.87
374.62
394.89
362.00

381.37
416.41
422.86
429.67
400.14

388.88
384.23
421.32
448.47
386.40

415.71
415.88
409.75
429.30
351.57

419.05
440.67
495.77
493.78
429.33

365.91
423.13
416.41
417.90
417.55

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

458.73
491.82
479.96
471.70
479.21

411.67
441.73
414.67
389.69
369.49

420.47
449.95
425.16
421.12
394.28

412.91
459.32
432.46
417.86
387.37

405.21
432.68
402.01
398.12
347.57

431.95
465.20
440.50
420.42
416.71

436.87
478.17
442.12
423.97
441.64

397.16
429.88
442.06
367.87
400.03

423.47
485.49
488.77
459.39
490.49

463.78
506.17
449.15
406.81
415.47

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

455.83
371.74
446.40
449.43
477.25

375.46
384.08
369.06
385.37
369.56

404.48
430.40
376.42
394.86
350.54

393.76
380.58
370.80
388.77
376.90

362.84
397.66
342.02
383.66
369.58

415.96
410.26
404.67
437.88
404.50

401.10
421.36
376.16
405.54
391.18

407.76
426.62
411.52
400.76
330.43

461.93
418.42
434.04
448.54
440.28

437.90
398.34
381.57
449.83
425.67

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

480.50
454.59
509.88
447.42
371.60

415.85
383.60
476.42
356.02
366.46

430.27
425.02
476.23
397.44
358.43

432.41
411.19
465.60
373.73
425.13

414.09
384.31
462.12
345.39
383.08

437.18
425.89
476.27
401.99
361.78

472.89
437.92
514.09
403.63
373.17

458.47
366.19
494.11
379.87
426.20

473.47
477.65
489.86
443.76
390.90

458.93
442.33
511.32
403.58
349.94

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

479.29
480.19
441.52
467.77
480.96

396.82
377.21
409.73
409.10
434.76

422.50
406.49
408.73
416.41
443.64

403.72
401.55
383.79
416.74
382.34

407.46
381.46
394.28
406.40
420.43

422.01
425.73
420.34
417.29
451.02

431.50
410.49
406.15
449.25
489.49

436.55
413.73
385.60
442.23
407.28

482.24
487.63
468.62
469.67
516.51

446.27
399.96
465.70
462.96
483.27

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 67

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 29.
Average monthly payment, by state or other area and diagnostic group,
December 2004 (in dollars)—Continued

State or area

Endocrine,
nutritional,
and
Congenital metabolic
Total anomalies
diseases

Infectious
and
parasitic
diseases

Injuries

Total

Retardation

Mental disorders
Other Neoplasms

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

417.18
391.90
421.96
420.59
408.72

468.76
430.00
475.02
484.90
455.10

395.67
413.85
388.76
391.17
407.34

401.60
346.37
374.54
402.43
386.01

381.84
380.88
372.11
383.58
365.93

431.22
394.56
437.00
436.60
410.91

434.95
376.93
446.35
423.14
412.25

427.51
406.13
429.09
444.32
410.04

364.88
357.68
385.53
386.23
403.29

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

426.15
413.99
439.06
435.21
415.96
392.90

472.12
461.60
469.85
464.29
475.07
428.52

438.34
384.78
424.81
409.14
409.50
378.27

328.66
397.76
400.04
357.00
378.67
269.50

378.04
367.44
402.94
406.09
395.35
383.83

435.74
427.90
442.66
450.08
421.86
396.15

417.85
425.21
439.17
449.76
419.86
394.96

443.16
430.20
444.00
450.42
423.03
396.94

436.07
384.76
392.53
383.06
377.46
370.45

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

484.12

497.67

360.50

516.83

473.00 486.78

505.69 475.58

337.50
(Continued)

68 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Under Age 65
Table 29.
Average monthly payment, by state or other area and diagnostic group,
December 2004 (in dollars)—Continued
Diseases of the—

State or area

Blood and
bloodforming
organs

Musculo- Nervous
skeletal
system
Skin and
CircuGenito- system and
and Respi- subcutalatory Digestive urinary connective
sense
ratory
neous
system
system system
tissue
organs system
tissue

Other Unknown

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

453.63
334.15
472.80
459.17
498.55

367.86
366.91
360.41
379.75
377.47

405.44
423.20
396.17
411.37
395.47

395.74
403.68
395.76
392.99
377.99

353.32
374.82
357.68
373.04
377.37

414.65
387.46
416.59
422.05
416.79

427.11
423.86
405.41
422.05
403.08

386.05
332.93
379.11
411.30
449.86

461.24
395.13
469.74
466.69
409.56

391.95
383.58
420.40
401.06
409.23

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

355.00
444.60
449.40
437.17
478.84
468.43

404.33
375.24
406.86
390.04
380.96
362.46

440.60
378.05
431.12
418.58
398.44
422.36

377.67
383.93
412.97
405.41
386.03
269.00

372.64
360.44
420.27
389.83
365.36
344.55

426.77
409.21
436.85
427.77
414.91
411.58

406.42
410.37
437.21
419.00
413.97
388.97

511.91
398.96
454.18
414.66
430.29
256.00

533.01
429.74
461.31
474.79
455.61
473.82

415.15
409.25
472.28
430.17
401.91
428.78

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

477.60

429.22

289.50

459.04

482.58

496.55

484.69

374.11

569.03

497.93

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Stella M. Coleman (410) 965-0157 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 69

Recipients Who Work

Recipients Who Work
Table 30.
By selected months, 1976–2004
Blind and disabled recipients who work

All blind
and disabled
recipients a

Total

Receiving
SSI b

Section 1619(b)
participants

Total as a
percentage
of all blind
and disabled
recipients

2,088,242
2,186,771
2,249,025
2,277,859

70,719
83,697
87,697
92,270

70,719
83,697
87,697
92,270

...
...
...
...

3.4
3.8
3.9
4.1

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

2,334,241
2,340,785
2,314,364
2,391,262
2,499,046

99,276
102,632
107,803
113,899
--

99,276
102,632
102,288
108,734
--

...
...
5,515
5,165
--

4.3
4.4
4.7
4.8
--

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

2,633,552
2,795,756
2,945,244
3,046,074
3,172,270

--172,855
189,144
205,837

--157,223
173,519
187,583

--15,632
15,625
18,254

--5.9
6.2
6.5

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

3,386,603
3,681,050
4,126,816
4,544,777
4,870,564

219,932
229,619
248,917
265,649
282,476

196,415
202,355
217,268
230,350
241,793

23,517
27,264
31,649
35,299
40,683

6.5
6.2
6.0
5.8
5.8

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

5,115,014
5,252,991
5,189,724
5,293,829
5,317,861

298,635
308,300
319,855
326,475
340,618

251,633
256,395
262,766
266,933
271,353

47,002
51,905
57,089
59,542
69,265

5.8
5.9
6.2
6.2
6.4

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

5,395,935
5,500,481
5,618,506
5,740,683
5,850,359

360,427
346,110
340,910
323,682
328,204

276,855
269,655
258,733
252,585
254,523

83,572
76,455
82,177
71,097
73,681

6.7
6.3
6.1
5.6
5.6

2002
March
June
September
December

5,538,532
5,573,711
5,620,838
5,618,506

339,430
342,946
348,244
340,910

266,835
265,597
265,871
258,733

72,595
77,349
82,373
82,177

6.1
6.2
6.2
6.1

2003
March
June
September
December

5,657,353
5,705,871
5,749,384
5,740,683

334,378
329,740
329,195
323,682

259,820
257,724
255,619
252,585

74,558
72,016
73,576
71,097

5.9
5.8
5.7
5.6

Month
December
1976
1977
1978
1979

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 73

Recipients Who Work
Table 30.
By selected months, 1976–2004—Continued
Blind and disabled recipients who work

Month
2004
March
June
September
December

All blind
and disabled
recipients a

Total

Receiving
SSI b

Section 1619(b)
participants

Total as a
percentage
of all blind
and disabled
recipients

5,796,837
5,834,265
5,869,004
5,850,359

321,030
323,624
328,831
328,204

251,498
250,726
253,174
254,523

69,532
72,898
75,657
73,681

5.5
5.5
5.6
5.6

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
NOTE: . . . = not applicable; -- = not available.
a. Includes section 1619(b) participants.
b. Includes section 1619(a) participants.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

74 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Who Work
Table 31.
Recipients participating in section 1619(a) or section 1619(b), selected months, 1982–2004
Section 1619(a)

Section 1619(b)

a

Number

Percentage change
from prior period

Number

Percentage change
from prior period

287
392
--

...
36.6
--

5,515
5,165
--

...
-6.3
--

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

--14,559
19,920
25,655

--...
36.8
28.8

--15,632
15,625
18,254

--...
0
16.8

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

13,994
15,531
17,603
20,028
24,315

-45.5
11.0
13.3
13.8
21.4

23,517
27,264
31,649
35,299
40,683

28.8
15.9
16.1
11.5
15.3

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

28,060
31,085
34,673
37,271
25,528

15.4
10.8
11.5
7.5
-31.5

47,002
51,905
57,089
59,542
69,265

15.5
10.4
10.0
4.3
16.3

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

27,542
22,100
17,271
17,132
17,114

7.9
-19.8
-21.9
-0.8
-0.1

83,572
76,455
82,177
71,097
73,681

20.7
-8.5
7.5
-13.5
3.6

2002
March
June
September
December

21,417
20,922
20,275
17,271

-3.1
-2.3
-3.1
-14.8

72,595
77,349
82,373
82,177

-5.0
6.5
6.5
-0.2

2003
March
June
September
December

16,771
16,539
16,562
17,132

-2.9
-1.4
0.1
3.4

74,558
72,016
73,576
71,097

-9.3
-3.4
2.2
-3.4

2004
March
June
September
December

16,879
16,587
16,892
17,114

-1.5
-1.7
1.8
1.3

69,532
72,898
75,657
73,681

-2.2
4.8
3.8
-2.6

Month
December
1982
1983
1984

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
NOTES: When the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level is periodically raised, SSI recipients with earnings below the increased SGA
level become eligible for regular SSI benefits rather than the special cash payments under section 1619(a). This change in status is
reflected in the decreases in 1619(a) participants in 1990, June 2001, December 2001, December 2002, and December 2003.
. . . = not applicable; -- = not available.
a. Includes blind participants. Of the 71,097 participants in December 2003, 1,183 were blind.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 75

Recipients Who Work
Table 32.
By state or other area, December 2004

Total

Section 1619(a)
participants

328,204

17,115

73,681

237,408

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

3,850
601
3,555
3,611
43,491

250
32
206
152
3,788

903
178
944
778
7,216

2,697
391
2,405
2,681
32,487

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

3,875
3,828
834
653
11,435

163
144
42
60
697

809
1,056
246
239
3,248

2,903
2,628
546
354
7,490

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

7,010
799
1,715
13,370
5,721

338
62
91
701
253

1,558
203
470
2,875
1,434

5,114
534
1,154
9,794
4,034

6,614
4,017
4,681
5,505
2,210

185
152
238
335
96

1,419
930
1,141
1,464
662

5,010
2,935
3,302
3,706
1,452

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

5,689
9,610
13,992
9,679
3,081

310
582
606
262
194

1,241
2,979
3,124
2,150
785

4,138
6,049
10,262
7,267
2,102

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

7,157
1,738
2,981
1,498
1,257

257
49
79
78
63

1,717
383
579
392
339

5,183
1,306
2,323
1,028
855

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

7,594
2,110
30,114
7,772
1,358

321
100
1,617
292
37

1,752
568
6,242
1,629
319

5,521
1,442
22,255
5,851
1,002

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

16,741
3,731
3,885
15,083
1,623

677
143
125
775
85

3,072
676
945
3,587
367

12,992
2,912
2,815
10,721
1,171

State or area
All areas

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

Section 1619(b) Other blind and disabled
participants
recipients who work

(Continued)

76 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Who Work
Table 32.
By state or other area, December 2004—Continued

Total

Section 1619(a)
participants

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

4,734
2,096
5,216
13,583
2,137

136
60
256
643
79

858
458
1,178
3,342
471

3,740
1,578
3,782
9,598
1,587

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

1,183
6,451
5,721
2,069
10,167
763

62
321
421
127
341
29

378
1,554
1,721
525
2,351
222

743
4,576
3,579
1,417
7,475
512

16

3

4

9

State or area

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

Section 1619(b) Other blind and disabled
participants
recipients who work

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 77

Recipients Who Work
Table 33.
Recipients benefiting from specified work incentives, by state or other area, December 2004
Plans for achieving
self-support (PASS) a

Impairment-related
work expenses (IRWE)

Blind work
expenses (BWE)

1,598

6,874

2,827

31
6
12
25
463

164
4
87
75
590

38
b
24
24
409

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

12
5
0
b
45

21
128
36
b
350

35
23
12
3
107

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

30
9
18
33
15

213
9
10
229
119

55
12
3
69
42

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

20
12
57
8
27

58
286
99
140
33

69
35
45
47
13

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

9
87
51
33
10

202
184
132
140
37

42
244
103
51
43

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

18
24
13
4
9

148
11
28
25
28

41
11
14
13
11

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

13
0
117
74
5

196
69
521
337
8

48
14
203
125
4

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

41
6
20
17
9

116
81
42
329
10

101
24
33
121
13

State or area
All areas
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

(Continued)

78 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Recipients Who Work
Table 33.
Recipients benefiting from specified work incentives, by state or other area, December 2004—Continued
Plans for achieving
self-support (PASS) a

Impairment-related
work expenses (IRWE)

Blind work
expenses (BWE)

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

19
11
15
25
3

75
18
142
330
58

33
4
47
182
15

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

21
16
31
10
57
0

5
522
93
34
296
4

3
73
46
19
76
3

b

b

b

State or area

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data.
a. Includes 401 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources.
b. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 79

Noninstitutionalized
Recipients: Survey of
Income and Program
Participation

Notes
The Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) is a household survey of the noninstitutionalized resident
population of the United States conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. The survey was designed to improve the
measurement of the economic situation of persons, families, and households in the United States and to provide a
tool for managing and evaluating government transfer and service programs.
The 2001 SIPP panel consists of 9 interviews, or waves, each of which gathered 4 months of retrospective
data. The initial sample includes approximately 36,700 households, divided into 4 rotation groups. The SIPP has
been matched to Social Security Administration’s (SSA) administrative records for respondents who provided their
Social Security number. The administrative records provide data on the receipt and amount of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Social Security benefits for all months covered by the SIPP panel. For SIPP respondents who
did not provide their Social Security number, benefit receipt and amounts are taken from the SIPP. All other characteristics and income amounts are taken from the SIPP.
The tables in this section use data from wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP. SSI recipients are identified as of reference
month 4 of the wave 2 interviews, which corresponds to May, June, July, or August 2001 depending on the rotation
group. Sample cases are weighted using SIPP person weights. In this year’s tables, the weights are adjusted by
age group so that the weighted total number of SSI recipients matches the estimated number of noninstitutionalized SSI recipients in SSA administrative records. Recipient characteristics, such as age, sex, race, education,
marital status, living arrangements, and health insurance, reflect reference month 4. Income and poverty data are
based on all 4 months included in the wave 2 interviews, and thus cover a 4-month period between February 2001
and August 2001 depending on the rotation group. The poverty thresholds are provided in the SIPP for the
4 months covered in wave 2 and are adjusted for family size and composition.
The use of a single wave, or 4 months, of data for income and poverty estimates is a significant change from
previous years, in which annual income and poverty data were reported. The single wave approach, and particularly the use of wave 2, was followed for several reasons: Social Security numbers for matching to SSA administrative records were collected in wave 2; the sample in the 2001 SIPP panel was cut between waves 1 and 2; and
sample attrition is less of a concern early in a panel.
In tabulations of Medicaid coverage for SSI recipients, the SIPP Medicaid variable has been recoded to reflect
the fact that SSI recipients in certain states, sometimes referred to as Section 1634 states, are automatically covered by Medicaid. Thirty-two states and the District of Columbia provide automatic Medicaid coverage for SSI
recipients, accounting for approximately 78 percent of all SSI recipients.
SIPP and SSA counts of disabled and aged beneficiaries differ because the SIPP excludes people living in
institutions or outside the continental United States. In addition, the match rate between the SIPP and SSA records
is not perfect; thus, self-reported benefit information must be used for individuals who could not be matched to SSA
records. Furthermore, the SIPP estimates are based on a sample and therefore are subject to sampling error.
Standard errors can be used to measure this sampling variability and to determine the statistical significance of the
estimates. Various sources of nonsampling error also may be important.
Because the SIPP uses a complex sample design, it is inappropriate to calculate standard errors assuming a
simple random sample. Doing so will result in estimated standard errors that are biased downward. Readers interested in information about SIPP variance estimates are referred to the Survey of Income and Program Participation
Users’ Guide, available on the SIPP Internet site at http://www.sipp.census.gov/sipp/usrguide/sipp2001.pdf. The
Users’ Guide provides information on direct calculation of standard errors for SIPP estimates. It also provides
detailed instructions for calculating standard errors using generalized variance parameters.
Because of concerns about sampling variability and statistical reliability, distributions for which the base is
fewer than 150,000 weighted cases are not shown. In addition, individual cells that contain less than 1.0 percent of
a distribution are rounded to zero. Therefore, some distributions will not sum to the total.

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 34.
Household and family characteristics, by age, 2001
Number

Percentage of all recipients

Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

Total

Under 18

6,312,331

846,010

3,566,871

1,899,450

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

2,050,836

324,892

1,130,394

595,550

32.5

38.4

31.7

31.4

336,529

73,461

169,056

94,012

5.3

8.7

4.7

5.0

1,788,543

442,526

1,015,678

330,339

28.3

52.3

28.5

17.4

733,761
1,343,660
0

0
0
0

541,849
679,711
0

186,781
663,950
0

11.6
21.3
0

0
0
0

15.2
19.1
0

9.8
35.0
0

2,560,789
3,751,542

320,969
525,041

1,448,204
2,118,667

791,616
1,107,834

40.6
59.4

37.9
62.1

40.6
59.4

41.7
58.3

886,810

85,098

466,911

334,801

14.1

10.1

13.1

17.6

Household receipt of a —
Energy assistance
Housing assistance
Food stamps

689,114
618,388
2,517,307

114,386
98,819
276,567

395,148
366,094
1,515,509

179,580
153,475
725,231

10.9
9.8
39.9

13.5
11.7
32.7

11.1
10.3
42.5

9.5
8.1
38.2

Household size
1 person
2 persons
3–4 persons
5 or more persons

1,747,279
1,577,400
1,907,309
1,080,343

0
69,789
443,327
332,895

912,499
983,215
1,119,103
552,055

834,780
524,397
344,880
195,393

27.7
25.0
30.2
17.1

0
8.3
52.4
39.4

25.6
27.6
31.4
15.5

44.0
27.6
18.2
10.3

Family size
1 person
2 persons
3–4 persons
5 or more persons

2,217,882
1,386,177
1,733,093
975,179

24,731
80,707
439,204
301,369

1,307,373
795,559
981,220
482,720

885,779
509,910
312,670
191,091

35.1
22.0
27.5
15.5

2.9
9.5
51.9
35.6

36.7
22.3
27.5
13.5

46.6
26.9
16.5
10.1

Under age 18 in family
None
1 person
2–3 persons
4 persons
5 or more persons

4,160,923
868,077
616,413
597,337
69,582

0
206,313
306,848
299,848
33,002

2,556,855
503,154
247,177
226,714
0

1,604,068
158,610
62,389
70,774
0

65.9
13.8
9.8
9.5
1.1

0
24.4
36.3
35.4
3.9

71.7
14.1
6.9
6.4
0

84.5
8.4
3.3
3.7
0

Total household income
in wave 2 b (dollars)
Less than 2,500
2,500–4,999
5,000–7,499
7,500–9,999
10,000–14,999
15,000–19,999
20,000 or more

1,438,812
1,537,968
924,569
609,524
781,942
419,743
599,773

42,062
176,836
130,921
165,653
178,878
66,822
84,839

789,988
799,026
568,301
354,630
485,317
227,310
342,300

606,762
562,107
225,348
89,241
117,746
125,611
172,635

22.8
24.4
14.7
9.7
12.4
6.7
9.5

5.0
20.9
15.5
19.6
21.1
7.9
10.0

22.2
22.4
15.9
9.9
13.6
6.4
9.6

31.9
29.6
11.9
4.7
6.2
6.6
9.1

Characteristic
All recipients
Household type
Family
Married couple present
No married couple, male
householder
No married couple, female
householder
Nonfamily
Male householder
Female householder
Group quarters
Ownership status of living
quarters
Owned
Not owned
Residence in public housing

18–64 65 or older

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 83

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 34.
Household and family characteristics, by age, 2001—Continued
Number
Characteristic
Total family income
in wave 2 b (dollars)
Less than 2,500
2,500–4,999
5,000–7,499
7,500–9,999
10,000–14,999
15,000–19,999
20,000 or more

Percentage of all recipients

Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

Total

Under 18

1,705,177
1,648,954
893,280
502,946
674,492
392,367
495,115

74,383
203,925
125,414
137,580
169,630
71,723
63,356

1,006,698
868,823
545,581
284,200
391,633
195,166
274,770

624,096
576,207
222,284
81,166
113,229
125,478
156,990

27.0
26.1
14.2
8.0
10.7
6.2
7.8

8.8
24.1
14.8
16.3
20.1
8.5
7.5

18–64 65 or older

28.2
24.4
15.3
8.0
11.0
5.5
7.7

32.9
30.3
11.7
4.3
6.0
6.6
8.3

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, SSA administrative records, matched to U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), wave 2, reference month 4.
NOTES: Individuals receiving SSI benefits in reference month 4 of wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP are identified using SSA administrative data
for those who provided a valid Social Security number and using self-reported SIPP data for those who did not provide a valid number.
The unweighted sample size is 1,729 cases for all SSI recipients: 209 cases aged 17 or younger, 1,061 cases aged 18 to 64, and 459
cases aged 65 or older.
Cells that contain less than 1.0 percent of all beneficiaries are rounded to zero because of concerns about sampling variability. Therefore,
some distributions will not add to the total.
A family is a group of two or more persons related by birth, marriage, or adoption and residing together. A household includes related
family members and all the unrelated persons, if any, such as lodgers, foster children, wards, or employees who share the housing unit.
A person living alone in a housing unit or a group of unrelated persons sharing a housing unit as partners is also counted as a household.
a. Individuals may be counted in more than one category.
b. Data are based on the sum of the 4 months included in wave 2. This represents a change from tables for previous years, in which
annual income data were reported.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

84 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 35.
Personal characteristics, by age, 2001
Number

Percentage of all recipients

Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

Total

Under 18

6,312,331

846,010

3,566,871

1,899,450

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Sex
Male
Female

2,602,535
3,709,797

570,699
275,311

1,521,334
2,045,537

510,501
1,388,949

41.2
58.8

67.5
32.5

42.7
57.4

26.9
73.1

Race
White
Black
American Indian, Alaska Native
Asian, Pacific Islander

3,777,325
1,985,433
136,997
412,576

462,956
362,501
0
13,970

2,256,509
1,094,838
101,933
113,591

1,057,860
528,093
28,482
285,015

59.8
31.5
2.2
6.5

54.7
42.9
0
1.7

63.3
30.7
2.9
3.2

55.7
27.8
1.5
15.0

Ethnicity
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

1,130,540
5,181,791

163,063
682,948

505,272
3,061,599

462,205
1,437,245

17.9
82.1

19.3
80.7

14.2
85.8

24.3
75.7

Marital status
Married
Widowed
Divorced or separated
Never married

1,229,275
1,101,608
1,466,350
2,515,098

0
0
0
842,966

725,869
267,004
1,067,215
1,506,784

500,362
834,604
399,135
165,349

19.5
17.5
23.2
39.8

0
0
0
99.6

20.4
7.5
29.9
42.2

26.3
43.9
21.0
8.7

Years of education
0–8
9–11
12
13–15
16 or more
Unknown

1,822,723
1,317,979
1,658,740
638,113
235,901
638,875

63,992
134,339
8,804
0
0
638,875

732,636
873,871
1,298,073
506,594
155,697
0

1,026,095
309,769
351,863
131,519
80,204
0

28.9
20.9
26.3
10.1
3.7
10.1

7.6
15.9
1.0
0
0
75.5

20.5
24.5
36.4
14.2
4.4
0

54.0
16.3
18.5
6.9
4.2
0

Relationship to householder
Householder
Spouse
Child
Grandchild
Parent
Sibling
Other relative
Other nonrelative

3,222,949
483,091
1,432,897
110,373
299,272
152,473
303,450
307,827

0
0
680,730
80,595
0
0
44,583
32,892

1,951,121
277,424
752,167
0
85,170
127,647
92,833
250,732

1,268,298
205,667
0
0
214,102
21,146
166,033
24,203

51.1
7.7
22.7
1.8
4.7
2.4
4.8
4.9

0
0
80.5
9.5
0
0
5.3
3.9

54.7
7.8
21.1
0
2.4
3.6
2.6
7.0

66.8
10.8
0
0
11.3
1.1
8.7
1.3

Health insurance a
Medicaid
Medicare
Private
None

6,034,853
2,149,989
917,150
143,675

785,914
0
295,644
37,026

3,392,202
840,439
404,832
99,713

1,856,737
1,309,551
216,674
6,937

95.6
34.1
14.5
2.3

92.9
0
35.0
4.4

95.1
23.6
11.4
2.8

97.8
68.9
11.4
0.4

Type of child to mother
Natural
Stepchild
Adopted
Mother not present

1,445,272
0
0
4,804,157

680,675
17,218
0
142,883

759,282
0
36,351
2,767,138

0
0
0
1,894,135

22.9
0
0
76.1

80.5
2.0
0
16.9

21.3
0
1.0
77.6

0
0
0
99.7

Characteristic
All recipients

18–64 65 or older

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 85

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 35.
Personal characteristics, by age, 2001—Continued
Number
Characteristic
Type of child to father
Natural
Stepchild
Adopted
Father not present
Source of income a
Social Security
Public assistance other than
SSI
Earnings
Property income
Other
Total personal income in
wave 2 b (dollars)
Less than 500
500–999
1,000–1,499
1,500–1,999
2,000–2,499
2,500–2,999
3,000–3,499
3,500–3,999
4,000–4,499
4,500–4,999
5,000 or more

Percentage of all recipients

Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

Total

Under 18

18–64 65 or older

672,373
101,441
0
5,487,046

275,737
54,297
11,287
504,689

396,635
47,144
40,184
3,082,907

0
0
0
1,899,450

10.7
1.6
0
86.9

32.6
6.4
1.3
59.7

11.1
1.3
1.1
86.4

0
0
0
100.0

2,360,000

70,923

1,066,337

1,222,740

37.4

8.4

29.9

64.4

5,112,543
448,762
611,559
551,520

191,560
37,692
23,214
12,049

3,246,761
375,112
347,456
329,164

1,674,223
35,958
240,889
210,307

81.0
7.1
9.7
8.7

22.6
4.5
2.7
1.4

91.0
10.5
9.7
9.2

88.1
1.9
12.7
11.1

121,057
165,356
314,177
555,995
3,060,380
853,097
327,554
144,939
202,451
97,237
470,088

51,629
76,295
75,100
153,351
403,358
20,063
24,292
8,861
11,406
0
14,130

58,815
79,365
157,142
237,747
1,714,716
429,732
230,194
106,654
142,622
53,408
356,476

0
0
81,936
164,896
942,305
403,303
73,068
29,424
48,422
36,304
99,482

1.9
2.6
5.0
8.8
48.5
13.5
5.2
2.3
3.2
1.5
7.5

6.1
9.0
8.9
18.1
47.7
2.4
2.9
1.1
1.4
0
1.7

1.7
2.2
4.4
6.7
48.1
12.1
6.5
3.0
4.0
1.5
10.0

0
0
4.3
8.7
49.6
21.2
3.9
1.6
2.6
1.9
5.2

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, SSA administrative records, matched to U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), wave 2, reference month 4.
NOTES: Individuals receiving SSI benefits in reference month 4 of wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP are identified using SSA administrative data
for those who provided a valid Social Security number and using self-reported SIPP data for those who did not provide a valid number.
The unweighted sample size is 1,729 cases for all SSI recipients: 209 cases aged 17 or younger, 1,061 cases aged 18 to 64, and 459
cases aged 65 or older.
Cells that contain less than 1.0 percent of all beneficiaries are rounded to zero because of concerns about sampling variability. Therefore,
some distributions will not add to the total.
a. Individuals may be counted in more than one category.
b. Data are based on the sum of the 4 months included in wave 2. This represents a change from tables for previous years, in which
annual income data were reported.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

86 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 36.
SSI payments as a percentage of personal income, by selected characteristics, 2001
Percentage distribution
Number

Percentage of
all recipients

Total

6,312,331

100.0

100.0

19.3

15.5

9.7

9.0

46.5

Sex
Male
Female

2,602,535
3,709,797

41.2
58.8

100.0
100.0

18.3
20.0

11.8
18.1

7.9
11.0

9.7
8.5

52.2
42.4

Age
Under 18
18–64
65 or older

846,010
3,566,871
1,899,450

13.4
56.5
30.1

100.0
100.0
100.0

0
16.6
32.8

1.4
14.7
23.3

7.1
10.8
8.8

5.5
10.8
7.0

85.4
47.1
28.1

Race
White
Black
American Indian, Alaska Native
Asian, Pacific Islander

3,777,325
1,985,433
136,997
412,576

59.8
31.5
2.2
6.5

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

20.4
18.4
a
11.3

15.2
16.6
a
12.8

10.2
9.7
a
5.3

9.5
8.4
a
9.5

44.8
46.8
a
61.1

Ethnicity
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

1,130,540
5,181,791

17.9
82.1

100.0
100.0

14.6
20.3

15.4
15.6

11.0
9.4

7.6
9.3

51.4
45.4

Marital status
Married
Widowed
Divorced or separated
Never married

1,229,275
1,101,608
1,466,350
2,515,098

19.5
17.5
23.2
39.8

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

19.1
35.3
22.3
10.7

16.8
20.9
16.9
11.8

7.3
10.0
10.1
10.5

10.5
7.6
9.9
8.4

46.3
26.3
40.9
58.7

Years of education
0–8
9–11
12
13–15
16 or more
Unknown

1,822,723
1,317,979
1,658,740
638,113
235,901
638,875

28.9
20.9
26.3
10.1
3.7
10.1

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

23.4
18.3
19.3
27.7
21.0
0

18.5
14.4
17.7
19.3
14.2
0

10.2
11.2
10.4
10.3
7.0
3.9

8.0
9.8
10.0
13.7
10.2
2.5

39.9
46.4
42.7
29.0
47.7
92.3

Living arrangement
Lives alone
Lives with relatives
Lives only with nonrelatives

1,747,279
4,281,752
283,301

27.7
67.8
4.5

100.0
100.0
100.0

28.4
15.3
23.3

21.0
12.8
23.4

9.1
10.3
5.8

10.0
8.5
9.5

31.5
53.1
38.2

Characteristic
All recipients

Under 25%
25–49%
50–74%
75–99%
100%
of income of income of income of income of income

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, SSA administrative records, matched to U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), wave 2, reference month 4.
NOTES: Individuals receiving SSI benefits in reference month 4 of wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP are identified using SSA administrative data
for those who provided a valid Social Security number and using self-reported SIPP data for those who did not provide a valid number.
The unweighted sample size is 1,729 cases for all SSI recipients: 209 cases aged 17 or younger, 1,061 cases aged 18 to 64, and 459
cases aged 65 or older.
Cells that contain less than 1.0 percent of all beneficiaries are rounded to zero because of concerns about sampling variability. Therefore,
some distributions will not add to the total.
Personal income data are based on the 4 months included in wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP. This represents a change from tables for previous
years, in which annual income data were reported.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates. Distributions for which the base is fewer than 150,000 weighted
cases are not shown.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 87

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 37.
Percentage distribution of family income, by selected characteristics and source, 2001
Public assistance
Characteristic
All recipients

Total

Social
Supplemental
Security Security Income

Other

Earnings

Other

a

100.0

23.2

44.4

2.1

24.3

5.9

Sex
Male
Female

100.0
100.0

20.3
25.2

44.0
44.7

2.0
2.2

27.1
22.4

6.5
5.5

Age
Under 18
18–64
65 or older

100.0
100.0
100.0

5.6
19.7
37.5

40.5
48.7
38.2

3.0
2.4
1.1

44.7
22.5
18.8

6.2
6.7
4.3

Race
White
Black
American Indian, Alaska Native
Asian, Pacific Islander

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

24.6
22.7
b
11.7

42.2
48.1
b
46.2

1.8
2.7
b
1.7

25.2
20.7
b
35.1

6.1
5.9
b
5.3

Ethnicity
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

100.0
100.0

20.8
23.7

40.6
45.3

1.2
2.3

32.7
22.5

4.7
6.2

Marital status
Married
Widowed
Divorced or separated
Never married

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

20.5
37.8
25.8
16.5

42.6
35.8
53.6
43.8

2.3
1.7
2.1
2.3

29.3
19.7
12.7
30.8

5.3
5.0
5.9
6.7

Years of education
0–8
9–11
12
13–15
16 or more
Unknown

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

30.1
21.9
21.5
28.6
21.3
5.5

44.2
50.0
42.7
45.7
36.4
39.8

1.3
2.8
2.0
3.3
0
2.9

20.2
19.4
26.8
15.0
31.7
46.5

4.2
5.8
7.0
7.4
10.0
5.3

Living arrangement
Lives alone
Lives with relatives
Lives only with nonrelatives

100.0
100.0
100.0

36.4
18.0
19.1

56.7
38.4
60.9

1.3
2.5
1.8

1.7
34.4
12.9

3.9
6.8
5.4

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, SSA administrative records, matched to U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), wave 2, reference month 4.
NOTES: Individuals receiving SSI benefits in reference month 4 of wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP are identified using SSA administrative data
for those who provided a valid Social Security number and using self-reported SIPP data for those who did not provide a valid number.
The unweighted sample size is 1,729 cases for all SSI recipients: 209 cases aged 17 or younger, 1,061 cases aged 18 to 64, and 459
cases aged 65 or older.
Cells that contain less than 1.0 percent of all beneficiaries are rounded to zero because of concerns about sampling variability. Therefore,
some distributions will not add to the total.
Family income data are based on the 4 months included in wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP. This represents a change from tables for previous
years, in which annual income data were reported.
a. Very few SSI recipients have property income. Because of concerns about the statistical reliability of the estimates, the property
income data have been collapsed into Other.
b. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates. Distributions for which the base is fewer than 150,000 weighted
cases are not shown.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

88 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 38.
Percentage distribution, by poverty status and selected characteristics, 2001
Family income relative to poverty threshold
Under 100%
Characteristic
All recipients

Total

Subtotal Under 50%

50–99% 100–124% 125–149% 150–199% 200–299%

300%
or more

6,312,331

46.3

4.7

41.5

11.9

8.2

10.4

11.5

11.7

Sex
Male
Female

2,602,535
3,709,797

40.9
50.0

5.8
4.0

35.1
46.0

10.9
12.6

9.3
7.5

11.4
9.8

12.8
10.5

14.6
9.7

Age
Under 18
18–64
65 or older

846,010
3,566,871
1,899,450

35.6
48.0
47.8

13.1
4.8
0

22.5
43.2
46.8

14.4
8.9
16.4

8.5
8.7
7.2

13.6
10.7
8.6

18.0
12.4
6.8

9.9
11.3
13.3

3,777,325
1,985,433

44.5
52.1

3.2
7.9

41.3
44.2

11.3
13.7

7.4
8.9

11.2
9.6

13.4
7.4

12.2
8.4

136,997
412,576

a
25.0

a
2.1

a
23.0

a
11.6

a
14.5

a
9.3

a
14.5

a
25.2

Ethnicity
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

1,130,540
5,181,791

36.5
48.4

2.7
5.2

33.8
43.2

15.7
11.1

9.7
7.9

10.5
10.4

13.3
11.0

14.2
11.2

Marital status
Married
Widowed
Divorced or separated
Never married

1,229,275
1,101,608
1,466,350
2,515,098

38.6
51.9
61.8
38.5

4.1
2.4
2.7
7.3

34.5
49.5
59.1
31.2

9.5
16.6
10.6
11.9

11.0
5.5
6.4
9.1

13.5
6.7
7.7
12.2

13.4
6.1
6.6
15.7

14.1
13.1
6.9
12.7

Years of education
0–8
9–11
12
13–15
16 or more
Unknown

1,822,723
1,317,979
1,658,740
638,113
235,901
638,875

51.4
52.3
38.3
52.0
37.1
37.4

3.2
7.6
2.2
3.4
0
13.0

48.2
44.7
36.1
48.5
37.1
24.4

14.1
12.2
10.6
6.7
8.1
15.2

7.7
7.9
9.0
10.6
2.2
8.3

6.8
8.6
14.4
10.8
12.9
13.0

10.9
10.6
11.4
11.2
7.6
16.8

9.2
8.3
16.2
8.8
32.0
9.4

Race
White
Black
American Indian, Alaska
Native
Asian, Pacific Islander

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, SSA administrative records, matched to U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), wave 2, reference month 4.
NOTES: Individuals receiving SSI benefits in reference month 4 of wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP are identified using SSA administrative data
for those who provided a valid Social Security number and using self-reported SIPP data for those who did not provide a valid number.
The unweighted sample size is 1,729 cases for all SSI recipients: 209 cases aged 17 or younger, 1,061 cases aged 18 to 64, and 459
cases aged 65 or older.
Cells that contain less than 1.0 percent of all beneficiaries are rounded to zero because of concerns about sampling variability. Therefore,
some distributions will not add to the total.
Family income data and poverty thresholds are based on the 4 months included in wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP. This represents a change
from tables for previous years, in which annual income and poverty data were reported.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates. Distributions for which the base is fewer than 150,000 weighted
cases are not shown.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 89

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 39.
Percentage distribution, by poverty status before and after SSI payments and age, 2001
Family income relative to
poverty threshold before
SSI payments

Family income relative to poverty threshold after SSI payments
Total
Number

Percent

Under
50%

6,312,331

100.0

4.7

41.5

11.9

8.2

10.4

11.5

11.7

2,500,450
1,610,763
323,190
342,495
454,042
516,824
564,568

39.6
25.5
5.1
5.4
7.2
8.2
8.9

12.0
0
0
0
0
0
0

69.5
54.9
0
0
0
0
0

12.4
24.3
16.0
0
0
0
0

3.9
14.9
34.1
20.8
0
0
0

2.0
5.3
47.2
61.9
35.1
0
0

0
0
2.1
12.5
62.2
72.2
0

0
0
0.6
4.7
2.8
27.8
100.0

Under age 18
Under 50%
50–99%
100–124%
125–149%
150–199%
200–299%
300% or more

846,010
295,561
183,259
59,230
58,403
109,982
86,198
53,378

100.0
34.9
21.7
7.0
6.9
13.0
10.2
6.3

13.1
37.6
0
a
a
a
a
a

22.5
46.8
28.2
a
a
a
a
a

14.4
7.7
53.9
a
a
a
a
a

8.5
6.9
14.6
a
a
a
a
a

13.6
0
1.6
a
a
a
a
a

18.0
1.0
1.7
a
a
a
a
a

9.9
0
0
a
a
a
a
a

Aged 18–64
Under 50%
50–99%
100–124%
125–149%
150–199%
200–299%
300% or more

3,566,871
1,568,142
729,627
194,178
211,415
260,466
300,040
303,004

100.0
44.0
20.5
5.4
5.9
7.3
8.4
8.5

4.8
10.9
0
0
0
0
0
0

43.2
73.9
52.5
0
0
0
0
0

9.0
10.2
19.0
10.3
0
0
0
0

8.7
3.1
21.1
33.8
20.1
0
0
0

10.7
1.7
6.4
53.0
57.2
32.3
0
0

12.4
0
1.1
1.9
17.1
62.9
75.5
0

11.3
0
0
1.1
5.6
4.8
24.6
100.0

Aged 65 or older
Under 50%
50–99%
100–124%
125–149%
150–199%
200–299%
300% or more

1,899,450
636,747
697,877
69,782
72,677
83,594
130,586
208,186

100.0
33.5
36.7
3.7
3.8
4.4
6.9
11.0

0
2.8
0
a
a
a
a
0

46.8
69.2
64.4
a
a
a
a
0

16.4
20.0
22.0
a
a
a
a
0

7.2
4.4
8.5
a
a
a
a
0

8.6
3.6
5.2
a
a
a
a
0

6.8
0
0
a
a
a
a
0

13.3
0
0
a
a
a
a
100.0

All recipients
Under 50%
50–99%
100–124%
125–149%
150–199%
200–299%
300% or more

50–99% 100–124% 125–149% 150–199% 200–299%

300%
or more

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, SSA administrative records, matched to U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), wave 2, reference month 4.
NOTES: Individuals receiving SSI benefits in reference month 4 of wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP are identified using SSA administrative data
for those who provided a valid Social Security number and using self-reported SIPP data for those who did not provide a valid number.
The unweighted sample size is 1,729 cases for all SSI recipients: 209 cases aged 17 or younger, 1,061 cases aged 18 to 64, and 459
cases aged 65 or older.
Cells that contain less than 1.0 percent of all beneficiaries are rounded to zero because of concerns about sampling variability. Therefore,
some distributions will not add to the total.
Family income data and poverty thresholds are based on the 4 months included in wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP. This represents a change
from tables for previous years, in which annual income and poverty data were reported.
a. Sample size is too small to support statistically reliable estimates. Distributions for which the base is fewer than 150,000 weighted
cases are not shown.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

90 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Noninstitutionalized Recipients: SIPP
Table 40.
Poverty gap before and after SSI payments, by selected characteristics, 2001
Aggregate poverty gap (thousands of dollars)
Before SSI

After SSI

Percentage reduction
in poverty gap

10,423,016

3,367,341

67.7

Sex
Male
Female

4,211,772
6,211,244

1,352,452
2,014,889

67.9
67.6

Age
Under 18
18–64
65 or older

1,667,352
6,392,095
2,363,570

670,326
2,083,051
613,963

59.8
67.4
74.0

Race
White
Black
American Indian, Alaska Native
Asian, Pacific Islander

5,504,834
3,945,563
329,572
643,048

1,686,697
1,408,965
137,258
134,421

69.4
64.3
58.4
79.1

Ethnicity
Hispanic
Non-Hispanic

1,621,332
8,801,684

432,816
2,934,525

73.3
66.7

Characteristic
Total

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, SSA administrative records, matched to U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP), wave 2, reference month 4.
NOTES: When a beneficiary’s family income is below the poverty threshold, the difference between the poverty threshold and family
income is referred to as the poverty gap. The smallest individual poverty gap is zero if family income is equal to or greater than the
poverty threshold. The largest poverty gap is equal to the poverty threshold for those with no family income at all. The aggregate poverty
gap is the sum of the individual poverty gaps for all SSI beneficiaries.
Individuals receiving SSI benefits in reference month 4 of wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP are identified using SSA administrative data for those
who provided a valid Social Security number and using self-reported SIPP data for those who did not provide a valid number. The
unweighted sample size is 1,729 cases for all SSI recipients: 209 cases aged 17 or younger, 1,061 cases aged 18 to 64, and 459 cases
aged 65 or older.
Family income data and poverty thresholds are based on the 4 months included in wave 2 of the 2001 SIPP. This represents a change
from tables for previous years, in which annual income and poverty data were reported.
CONTACT: Paul Davies (410) 966-0299 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 91

Applications

Applications
Table 41.
All applications, by age of applicant, 1973–2004
a

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

54,526,950

7,619,870

37,306,690

9,600,390

3,406,600

3,650

1,424,010

1,978,940

284,930
2,060,590

5,030
124,300

82,820
1,096,130

197,080
840,160

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1,467,960
1,212,810
1,272,360
1,268,170
1,325,270

100,030
84,360
95,610
99,460
108,000

976,840
866,720
904,150
905,340
950,980

391,090
261,730
272,600
263,370
266,290

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

1,410,080
1,149,290
1,016,080
1,132,220
1,264,480

113,200
95,010
94,680
101,560
104,860

1,016,750
863,670
775,240
832,540
866,420

280,130
190,610
146,160
198,120
293,200

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

1,401,400
1,465,970
1,433,340
1,360,870
1,392,660

120,640
125,270
124,910
125,280
132,080

1,047,930
1,099,220
1,068,890
1,008,200
1,016,430

232,830
241,480
239,540
227,390
244,150

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

1,550,990
1,808,690
2,086,820
2,308,770
2,256,640

163,610
247,460
380,350
503,800
541,150

1,136,160
1,315,160
1,460,520
1,567,730
1,512,310

251,220
246,070
245,950
237,240
203,180

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

2,062,590
1,915,520
1,594,630
1,626,210
1,658,400

502,940
462,710
332,940
337,300
350,070

1,380,090
1,285,630
1,130,410
1,141,180
1,148,740

179,560
167,180
131,280
147,730
159,590

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

1,742,630
1,859,990
2,084,730
2,230,540
2,414,720

358,800
376,170
413,330
436,230
455,080

1,224,540
1,323,020
1,492,740
1,616,440
1,769,740

159,290
160,800
178,660
177,870
189,900

Year

All ages
Total

State conversions

b

Federal applications
1973
1974

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
a. Totals include applications taken under the abbreviated application process, which was used from 1987 to 1999. Totals do not include
reapplications as a result of the Sullivan v. Zebley decision. These reapplications were received from 1991 to 1995.
b. Persons who were converted in 1973 from the state Old-Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the Permanently and Totally
Disabled programs to the SSI program.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 95

Applications
Table 42.
Applications for children under age 18, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004
Characteristic

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Total a

462,710

332,940

337,300

350,070

358,800

376,170

413,330

436,230

455,080

Age
Under 5
5–12
13–17

154,970
226,150
81,590

122,280
154,110
56,550

121,410
159,630
56,260

124,030
166,880
59,160

124,520
172,420
61,860

131,730
178,790
65,650

141,190
195,760
76,380

145,730
208,490
82,010

148,800
214,580
91,700

Sex
Male
Female

290,610
172,100

207,840
125,100

209,590
127,710

219,700
130,370

224,270
134,530

233,730
142,440

257,880
155,450

273,230
163,000

287,220
167,860

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen

460,020
2,690

331,530
1,410

335,140
2,160

347,760
2,310

356,730
2,070

374,060
2,110

411,120
2,210

434,370
1,860

452,920
2,160

SSA administrative region
Boston
New York
Philadelphia
Atlanta
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
Denver
San Francisco
Seattle
Unknown

14,820
51,120
45,080
117,260
88,910
65,240
21,680
9,110
38,730
10,140
620

11,450
35,500
33,140
85,550
62,870
46,030
15,000
6,660
29,950
6,540
250

11,800
35,110
33,830
86,950
63,310
44,500
14,890
5,980
33,050
7,650
230

11,630
33,640
35,560
91,330
64,880
48,470
16,040
5,950
34,120
8,300
150

12,510
33,270
34,860
98,260
67,130
48,950
14,280
6,110
34,270
9,040
120

11,810
33,980
37,720
105,210
69,550
50,900
15,570
6,190
35,720
9,380
140

13,010
35,430
41,100
115,970
76,090
58,660
16,930
6,660
39,140
10,260
80

13,200
36,070
43,130
119,010
83,350
66,000
16,180
7,220
41,740
10,240
90

14,380
38,620
44,770
119,890
84,100
74,770
17,000
7,420
43,570
10,480
80

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
a. Totals include applications taken under the abbreviated application process, which was used from 1987 to 1999. Totals do not include
reapplications as a result of the Sullivan v. Zebley decision. These reapplications were received from 1991 to 1995.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

96 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Applications
Table 43.
Applications for adults aged 18–64, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004
Characteristic
Total a

1996

1997

1998

1,285,630 1,130,410 1,141,180

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

1,148,740 1,224,540 1,323,020 1,492,740 1,616,440

1,769,740

Age
18–21
22–29
30–39
40–49
50–59
60–64

93,050
169,750
332,740
340,490
271,000
78,600

80,090
137,950
279,870
312,200
252,320
67,980

80,920
135,000
272,260
318,350
259,970
74,680

84,520
130,390
265,820
327,880
264,660
75,470

88,570
136,900
271,980
356,800
290,360
79,930

100,860
147,580
282,170
387,270
320,390
84,750

110,930
169,870
308,820
439,250
367,860
96,010

116,220
182,500
317,400
474,740
416,860
108,720

124,200
198,950
330,910
519,500
468,870
127,310

Sex
Men
Women

632,440
653,190

550,960
579,450

550,360
590,820

551,620
597,120

591,580
632,960

643,540
679,480

733,980
758,760

797,690
818,750

870,330
899,410

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen
SSA administrative region
Boston
New York
Philadelphia
Atlanta
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
Denver
San Francisco
Seattle
Unknown

1,220,060 1,088,560 1,071,380 1,077,840 1,155,200 1,252,960 1,419,220 1,542,720 1,695,150
65,570
41,850
69,800
70,900
69,340
70,060
73,520
73,720
74,590

60,890
129,690
121,870
320,790
190,920
160,280
60,040
28,800
170,910
39,590
1,850

51,440
113,410
109,790
283,700
169,170
140,000
55,450
25,110
146,370
35,050
920

49,710
113,010
109,940
283,130
169,140
141,490
52,280
24,890
159,830
36,800
960

48,660
109,720
111,800
284,450
168,610
146,920
54,230
25,000
158,750
39,850
750

48,640
108,600
115,410
315,360
188,600
158,610
59,350
27,020
157,690
44,420
840

52,510
118,010
125,330
341,060
208,580
172,400
64,640
28,670
163,670
47,170
980

56,290
122,190
141,400
378,350
243,720
203,390
73,510
32,580
188,260
51,860
1,190

64,840
122,470
155,980
398,060
272,570
225,520
77,320
35,960
206,850
55,500
1,370

70,680
127,750
171,640
424,460
299,480
256,580
83,980
42,790
226,750
63,920
1,710

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
a. Totals include applications taken under the abbreviated application process, which was used from 1987 to 1999. Totals do not include
reapplications as a result of the Sullivan v. Zebley decision. These reapplications were received from 1991 to 1995.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 97

Applications
Table 44.
Applications for adults aged 65 or older, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004
Characteristic

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Total a

167,180

131,280

147,730

159,590

159,290

160,800

178,660

177,870

189,900

92,710
32,270
42,200

74,540
23,900
32,840

81,600
28,860
37,270

87,720
31,820
40,050

87,310
32,040
39,940

88,290
33,070
39,440

95,280
39,080
44,300

95,970
37,890
44,010

100,660
41,940
47,300

Sex
Men
Women

61,540
105,640

47,300
83,980

54,420
93,310

59,870
99,720

60,070
99,220

60,800
100,000

69,090
109,570

69,380
108,490

74,900
115,000

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen

122,530
44,650

104,950
26,330

98,940
48,790

106,730
52,860

109,440
49,850

109,010
51,790

116,770
61,890

118,630
59,240

127,040
62,860

6,610
23,180
12,230
37,500
12,610
20,220
3,860
2,540
44,640
3,670
120

5,480
17,740
9,310
29,800
10,030
17,110
3,140
2,060
33,810
2,760
40

6,250
21,320
10,510
30,340
11,190
18,220
2,990
2,080
41,450
3,330
50

6,280
22,300
11,890
32,130
12,260
19,830
2,880
2,370
45,550
4,090
10

6,090
22,720
11,620
31,580
12,690
19,520
3,380
2,550
45,090
4,040
10

5,940
24,200
11,010
31,100
12,380
21,250
2,990
2,360
45,760
3,800
10

6,090
25,800
11,280
35,680
12,120
23,400
2,940
2,620
54,880
3,840
10

6,910
25,300
11,290
32,660
13,050
22,770
2,950
2,780
55,710
4,450
0

7,330
26,100
11,060
34,330
14,000
24,290
3,010
3,050
62,050
4,680
0

Age
65–69
70–74
75 or older

SSA administrative region
Boston
New York
Philadelphia
Atlanta
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
Denver
San Francisco
Seattle
Unknown

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
a. Totals include applications taken under the abbreviated application process, which was used from 1987 to 1999. Totals do not include
reapplications as a result of the Sullivan v. Zebley decision. These reapplications were received from 1991 to 1995.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

98 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Applications
Table 45.
All applications, by state or other area and age of applicant, 2004
Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

2,414,720

455,080

1,769,740

189,900

Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

52,740
5,220
37,900
38,380
272,620

13,090
480
6,530
9,150
33,720

37,810
4,280
29,280
28,170
181,800

1,840
460
2,090
1,060
57,100

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

23,930
18,710
5,590
6,640
151,420

3,130
3,240
1,250
1,660
32,250

19,270
14,340
4,120
4,650
101,860

1,530
1,130
220
330
17,310

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

79,060
5,920
10,130
92,320
49,050

15,760
650
1,720
21,510
10,190

59,470
4,200
7,950
65,730
37,840

3,830
1,070
460
5,080
1,020

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

19,780
20,300
55,560
64,410
9,840

3,330
3,180
10,430
17,370
1,180

15,750
16,560
43,130
44,650
8,270

700
560
2,000
2,390
390

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

41,180
46,260
84,380
27,280
48,650

6,370
7,240
18,580
4,730
12,730

32,720
34,250
63,240
20,920
34,230

2,090
4,770
2,560
1,630
1,690

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

51,020
5,920
12,890
15,720
6,520

8,950
910
1,540
2,560
680

40,890
4,750
10,780
11,380
5,650

1,180
260
570
1,780
190

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

48,870
16,650
143,600
83,610
3,930

9,350
2,630
29,270
16,080
580

33,660
12,750
94,090
63,610
3,140

5,860
1,270
20,240
3,920
210

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

103,590
33,890
24,040
104,590
7,520

21,020
6,020
2,740
23,210
1,540

80,180
26,740
19,750
76,380
5,300

2,390
1,130
1,550
5,000
680

State or area
All areas

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 99

Applications
Table 45.
All applications, by state or other area and age of applicant, 2004—Continued
State or area
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming
Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands
Unknown

Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

43,920
5,000
63,720
202,310
11,030

8,770
940
10,780
39,600
1,500

33,660
3,560
50,690
144,270
9,040

1,490
500
2,250
18,440
490

3,540
44,560
39,690
24,910
40,960
3,450

500
8,910
5,540
3,370
8,070
360

2,870
32,850
31,940
20,920
31,570
3,030

170
2,800
2,210
620
1,320
60

210

110

90

10

1,790

80

1,710

0

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

100 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Applications
Table 46.
All applicants, by year of first application and age, 1973–2004
a

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

37,428,200

6,031,630

24,128,880

7,267,690

3,406,600

3,650

1,424,010

1,978,940

282,270
1,997,130

4,970
122,170

81,850
1,061,670

195,450
813,290

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1,300,670
973,420
941,300
896,610
914,350

93,480
75,950
82,180
84,360
90,170

859,400
684,750
658,930
629,240
639,040

347,790
212,720
200,190
183,010
185,140

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

936,350
722,170
604,290
643,870
735,850

91,700
75,390
72,760
78,830
81,580

654,580
528,580
449,350
465,190
485,400

190,070
118,200
82,180
99,850
168,870

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

859,290
930,260
891,320
835,650
855,140

92,560
98,590
96,940
95,380
100,470

627,390
687,520
652,920
603,060
606,990

139,340
144,150
141,460
137,210
147,680

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

981,590
1,199,860
1,455,720
1,620,200
1,568,700

127,430
207,940
339,210
439,860
460,050

696,700
835,810
954,900
1,027,300
979,480

157,460
156,110
161,610
153,040
129,170

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

1,385,000
1,242,710
980,380
982,570
993,590

407,220
359,030
254,320
249,810
256,080

863,230
778,990
645,750
642,260
638,450

114,550
104,690
80,310
90,500
99,060

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

1,034,360
1,125,740
1,275,550
1,371,600
1,484,090

258,000
273,350
301,690
320,790
335,720

677,230
751,380
861,610
942,340
1,033,580

99,130
101,010
112,250
108,470
114,790

Year

All ages
Total

State conversions

b

Federal applications
1973
1974

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
NOTE: Data include only the first application for each person.
a. Totals include applications taken under the abbreviated application process, which was used from 1987 to 1999. Totals do not include
reapplications as a result of the Sullivan v. Zebley decision. These reapplications were received from 1991 to 1995.
b. Persons who were converted in 1973 from the state Old-Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the Permanently and Totally
Disabled programs to the SSI program.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 101

Awards

Awards
Table 47.
All awards, by age of awardee, 1974–2004
Year

All ages

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

25,538,750

3,183,440

14,831,510

7,523,800

3,158,410

2,620

1,305,060

1,850,730

1,329,870
927,800
674,580
643,480
566,190
517,010

66,880
62,880
45,030
50,970
47,050
45,810

491,170
508,950
403,350
375,950
323,170
292,380

771,820
355,970
226,200
216,560
195,970
178,820

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

526,790
411,510
342,680
458,610
586,670

46,260
39,050
35,670
42,110
45,740

293,740
248,340
202,590
262,660
322,390

186,790
124,120
104,420
153,840
218,540

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

527,800
603,580
589,440
578,370
629,460

46,590
51,020
48,480
47,560
51,520

324,070
391,600
373,320
361,070
388,120

157,140
160,960
167,640
169,740
189,820

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

718,310
822,890
1,049,260
1,054,170
944,830

76,070
126,190
221,080
236,220
203,190

446,940
504,860
636,300
630,030
580,640

195,300
191,840
191,880
187,920
161,000

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

893,460
797,970
673,340
739,410
757,270

177,550
144,270
116,280
135,600
139,400

571,080
526,690
461,260
489,240
493,960

144,830
127,010
95,800
114,570
123,910

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

747,010
770,340
818,050
824,000
856,190

144,540
156,900
169,130
179,590
182,190

483,020
502,590
533,470
537,420
566,080

119,450
110,850
115,450
106,990
107,920

Total
State conversions

a

Federal applications
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
a. Persons who were converted in 1973 from the state Old-Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the Permanently and Totally
Disabled programs to the SSI program.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 105

Awards
Table 48.
Awards for children under age 18, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

144,270

116,280

135,600

139,400

144,540

156,900

169,130

179,590

182,190

Age
Under 5
5–12
13–17

63,440
56,670
24,160

54,490
44,290
17,500

58,770
55,960
20,870

60,070
57,500
21,830

62,500
60,170
21,870

64,860
66,980
25,060

68,020
71,910
29,200

71,010
77,510
31,070

71,150
77,800
33,240

Sex
Male
Female

90,110
54,160

71,780
44,500

85,140
50,460

87,830
51,570

90,960
53,580

98,910
57,990

108,540
60,590

116,190
63,400

119,120
63,070

143,180
1,090

115,480
800

134,530
1,070

138,240
1,160

143,650
890

155,940
960

168,350
780

178,950
640

181,510
680

6,970

5,970

6,580

6,230

7,050

7,010

7,400

8,220

7,420

990

830

980

940

1,070

910

900

1,070

970

470
1,050

380
1,100

280
1,000

360
1,080

250
980

280
1,090

340
1,010

170
990

210
1,070

42,260
42,620
2,900

29,680
32,800
2,500

31,280
44,480
2,720

29,110
52,790
2,650

26,940
57,640
2,610

26,470
68,940
3,000

27,150
80,280
2,850

26,110
91,160
2,830

23,830
96,720
3,010

1,520
940
500
490

1,220
830
680
480

1,590
800
810
510

1,340
840
720
520

1,290
950
960
530

1,470
770
1,340
550

1,260
960
1,090
510

1,320
1,010
1,420
580

1,420
1,050
1,260
590

1,310

1,250

1,390

1,200

1,430

1,650

1,470

1,180

1,230

12,250
4,460

10,370
4,170

11,210
4,050

10,820
4,140

10,940
4,520

10,800
4,550

11,740
4,470

11,000
4,300

10,950
4,170

50
17,420
8,070

130
16,590
7,300

110
18,860
8,950

100
20,640
5,920

170
22,250
4,960

140
23,120
4,810

160
23,330
4,210

170
24,470
3,590

250
24,360
3,680

5,060
14,750
15,250
35,130
28,290
14,930
6,390
3,480
16,470
4,520
0

4,840
10,870
11,730
29,190
21,890
12,570
4,140
2,760
14,750
3,540
0

5,070
11,030
14,640
36,470
24,570
16,280
4,850
2,740
16,350
3,600
0

5,570
13,130
14,370
37,640
22,580
16,680
6,240
2,650
16,670
3,870
0

6,130
12,830
14,920
38,930
24,330
16,930
5,640
2,650
17,840
4,340
0

6,040
13,040
18,450
42,210
25,580
19,340
5,790
3,070
18,260
5,120
0

5,880
13,990
18,310
42,570
28,300
25,100
6,790
3,110
20,040
5,040
0

6,040
15,260
19,600
44,970
30,190
28,080
6,130
3,310
20,720
5,290
0

6,590
15,810
20,940
41,300
30,010
30,880
6,870
3,040
21,200
5,550
0

Characteristic
Total

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen
Diagnostic group
Congenital anomalies
Endocrine, nutritional,
and metabolic disorders
Infectious and parasitic
diseases
Injuries
Mental disorders
Mental retardation
Other
Neoplasms
Diseases of the—
Blood and blood-forming
organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Genitourinary system
Musculoskeletal system
and connective tissue
Nervous system and
sense organs
Respiratory system
Skin and subcutaneous
tissue
Other
Unknown
SSA administrative region
Boston
New York
Philadelphia
Atlanta
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
Denver
San Francisco
Seattle
Unknown

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

106 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Awards
Table 49.
Awards for adults aged 18–64, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

526,690

461,260

489,240

493,960

483,020

502,590

533,470

537,420

566,080

Age
18–21
22–29
30–39
40–49
50–59
60–64

33,340
50,890
115,150
129,900
149,550
47,860

30,080
42,440
96,000
118,050
134,340
40,350

33,470
44,030
97,280
125,560
142,900
46,000

34,680
42,520
95,550
131,170
143,850
46,190

36,640
39,890
90,260
128,240
142,660
45,330

41,210
44,200
90,780
133,130
149,120
44,150

43,410
47,540
91,950
144,500
158,610
47,460

44,360
49,490
91,240
144,340
162,420
45,570

46,510
53,090
90,200
152,450
176,080
47,750

Sex
Men
Women

260,010
266,680

221,440
239,820

232,670
256,570

234,380
259,580

234,920
248,100

244,570
258,020

262,830
270,640

264,010
273,410

281,810
284,270

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen

494,700
31,990

441,840
19,420

450,100
39,140

457,690
36,270

447,620
35,400

469,470
33,120

499,440
34,030

506,610
30,810

534,930
31,150

940

880

640

900

1,160

1,700

1,790

2,060

2,040

28,650

26,460

27,040

28,070

14,000

15,030

15,320

15,700

17,030

23,210
15,850

16,630
13,470

14,790
14,780

14,000
15,390

13,440
16,030

12,560
16,680

11,950
18,930

11,360
17,120

10,810
19,470

40,630
136,480
26,490

34,840
115,400
25,230

34,320
127,700
25,370

34,820
138,020
25,820

35,030
146,930
26,500

35,530
157,590
26,950

35,290
168,970
27,660

34,250
171,650
28,520

34,620
181,200
30,250

1,330
44,320
7,300
8,640

1,140
39,980
7,030
9,050

1,240
40,200
7,610
8,970

1,430
40,090
9,020
8,970

1,310
42,110
9,180
9,650

1,670
45,110
10,140
9,490

1,590
47,240
11,080
9,820

1,570
46,440
11,720
10,480

1,670
48,400
12,850
10,280

61,160

53,640

58,530

63,370

69,980

75,190

84,140

86,570

96,200

30,620
18,760

25,780
15,530

29,100
16,540

29,990
16,580

30,000
17,080

32,510
17,450

34,530
18,520

35,120
18,710

36,840
20,100

910
420
80,980

970
460
74,770

820
430
81,160

860
590
66,040

840
530
49,250

1,090
740
43,160

1,000
1,010
44,630

940
990
44,220

1,000
1,110
42,210

Characteristic
Total

Diagnostic group
Congenital anomalies
Endocrine, nutritional,
and metabolic disorders
Infectious and parasitic
diseases
Injuries
Mental disorders
Mental retardation
Other
Neoplasms
Diseases of the—
Blood and blood-forming
organs
Circulatory system
Digestive system
Genitourinary system
Musculoskeletal system
and connective tissue
Nervous system and
sense organs
Respiratory system
Skin and subcutaneous
tissue
Other
Unknown

(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 107

Awards
Table 49.
Awards for adults aged 18–64, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004—Continued
Characteristic
SSA administrative region
Boston
New York
Philadelphia
Atlanta
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
Denver
San Francisco
Seattle
Unknown

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

29,020
55,340
49,990
134,410
77,550
60,690
21,440
11,040
69,180
18,020
10

24,790
44,250
47,690
120,370
68,530
54,430
17,590
9,180
58,700
15,730
0

24,430
49,590
50,520
122,820
72,100
54,800
19,310
9,370
70,370
15,930
0

24,330
52,730
50,730
119,640
68,290
57,210
20,080
8,820
74,470
17,660
0

24,040
49,010
50,400
117,890
64,910
55,200
21,340
8,900
72,520
18,810
0

24,190
48,710
52,420
121,830
70,040
63,770
20,510
9,310
72,940
18,870
0

24,750
47,260
52,760
123,340
77,110
76,950
22,110
10,230
79,080
19,880
0

26,110
43,750
54,380
127,330
78,750
75,430
21,270
9,940
80,840
19,610
10

28,000
49,990
58,260
127,400
81,600
81,550
24,450
10,210
83,820
20,800
0

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

108 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Awards
Table 50.
Awards for adults aged 65 or older, by selected characteristics, 1996–2004
1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

127,010

95,800

114,570

123,910

119,450

110,850

115,450

106,990

107,920

Age
65
66–69
70–74
75–79
80 or older

41,390
30,730
23,740
13,020
18,130

34,820
22,110
15,120
9,850
13,900

34,590
29,270
20,870
13,830
16,010

35,610
32,310
24,650
15,420
15,920

34,470
31,360
23,120
14,250
16,250

32,840
29,530
21,570
12,680
14,230

32,460
31,370
23,280
13,740
14,600

31,260
28,760
21,160
12,580
13,230

29,980
29,130
22,560
12,580
13,670

Sex
Men
Women

44,590
82,420

32,980
62,820

40,860
73,710

44,500
79,410

43,120
76,330

40,000
70,850

42,530
72,920

40,020
66,970

40,630
67,290

Citizenship status
Citizen
Noncitizen

90,350
36,660

80,340
15,460

79,860
34,710

84,460
39,450

84,080
35,370

78,670
32,180

81,030
34,420

78,840
28,150

80,780
27,140

SSA administrative region
Boston
New York
Philadelphia
Atlanta
Chicago
Dallas
Kansas City
Denver
San Francisco
Seattle

5,110
17,820
9,750
26,340
10,260
15,320
2,680
2,060
34,620
3,050

4,020
13,120
7,750
20,920
7,890
12,840
2,150
1,680
23,340
2,090

5,090
17,130
8,300
22,040
9,160
13,470
2,100
1,530
32,900
2,850

5,010
18,100
9,330
22,280
9,780
15,600
2,110
1,740
36,650
3,310

4,980
17,200
9,130
22,640
9,500
13,720
2,450
1,820
34,990
3,020

4,220
16,380
8,570
20,300
8,580
13,780
2,130
1,510
32,390
2,990

3,970
15,520
7,960
22,820
8,170
14,770
1,980
1,790
35,480
2,990

4,450
14,800
7,660
19,130
8,000
13,170
1,880
1,590
33,270
3,040

3,960
14,900
7,250
18,410
8,600
12,610
1,850
1,590
35,940
2,810

Characteristic
Total

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 109

Awards
Table 51.
All awards, by state or other area and age of awardee, 2004
Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

856,190

182,190

566,080

107,920

19,800
1,740
14,590
13,040
117,000

3,920
270
2,880
3,310
16,510

14,720
1,220
10,390
9,050
67,640

1,160
250
1,320
680
32,850

Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
District of Columbia
Florida

6,530
6,780
2,350
2,950
50,260

1,200
1,150
550
950
12,090

4,630
4,990
1,630
1,810
30,090

700
640
170
190
8,080

Georgia
Hawaii
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana

23,600
3,200
3,970
28,550
14,790

4,940
470
850
7,320
4,010

16,360
1,910
2,810
18,350
10,190

2,300
820
310
2,880
590

Iowa
Kansas
Kentucky
Louisiana
Maine

5,940
6,110
19,960
21,310
3,920

1,310
1,300
4,720
5,630
580

4,170
4,500
14,060
14,300
3,080

460
310
1,180
1,380
260

Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Mississippi

14,250
20,020
25,990
10,040
15,070

2,870
3,390
6,380
2,160
3,590

10,060
14,180
17,900
6,790
10,400

1,320
2,450
1,710
1,090
1,080

Missouri
Montana
Nebraska
Nevada
New Hampshire

17,380
1,970
3,740
6,050
2,340

3,800
480
460
1,290
400

12,730
1,310
3,050
3,820
1,860

850
180
230
940
80

New Jersey
New Mexico
New York
North Carolina
North Dakota

19,500
7,160
61,200
25,810
1,070

4,160
1,390
11,650
5,830
210

12,140
4,950
37,850
17,750
710

3,200
820
11,700
2,230
150

Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island

28,970
10,880
7,770
40,180
3,810

6,850
2,480
1,470
11,410
790

20,570
7,610
5,390
25,280
2,580

1,550
790
910
3,490
440

State or area
All areas
Alabama
Alaska
Arizona
Arkansas
California

(Continued)

110 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Awards
Table 51.
All awards, by state or other area and age of awardee, 2004—Continued
Total

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah

12,860
1,530
19,750
72,650
2,850

2,910
260
3,300
18,070
710

9,100
980
14,920
45,640
1,900

850
290
1,530
8,940
240

Vermont
Virginia
Washington
West Virginia
Wisconsin
Wyoming

1,680
18,580
15,680
8,140
11,870
890

280
3,880
2,960
1,280
3,290
180

1,310
13,010
11,380
6,470
7,800
680

90
1,690
1,340
390
780
30

120

50

60

10

State or area

Outlying area
Northern Mariana Islands

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 111

Awards
Table 52.
All persons awarded SSI, by year of first award and age, 1974–2004
All ages

Under 18

18–64

65 or older

23,109,810

3,003,990

13,356,130

6,749,690

3,158,410

2,620

1,305,060

1,850,730

1,317,640
913,620
640,570
578,270
494,740
446,420

66,250
62,340
44,090
47,830
43,830
42,270

485,860
502,830
386,940
344,910
288,420
257,080

765,530
348,450
209,540
185,530
162,490
147,070

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984

451,240
348,250
283,240
361,060
480,420

42,450
35,480
31,750
37,970
41,480

254,810
213,610
171,680
217,450
272,030

153,980
99,160
79,810
105,640
166,910

1985
1986
1987
1988
1989

444,310
521,270
508,530
501,740
546,650

41,680
46,340
43,750
43,540
46,830

277,490
343,800
327,910
317,210
341,480

125,140
131,130
136,870
140,990
158,340

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

634,480
739,810
960,900
969,060
863,940

70,640
119,340
214,160
229,610
196,810

398,330
454,580
580,580
577,260
529,790

165,510
165,890
166,160
162,190
137,340

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

812,760
725,020
601,260
656,600
666,430

171,110
138,550
111,210
128,640
131,190

518,090
478,070
409,700
430,960
430,370

123,560
108,400
80,350
97,000
104,870

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

651,560
668,710
710,640
713,390
738,870

134,380
145,040
156,590
166,710
169,510

416,290
429,400
456,050
457,560
480,530

100,890
94,270
98,000
89,120
88,830

Year
Total
State conversions

a

Federal applications
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 10 percent sample.
NOTE: Data include only the first award for each person.
a. Persons who were converted in 1973 from the state Old-Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the Permanently and Totally
Disabled programs to the SSI program.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

112 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Outcomes of Applications
for Disability Benefits

Notes
The tables in this section provide data on the outcomes of applications for SSI benefits based on blindness or disability. The data on applications are derived from the Social Security Administration's (SSA's) Disability Research
File (DRF) maintained by the Office of Disability Programs. Each year the DRF is updated with information about
applications for disability benefits that is then used to determine the outcome of those applications. The outcome
data in these tables are reported by year of filing and include decisions made through the administrative appeals
process.
Table 53 shows the total number of applications filed in a year, the number that are pending a final decision,
the number denied for nonmedical reasons before a medical decision is made (technical denials), the outcome of
applications for which a medical allowance or denial was made, and award and allowance rates. Applications for
which a medical allowance or denial decision was made but which were subsequently denied for nonmedical reasons are shown under the medical decision header as subsequent denials. The most common nonmedical reason
for denying a claim is excess income.
The allowance rate is calculated by dividing the number of medical allowances (including subsequent technical
denials) by the total number of medical decisions made for a 1-year cohort. The award rate is a broader program
measure that is calculated as the number of allowances minus subsequent denials divided by total applications
(minus pending claims) filed for a given year.
Claims that remain pending after 6 years are probably the result of imperfect data rather than excessive delays
in the decisionmaking process. It is highly probable that decisions have been rendered on most of the older claims.
For more recent years, the award and allowance rates will change as decisions are made on pending claims.
Tables 54–56 show the allowance rate for SSI only and the SSI portion of concurrent (a claim for both Social
Security and SSI disability benefits) applications, one for each level in the administrative decisionmaking process,
that is, initial, reconsideration, and hearing or higher level.
Beginning with fiscal year 2000, the proportion of claims awarded at each level of the process changed as a
result of the Prototype Process being tested in 10 states. Under this test, the reconsideration step of the appeals
process was eliminated for applications filed October 1, 1999, or later. Elimination of the reconsideration level in
these states results in a decrease in the aggregate proportion of claims awarded at this step.
This section also includes one table that shows the reason for medical allowance and one that shows reason
for medical denial (Tables 57 and 58). The reasons are derived from the sequential evaluation process used by
decisionmakers. SSA maintains a list of impairments that are considered disabling under its regulations. An applicant can be found to be disabled if he or she

has a listed impairment,

has a severe impairment that is equal to a listed impairment,

has a severe impairment when medical and vocational factors are considered, or

had previously established entitlement to a disability benefit.
An applicant can be denied benefits if he or she

has an impairment that is not expected to last 12 months;

has an impairment that is not considered severe;

is able to perform his or her usual type of work;

is able to perform another type of work; or

provides insufficient medical evidence, fails to cooperate, fails to follow prescribed treatment, does not want to
continue development of the claim, or returns to substantial work before disability can be established.

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 53.
Outcomes at all adjudicative levels, by age and year of application, 1992–2003
Medical decisions
Denials
Year

Pending
Total final decision

Technical
denials a

Allowances

Subsequent
Medical nonmedical d

All ages

Subsequent
Awards
denials e

Award
rate b
(percent)

Allowance
rate c
(percent)

f

1992
1993
1994

1,828,951
2,048,945
2,014,499

0
0
0

134,438
141,214
123,175

741,839
937,757
1,041,432

1,556
1,600
1,681

860,875
878,932
770,905

90,243
89,442
77,306

47.1
42.9
38.3

56.1
50.8
44.8

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

1,845,212
1,786,770
1,505,145
1,520,538
1,528,217

0
0
2,222
2,944
4,532

103,335
113,027
97,320
95,990
105,819

995,249
938,577
736,933
699,024
685,649

1,343
1,886
2,074
3,830
4,002

683,787
671,729
605,871
655,925
663,805

61,498
61,551
60,725
62,825
64,410

37.1
37.6
40.3
43.2
43.6

42.8
43.8
47.4
50.6
51.4

2000
2001
2002
2003

1,612,826
1,749,572
1,959,337
2,080,479

10,037
32,375
124,849
251,560

156,525
203,387
279,522
342,535

683,660
709,814
763,028
796,536

3,822
3,491
3,123
2,318

689,861
724,484
715,399
623,017

68,921
76,021
73,416
64,513

43.0
42.2
39.0
34.1

52.5
52.9
50.7
46.3

Under age 18
1992
1993
1994

376,812
500,676
530,538

0
0
0

16,695
18,788
16,897

148,221
240,668
311,137

103
135
147

204,083
232,344
194,655

7,710
8,741
7,702

54.2
46.4
36.7

58.8
50.0
39.4

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

491,638
457,057
334,975
338,592
345,067

0
0
149
208
331

14,364
13,532
10,906
10,904
11,898

306,301
291,273
195,592
182,416
182,155

92
86
69
74
68

163,893
144,662
121,428
137,625
142,803

6,988
7,504
6,831
7,365
7,812

33.3
31.7
36.3
40.7
41.4

35.8
34.3
39.6
44.3
45.3

2000
2001
2002
2003

355,477
375,975
413,007
432,887

786
2,933
12,588
25,676

15,775
18,710
22,759
25,857

179,049
180,138
192,594
196,967

64
61
67
45

151,841
165,612
176,275
175,663

7,962
8,521
8,724
8,679

42.8
44.4
44.0
43.1

47.2
49.1
49.0
48.3
(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 115

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 53.
Outcomes at all adjudicative levels, by age and year of application, 1992–2003—Continued
Medical decisions
Denials
Year

Pending
Total final decision

Technical
denials a

Allowances

Subsequent
Medical nonmedical d

Subsequent
Awards
denials e

Award
rate b
(percent)

Allowance
rate c
(percent)

Aged 18–64
1992
1993
1994

1,451,417
1,547,527
1,482,503

0
0
0

117,675
122,364
106,181

593,455
696,934
729,927

1,451
1,463
1,529

656,374
646,157
575,431

82,462
80,609
69,435

45.2
41.8
38.8

55.4
51.0
46.9

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

1,351,903
1,277,604
1,135,602
1,133,015
1,133,722

0
0
2,067
2,733
4,193

88,839
87,869
78,303
76,709
83,733

688,499
646,659
540,257
514,550
502,164

1,244
1,534
1,456
1,859
1,541

518,981
488,052
460,664
483,286
486,658

54,340
53,490
52,855
53,878
55,433

38.4
38.2
40.6
42.8
43.1

45.4
45.5
48.7
51.0
51.8

2000
2001
2002
2003

1,208,866
1,323,142
1,483,914
1,589,384

9,242
29,412
112,126
225,584

127,968
167,675
231,073
287,615

503,581
528,743
569,433
598,903

1,422
1,388
1,223
862

506,661
529,321
506,260
421,274

59,992
66,603
63,799
55,146

42.2
40.9
36.9
30.9

52.9
52.9
50.0
44.3

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Disability Research File, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Data for the initial and reconsideration levels are current through June 2003. Data for the hearing level or above are current
through September 2003.
Because a number of applications remain pending for more recent years, the award and allowance rates will change over time. Cases
can be pending at the initial or appellate levels and can include either medical or technical issues.
Includes decisions for SSI-only applications and applications for both Social Security and SSI. Does not include Social Security–only
applications.
a. Applications denied for nonmedical reasons so no decision was made on severity of impairment.
b. Rate determined by dividing awards by all applications minus pending claims for that year.
c. Rate determined by dividing medical allowances by all medical decisions for that year.
d. Applications denied for nonmedical reasons after a decision was made that applicant did not meet the medical severity criteria for
disability benefits.
e. Applications denied for nonmedical reasons after a decision was made that applicant met the medical severity criteria for disability
benefits.
f. Includes applicants aged 65 or older.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

116 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 54.
Medical decisions at the initial adjudicative level, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003
Decisions on applications
for SSI only

All decisions

Year

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

All ages

Decisions on applications
for both Social Security and SSI

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

b

1992
1993
1994

1,694,513
1,907,731
1,891,324

686,962
687,630
577,721

40.5
36.0
30.5

946,348
1,106,624
1,105,532

399,334
409,102
335,756

42.2
37.0
30.4

748,165
801,107
785,792

287,628
278,528
241,965

38.4
34.8
30.8

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

1,741,877
1,673,743
1,407,825
1,424,548
1,422,398

507,742
508,931
459,297
520,690
531,498

29.1
30.4
32.6
36.6
37.4

1,037,201
1,000,530
820,527
843,671
843,031

291,168
296,655
260,354
304,856
312,871

28.1
29.6
31.7
36.1
37.1

704,676
673,213
587,298
580,877
579,367

216,574
212,276
198,943
215,834
218,627

30.7
31.5
33.9
37.2
37.7

2000
2001
2002
2003

1,456,301
1,546,185
1,679,661
1,737,617

556,990
595,925
617,833
620,985

38.2
38.5
36.8
35.7

845,623
860,922
914,195
923,377

321,029
338,218
349,514
346,539

38.0
39.3
38.2
37.5

610,678
685,263
765,466
814,240

235,961
257,707
268,319
274,446

38.6
37.6
35.1
33.7

Under age 18
1992
1993
1994

360,117
481,888
513,641

194,494
218,724
177,660

54.0
45.4
34.6

329,316
443,778
475,233

176,929
200,206
164,436

53.7
45.1
34.6

30,801
38,110
38,408

17,565
18,518
13,224

57.0
48.6
34.4

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

477,274
443,525
324,069
327,688
333,169

149,140
133,375
112,387
129,729
135,117

31.2
30.1
34.7
39.6
40.6

443,367
413,379
302,540
306,164
310,763

138,959
124,846
105,366
121,371
126,253

31.3
30.2
34.8
39.6
40.6

33,907
30,146
21,529
21,524
22,406

10,181
8,529
7,021
8,358
8,864

30.0
28.3
32.6
38.8
39.6

2000
2001
2002
2003

339,702
357,265
390,189
407,014

143,267
157,730
170,383
176,076

42.2
44.1
43.7
43.3

316,328
332,724
364,573
383,098

133,426
146,688
159,492
166,513

42.2
44.1
43.7
43.5

23,374
24,541
25,616
23,916

9,841
11,042
10,891
9,563

42.1
45.0
42.5
40.0
(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 117

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 54.
Medical decisions at the initial adjudicative level, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003—Continued
Decisions on applications
for SSI only

All decisions

Year

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Decisions on applications
for both Social Security and SSI

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Aged 18–64
1992
1993
1994

1,333,742
1,425,163
1,376,322

492,046
468,477
399,267

36.9
32.9
29.0

616,523
662,298
629,051

222,077
208,554
170,618

36.0
31.5
27.1

717,219
762,865
747,271

269,969
259,923
228,649

37.6
34.1
30.6

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

1,263,064
1,189,735
1,057,299
1,056,306
1,049,989

357,732
338,209
324,213
356,592
362,246

28.3
28.4
30.7
33.8
34.5

592,390
555,158
498,637
506,024
502,870

151,417
142,505
139,003
157,861
162,036

25.6
25.7
27.9
31.2
32.2

670,674
634,577
558,662
550,282
547,119

206,315
195,704
185,210
198,731
200,210

30.8
30.8
33.2
36.1
36.6

2000
2001
2002
2003

1,080,898
1,155,467
1,252,746
1,301,460

382,587
408,901
414,967
418,843

35.4
35.4
33.1
32.2

503,636
505,101
524,524
523,442

166,188
172,232
168,800
165,948

33.0
34.1
32.2
31.7

577,262
650,366
728,222
778,018

216,399
236,669
246,167
252,895

37.5
36.4
33.8
32.5

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Disability Research File, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Data are current through June 2003.
Because a number of applications remain pending for more recent years, the award and allowance rates will change over time.
Applications with a medical decision may be pending a final nonmedical decision or subsequently denied for nonmedical reasons.
a. Rate determined by dividing medical allowances by all medical decisions for that year.
b. Includes applicants aged 65 or older.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

118 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 55.
Medical decisions at the reconsideration level, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003
Decisions on applications
for SSI only

All decisions

Year

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

All ages

Decisions on applications
for both Social Security and SSI

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

b

1992
1993
1994

479,152
557,384
571,602

74,500
75,559
73,734

15.5
13.6
12.9

234,057
280,174
290,341

38,371
38,663
36,826

16.4
13.8
12.7

245,095
277,210
281,261

36,129
36,896
36,908

14.7
13.3
13.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

522,987
480,593
409,396
390,212
382,196

66,780
65,355
62,505
61,271
55,635

12.8
13.6
15.3
15.7
14.6

275,013
249,224
208,993
203,132
197,671

33,432
32,511
31,881
31,818
28,501

12.2
13.0
15.3
15.7
14.4

247,974
231,369
200,403
187,080
184,525

33,348
32,844
30,624
29,453
27,134

13.4
14.2
15.3
15.7
14.7

2000
2001
2002
2003

382,757
407,299
453,821
396,677

53,166
53,499
54,818
39,059

13.9
13.1
12.1
9.8

192,285
190,634
205,410
173,805

26,456
25,401
25,616
18,738

13.8
13.3
12.5
10.8

190,472
216,665
248,411
222,872

26,710
28,098
29,202
20,321

14.0
13.0
11.8
9.1

Under age 18
1992
1993
1994

49,099
75,816
91,854

9,570
11,440
11,475

19.5
15.1
12.5

44,562
69,176
83,789

8,590
10,355
10,461

19.3
15.0
12.5

4,537
6,640
8,065

980
1,085
1,014

21.6
16.3
12.6

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

86,651
74,836
51,365
49,909
49,456

10,459
9,646
8,583
8,042
7,476

12.1
12.9
16.7
16.1
15.1

79,397
68,797
47,131
45,989
45,465

9,625
8,863
7,883
7,417
6,839

12.1
12.9
16.7
16.1
15.0

7,254
6,039
4,234
3,920
3,991

834
783
700
625
637

11.5
13.0
16.5
15.9
16.0

2000
2001
2002
2003

48,361
49,495
55,949
49,915

7,514
7,649
8,214
6,686

15.5
15.5
14.7
13.4

44,462
45,567
51,738
46,552

6,951
7,069
7,602
6,306

15.6
15.5
14.7
13.5

3,899
3,928
4,211
3,363

563
580
612
380

14.4
14.8
14.5
11.3
(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 119

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 55.
Medical decisions at the reconsideration level, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003—Continued
Decisions on applications
for SSI only

All decisions

Year

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Decisions on applications
for both Social Security and SSI

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Aged 18–64
1992
1993
1994

429,944
481,434
479,439

64,891
64,074
62,150

15.1
13.3
13.0

189,409
210,882
206,253

29,744
28,268
26,260

15.7
13.4
12.7

240,535
270,552
273,186

35,147
35,806
35,890

14.6
13.2
13.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

435,988
403,309
355,514
337,411
330,830

56,205
54,197
52,597
51,764
47,254

12.9
13.4
14.8
15.3
14.3

195,281
178,404
159,694
154,436
150,460

23,695
22,458
22,951
23,051
20,864

12.1
12.6
14.4
14.9
13.9

240,707
224,905
195,820
182,975
180,370

32,510
31,739
29,646
28,713
26,390

13.5
14.1
15.1
15.7
14.6

2000
2001
2002
2003

332,767
356,236
396,041
345,549

44,891
45,104
45,694
31,796

13.5
12.7
11.5
9.2

146,383
143,740
152,102
126,274

18,874
17,767
17,310
12,038

12.9
12.4
11.4
9.5

186,384
212,496
243,939
219,275

26,017
27,337
28,384
19,758

14.0
12.9
11.6
9.0

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Disability Research File, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Data are current through June 2003.
Because a number of applications remain pending for more recent years, the award and allowance rates will change over time.
Applications with a medical decision may be pending a final nonmedical decision or subsequently denied for nonmedical reasons.
A revised process was introduced on October 1, 1999, in 10 states, under which initial denials could be appealed directly to the hearing
level without a reconsideration.
a. Rate determined by dividing medical allowances by all medical decisions for that year.
b. Includes applicants aged 65 or older.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

120 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 56.
Medical decisions at the hearing level or above, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003
Decisions on applications
for SSI only

All decisions

Year

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

All ages

Decisions on applications
for both Social Security and SSI

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

b

1992
1993
1994

280,751
327,271
333,329

189,656
205,185
196,756

67.6
62.7
59.0

128,789
153,126
156,584

79,307
85,195
80,594

61.6
55.6
51.5

151,962
174,145
176,745

110,349
119,990
116,162

72.6
68.9
65.7

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

300,958
271,974
236,513
221,810
226,982

170,763
158,994
144,794
136,789
141,082

56.7
58.5
61.2
61.7
62.2

145,570
128,711
111,233
106,325
109,077

70,419
64,352
59,609
57,717
59,306

48.4
50.0
53.6
54.3
54.4

155,388
143,263
125,280
115,485
117,905

100,344
94,642
85,185
79,072
81,776

64.6
66.1
68.0
68.5
69.4

2000
2001
2002
2003

241,253
242,041
182,358
42,332

148,626
151,081
116,164
27,486

61.6
62.4
63.7
64.9

114,612
107,306
77,514
18,594

60,942
57,189
41,687
9,804

53.2
53.3
53.8
52.7

126,641
134,735
104,844
23,738

87,684
93,892
74,477
17,682

69.2
69.7
71.0
74.5

Under age 18
1992
1993
1994

19,988
31,658
38,751

7,729
10,921
13,222

38.7
34.5
34.1

17,979
28,625
34,869

6,890
9,784
11,860

38.3
34.2
34.0

2,009
3,033
3,882

839
1,137
1,362

41.8
37.5
35.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

35,856
28,105
19,400
18,696
20,572

11,282
9,145
7,289
7,219
8,022

31.5
32.5
37.6
38.6
39.0

32,428
25,589
17,584
17,014
18,691

10,128
8,288
6,584
6,523
7,241

31.2
32.4
37.4
38.3
38.7

3,428
2,516
1,816
1,682
1,881

1,154
857
705
696
781

33.7
34.1
38.8
41.4
41.5

2000
2001
2002
2003

23,792
23,224
16,916
3,930

9,022
8,754
6,402
1,580

37.9
37.7
37.8
40.2

21,643
21,200
15,567
3,672

8,120
7,909
5,876
1,492

37.5
37.3
37.7
40.6

2,149
2,024
1,349
258

902
845
526
88

42.0
41.7
39.0
34.1
(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 121

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 56.
Medical decisions at the hearing level or above, by age, year of application,
and program, 1992–2003—Continued
Decisions on applications
for SSI only

All decisions

Year

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Decisions on applications
for both Social Security and SSI

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Total

Allowances

Allowance
rate a
(percent)

Aged 18–64
1992
1993
1994

260,727
295,551
294,441

181,899
194,215
183,449

69.8
65.7
62.3

110,785
124,445
121,584

72,398
75,368
68,654

65.4
60.6
56.5

149,942
171,106
172,857

109,501
118,847
114,795

73.0
69.5
66.4

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

264,954
243,061
216,158
202,154
205,811

159,384
149,136
136,709
128,808
132,591

60.2
61.4
63.2
63.7
64.4

113,002
102,413
92,759
88,400
89,833

60,201
55,445
52,283
50,476
51,636

53.3
54.1
56.4
57.1
57.5

151,952
140,648
123,399
113,754
115,978

99,183
93,691
84,426
78,332
80,955

65.3
66.6
68.4
68.9
69.8

2000
2001
2002
2003

216,881
218,279
164,926
38,215

139,175
141,919
109,398
25,781

64.2
65.0
66.3
67.5

92,439
85,613
61,468
14,756

52,434
48,904
35,475
8,207

56.7
57.1
57.7
55.6

124,442
132,666
103,458
23,459

86,741
93,015
73,923
17,574

69.7
70.1
71.5
74.9

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Disability Research File, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Data are current through September 2003.
Because a number of applications remain pending for more recent years, the award and allowance rates will change over time.
Applications with a medical decision may be pending a final nonmedical decision or subsequently denied for nonmedical reasons.
A revised process was introduced on October 1, 1999, in 10 states, under which initial denials could be appealed directly to the hearing
level without a reconsideration.
a. Rate determined by dividing medical allowances by all medical decisions for that year.
b. Includes applicants aged 65 or older.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

122 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 57.
Percentage distribution of final medical allowances, by age, year of application,
and reason for allowance, 1992–2003
Under age 18 only

Total
Year

Number

Percent

Meets level
of severity
of listings a

Medically
equals level
of severity
of listings

Aged 18 or older only

Functionally
equals level
of severity
of listings

All ages

Equals level
of severity
of listings

Medical and
vocational
factors
considered

Other

a,b

c

1992
1993
1994

951,118
968,374
848,211

100.0
100.0
100.0

36.6
36.5
36.8

1.5
1.5
1.5

1.3
1.6
2.1

7.5
5.5
4.4

18.6
17.4
18.1

34.4
37.6
37.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

745,285
733,280
666,596
718,750
728,215

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

35.8
35.9
37.6
38.3
36.7

1.6
1.8
1.8
1.9
2.0

2.5
3.3
4.3
4.8
5.3

4.3
4.4
4.7
4.2
4.0

18.6
17.4
18.4
20.1
20.9

37.2
37.2
33.3
30.8
31.2

2000
2001
2002
2003

758,782
800,505
788,815
687,530

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

35.2
35.3
35.8
39.6

1.9
1.8
1.8
2.1

6.1
7.1
8.6
11.0

4.2
4.2
4.0
4.4

21.5
22.5
23.3
26.0

31.0
29.0
26.5
17.0

Under age 18
1992
1993
1994

211,793
241,085
202,357

100.0
100.0
100.0

48.3
44.9
45.6

6.9
5.9
6.5

5.9
6.4
8.6

...
...
...

...
...
...

38.9
42.7
39.3

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

170,881
152,166
128,259
144,990
150,615

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

44.8
52.7
55.8
55.6
53.2

7.0
8.7
9.2
9.6
9.8

11.0
16.0
22.1
23.6
25.8

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

37.2
22.6
12.9
11.1
11.2

2000
2001
2002
2003

159,803
174,133
184,999
184,342

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

50.2
48.5
45.9
45.2

9.2
8.3
7.8
7.7

29.0
32.5
36.6
41.1

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

11.6
10.7
9.7
6.0
(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 123

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 57.
Percentage distribution of final medical allowances, by age, year of application,
and reason for allowance, 1992–2003—Continued
Under age 18 only

Total
Year

Number

Percent

Meets level
of severity
of listings a

Medically
equals level
of severity
of listings

Aged 18 or older only

Functionally
equals level
of severity
of listings

Equals level
of severity
of listings

Medical and
vocational
factors
considered

Other

a,b

Aged 18–64
1992
1993
1994

738,836
726,766
644,866

100.0
100.0
100.0

33.3
33.7
34.0

...
...
...

...
...
...

9.7
7.3
5.8

23.9
23.1
23.8

33.2
35.9
36.4

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

573,321
541,542
513,519
537,164
542,091

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

33.2
33.7
34.5
35.6
34.1

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

5.6
5.9
6.1
5.5
5.3

24.0
23.3
22.6
23.9
25.2

37.2
37.1
36.8
35.0
35.5

2000
2001
2002
2003

566,653
595,924
570,059
476,420

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

32.7
33.1
34.5
39.5

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

5.6
5.7
5.5
6.3

26.5
28.3
30.3
35.9

35.2
32.9
29.8
18.3

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Disability Research File, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Data for the initial and reconsideration levels are current through June 2003. Data for the hearing level or above are current
through September 2003.
Because a number of applications remain pending for more recent years, the numbers and percentages will change over time.
Applications with a medical decision may be pending a final nonmedical decision or subsequently denied for nonmedical reasons.
Includes decisions for SSI-only applications and applications for both Social Security and SSI. Does not include Social Security–only
applications.
. . . = not applicable.
a. Includes all age groups.
b. Includes applications for which the disability was previously established and those for which the basis for the determination is not
available. For final determinations made in or before August 1996 for applicants under age 18, also includes applications allowed
because individual functional assessment showed impairment of comparable severity.
c. Includes applicants aged 65 or older.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

124 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 58.
Percentage distribution of final medical denials, by age, year of application,
and reason for denial, 1992–2003

Total
Year

Number

Impairment
Impairment did
does not
not or is not
cause severe
expected to Impairment is
functional
not severe
limitations a
Percent last 12 months

All ages

Able to do
usual past
work b

Able to do
other type of
work b

Other

c

d

1992
1993
1994

743,395
939,357
1,043,113

100.0
100.0
100.0

7.3
6.6
6.2

22.1
21.2
20.7

...
...
...

17.5
15.4
13.6

26.3
24.8
23.3

26.9
31.9
36.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

996,592
940,463
739,007
702,854
689,651

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6.2
6.4
6.9
6.9
6.7

19.7
20.6
16.7
15.0
14.0

...
5.8
16.2
18.3
19.1

12.4
12.1
13.0
14.6
15.5

22.4
22.9
25.1
25.3
24.5

39.2
32.2
22.1
19.9
20.2

2000
2001
2002
2003

687,482
713,305
766,151
798,854

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

6.5
6.1
5.8
5.3

13.4
13.2
13.0
12.0

18.8
18.4
18.4
18.5

15.7
16.4
16.4
16.6

24.1
25.7
25.6
26.2

21.6
20.0
20.8
21.4

Under age 18
1992
1993
1994

148,324
240,803
311,284

100.0
100.0
100.0

1.5
1.3
1.4

22.7
21.8
22.4

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

75.8
76.9
76.2

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

306,393
291,359
195,661
182,490
182,223

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.3
1.4
1.6
1.3
1.1

21.8
26.9
19.1
14.5
13.3

...
18.7
61.4
70.6
72.4

...
...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...
...

76.9
53.0
18.0
13.7
13.2

2000
2001
2002
2003

179,113
180,199
192,661
197,012

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

1.1
1.1
1.0
1.0

13.2
14.1
13.6
12.5

72.1
72.9
73.2
74.9

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

13.6
12.0
12.2
11.6
(Continued)

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 125

Outcomes of Applications for Disability Benefits
Table 58.
Percentage distribution of final medical denials, by age, year of application,
and reason for denial, 1992–2003—Continued

Total
Year

Number

Impairment
Impairment did
does not
not or is not
cause severe
expected to Impairment is
functional
not severe
limitations a
Percent last 12 months

Able to do
usual past
work b

Able to do
other type of
work b

Other

c

Aged 18–64
1992
1993
1994

594,906
698,397
731,456

100.0
100.0
100.0

8.8
8.4
8.3

21.9
21.0
20.0

...
...
...

21.8
20.7
19.4

32.8
33.4
33.2

14.7
16.4
19.1

1995
1996
1997
1998
1999

689,743
648,193
541,713
516,409
503,705

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.4
8.6
8.8
8.9
8.7

18.8
17.8
15.8
14.9
14.1

...
...
...
...
...

17.9
17.5
17.7
19.7
21.0

32.4
33.3
34.2
34.4
33.5

22.5
22.8
23.6
22.0
22.7

2000
2001
2002
2003

505,003
530,131
570,656
599,765

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

8.4
7.9
7.4
6.8

13.2
12.8
12.8
11.7

...
...
...
...

21.2
22.0
21.9
22.0

32.8
34.6
34.3
34.9

24.4
22.7
23.6
24.6

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Disability Research File, 100 percent data.
NOTES: Data for the initial and reconsideration levels are current through June 2003. Data for the hearing level or above are current
through September 2003.
Because a number of applications remain pending for more recent years, the numbers and percentages will change over time.
Applications with a medical decision may be pending a final nonmedical decision or subsequently denied for nonmedical reasons.
Includes decisions for SSI-only applications and applications for both Social Security and SSI. Does not include Social Security–only
applications.
. . . = not applicable.
a. Used only for applicants under age 18. Category effective for final determinations made August 1996 or later.
b. Used only for applicants aged 18 or older.
c. Applicant provided insufficient evidence, failed to cooperate, failed to follow prescribed treatment, did not want to continue development
of the claim, or returned to substantial work before disability could be established. For final determinations made August 1996 or before
for applicants under age 18, also includes claims denied because individual functional assessment showed impairment not of
comparable severity.
d. Includes applicants aged 65 or older.
CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

126 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Suspensions

Suspensions
Table 59.
Suspensions, by age of recipient and reason for suspension, 1996–2004
Presump- No repreWhereIn
abouts
Excess tive dis- sentative In public
Medicaid
payee institution
ability
facility unknown resources
Death

Failed to
furnish
report

Outside
United
States

In
transi- No longer
tion disabled

Year

Total

Excess
income

1996
1997
1998
1999

1,243,200
1,259,500
1,140,100
1,203,600

570,200
525,700
524,200
552,100

211,300
194,700
201,100
195,300

47,100
45,300
49,500
46,300

72,700
87,000
90,900
88,600

37,600
35,500
37,000
43,700

2,900
2,000
2,200
2,200

41,600
37,500
34,400
37,300

61,500
54,800
50,000
59,000

14,000
21,000
28,200
37,700

23,200
19,800
18,800
21,100

11,300
18,500
15,300
3,300

117,000
193,800
81,500
108,800

32,800
23,900
7,000
8,200

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

1,220,200
1,238,800
1,295,200
1,257,900
1,303,100

562,200
575,900
596,400
579,700
614,700

203,400
193,500
202,700
194,500
195,600

49,400
50,000
50,000
45,100
44,300

94,000
106,600
105,200
119,900
122,600

39,000
48,400
46,800
47,000
45,700

2,000
2,700
2,800
2,500
2,000

37,200
37,100
33,200
32,700
34,600

59,100
64,300
64,900
64,700
69,200

50,200
51,900
53,600
45,600
47,700

22,700
19,600
21,600
22,100
26,100

...
7,400
6,600
7,500
6,500

90,600
67,500
90,600
74,800
70,200

10,400
13,900
20,800
21,800
23,900

Other

All ages

Under age 18
1996
1997
1998
1999

198,000
336,500
198,700
231,500

124,100
104,000
98,200
106,300

6,600
4,600
5,400
5,000

1,100
900
1,000
900

10,800
15,800
13,800
16,700

9,200
7,300
7,200
7,300

1,200
700
700
1,000

17,900
17,400
14,100
14,300

6,600
6,100
4,200
4,600

5,600
8,200
10,000
15,200

1,100
900
600
a

2,000
3,900
3,000
a

6,800
160,600
39,100
57,800

5,000
6,100
1,400
1,300

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

224,100
203,200
233,800
218,300
225,600

112,700
107,400
116,100
115,500
110,900

6,400
5,100
5,700
4,000
5,500

1,000
900
900
800
1,100

18,300
17,500
22,000
23,900
30,400

6,600
9,100
9,800
9,300
9,000

a
700
700
a
a

15,800
14,800
13,300
13,700
13,000

3,300
3,300
4,500
4,300
3,800

19,400
17,800
22,200
19,600
20,000

a
a
600
a
1,000

...
a
...
a
a

38,200
24,700
36,900
24,900
28,400

1,300
1,000
1,100
1,000
1,600

Aged 18–64
1996
1997
1998
1999

756,900
652,100
662,200
697,700

371,400
355,300
358,000
375,200

87,100
79,300
77,200
78,600

13,000
12,800
14,700
10,400

40,100
48,200
53,600
52,800

16,900
17,100
18,600
22,400

1,700
1,300
1,500
1,200

20,900
18,000
18,500
21,100

53,400
47,600
44,800
53,300

6,600
9,900
14,500
17,500

4,500
5,400
5,900
6,000

6,500
10,600
8,100
2,100

110,200
33,200
42,400
51,000

24,600
13,400
4,400
6,100

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

719,600
760,200
793,100
772,700
804,100

385,100
403,000
421,800
403,900
433,400

84,500
81,900
88,200
87,200
87,100

12,600
14,700
14,200
12,800
14,000

53,700
64,300
59,900
69,100
66,900

19,600
24,200
22,900
23,000
22,800

1,500
2,000
2,100
2,000
1,300

19,400
20,600
18,800
17,000
20,300

54,500
60,100
59,100
59,400
64,700

24,400
26,300
25,500
19,500
20,700

4,300
4,200
4,200
4,800
5,900

...
4,900
4,100
5,100
4,600

52,400
42,800
53,700
49,800
41,800

7,600
11,200
18,600
19,100
20,600

1996
1997
1998
1999

288,300
270,900
279,200
274,400

74,700
66,400
68,000
70,600

117,600
110,800
118,500
111,700

33,000
31,600
33,800
35,000

21,800
23,000
23,500
19,100

11,500
11,100
11,200
14,000

...
...
...
...

2,800
2,100
1,800
1,900

1,500
1,100
1,000
1,100

1,800
2,900
3,700
5,000

17,600
13,500
12,300
14,300

2,800
4,000
4,200
900

...
...
...
...

3,200
4,400
1,200
800

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

276,500
275,400
268,300
266,900
273,400

64,400
65,500
58,500
60,300
70,400

112,500
106,500
108,800
103,300
103,000

35,800
34,400
34,900
31,500
29,200

22,000
24,800
23,300
26,900
25,300

12,800
15,100
14,100
14,700
13,900

...
...
...
...
...

2,000
1,700
1,100
2,000
1,300

1,300
900
1,300
a
700

6,400
7,800
5,900
6,500
7,000

17,800
15,000
16,800
17,000
19,200

...
2,000
2,500
1,900
1,700

...
...
...
a
...

1,500
1,700
1,100
1,700
1,700

Aged 65 or older

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 1 percent sample.
NOTES: Includes multiple suspensions per person.
. . . = not applicable.
a. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 129

Suspensions
Table 60.
Recipients suspended, by age and reason for suspension, 1996–2004
Presump- No repreWhereIn
abouts
Excess tive dis- sentative In public
Medicaid
payee institution
ability
facility unknown resources
Death

Failed to
furnish
report

Outside
United
States

In
transi- No longer
tion disabled

Year

Total

Excess
income

1996
1997
1998
1999

1,125,400
1,157,000
1,052,700
1,092,700

484,100
449,400
457,300
461,300

211,300
194,700
201,100
195,300

44,800
42,100
47,900
44,600

66,700
80,300
83,900
82,800

36,000
34,300
35,800
42,900

2,500
1,900
1,900
1,900

34,500
32,300
30,900
34,600

55,800
51,200
47,600
55,000

13,400
18,100
26,100
35,600

22,900
19,200
18,100
20,800

10,900
17,700
14,300
3,300

116,100
193,200
80,900
107,200

26,400
22,600
6,900
7,400

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

1,109,900
1,123,300
1,175,500
1,148,900
1,192,900

472,900
485,500
509,100
499,600
533,200

203,400
193,500
202,700
194,500
195,600

46,900
47,500
48,100
43,500
43,100

87,000
97,000
96,000
110,500
113,900

38,000
47,500
45,500
45,800
44,600

2,000
2,500
2,600
2,300
1,900

35,000
33,900
27,700
30,500
30,600

56,100
59,600
59,000
59,800
64,200

47,300
49,500
47,500
41,200
43,800

22,000
19,100
20,800
21,400
25,000

...
7,300
6,300
7,500
6,500

89,500
66,900
90,100
72,200
68,200

9,800
13,500
20,100
20,100
22,300

Other

All ages

Under age 18
1996
1997
1998
1999

160,500
299,500
169,900
197,200

90,300
75,100
73,300
77,000

6,600
4,600
5,400
5,000

1,100
900
900
900

9,800
14,200
12,800
15,400

8,700
6,800
6,600
7,000

1,000
700
600
800

16,700
14,200
13,000
13,800

6,500
5,800
4,000
3,900

5,400
6,900
9,400
14,200

1,100
800
600
a

1,900
3,500
2,900
a

6,800
160,300
39,000
57,100

4,600
5,700
1,400
1,200

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

183,800
167,000
191,400
177,700
183,800

76,500
75,200
81,200
79,900
76,100

6,400
5,100
5,700
4,000
5,500

1,000
800
800
800
900

16,900
15,700
20,700
22,300
28,500

6,300
9,000
9,400
8,700
8,800

a
700
700
a
a

15,100
13,800
10,900
13,300
11,900

3,200
3,000
4,200
4,300
3,400

18,100
17,300
19,300
18,000
17,700

a
a
600
a
900

...
a
...
a
a

38,000
24,700
36,900
24,300
27,600

1,200
1,000
1,000
900
1,600

Aged 18–64
1996
1997
1998
1999

688,400
599,200
614,800
633,200

327,600
317,100
324,100
323,800

87,100
79,300
77,200
78,600

11,300
10,700
13,600
9,300

36,600
44,100
49,300
49,200

16,100
16,800
18,400
22,000

1,500
1,200
1,300
1,100

15,200
16,200
16,300
19,000

47,900
44,300
42,600
50,000

6,300
8,500
13,000
16,500

4,400
5,200
5,400
6,000

6,400
10,200
7,400
2,100

109,300
32,900
41,900
50,100

18,700
12,700
4,300
5,500

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

662,600
693,000
726,100
712,800
714,900

340,600
353,300
375,100
363,700
392,800

84,500
81,900
88,200
87,200
87,100

11,100
13,000
13,200
11,500
13,200

49,400
58,200
54,000
63,100
61,300

19,300
23,700
22,500
22,700
22,300

1,500
1,800
1,900
1,900
1,200

18,100
18,400
15,700
15,200
17,500

51,600
55,700
53,700
54,500
60,100

23,500
24,800
22,500
17,600
19,300

4,200
4,200
4,200
4,800
5,800

...
4,900
3,900
5,100
4,600

51,500
42,200
53,200
47,800
40,600

7,300
10,900
18,000
17,700
19,100

1996
1997
1998
1999

276,500
258,300
268,000
262,300

66,200
57,200
59,900
60,500

117,600
110,800
118,500
111,700

32,400
30,500
33,400
34,400

20,300
22,000
21,800
18,200

11,200
10,700
10,800
13,900

...
...
...
...

2,600
1,900
1,600
1,800

1,400
1,100
1,000
1,100

1,700
2,700
3,700
4,900

17,400
13,200
12,100
14,200

2,600
4,000
4,000
900

...
...
...
...

3,100
4,200
1,200
700

2000
2001
2002
2003
2004

263,500
263,300
258,000
258,400
264,200

55,800
57,000
52,800
56,000
64,300

112,500
106,500
108,800
103,300
103,000

34,800
33,700
34,100
31,200
29,000

20,700
23,100
21,300
25,100
24,100

12,400
14,800
13,600
14,400
13,500

...
...
...
...
...

1,800
1,700
1,100
2,000
1,200

1,300
900
1,100
a
700

5,700
7,400
5,700
5,600
6,800

17,200
14,600
16,000
16,300
18,300

...
2,000
2,400
1,900
1,700

...
...
...
a
...

1,300
1,600
1,100
1,500
1,600

Aged 65 or older

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 1 percent sample.
NOTE:

. . . = not applicable.

a. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

130 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Suspensions
Table 61.
Recipients suspended for at least 12 months, by age and reason for suspension, 1996–2003
Presump- No repreWhereIn
abouts
Excess tive dis- sentative In public
Medicaid
payee institution
ability
facility unknown resources
Death

Failed to
furnish
report

Outside
United
States

In
transi- No longer
tion disabled

Year

Total

Excess
income

1996
1997
1998
1999

759,900
770,000
681,500
699,000

302,500
282,100
285,500
282,800

211,300
194,700
201,100
195,300

36,400
31,300
38,900
36,100

22,800
27,400
22,900
22,800

21,400
19,200
18,600
24,200

1,100
700
700
700

6,100
5,600
5,000
4,800

28,200
25,300
19,700
20,600

5,400
9,400
9,000
13,500

15,900
12,700
10,100
11,700

3,800
4,800
2,400
2,000

90,700
152,100
63,300
80,000

14,300
4,700
4,300
4,500

2000
2001
2002
2003

695,500
674,000
722,500
684,800

284,900
284,300
311,900
315,000

203,400
193,500
202,700
188,800

35,500
37,000
36,600
33,900

23,800
21,600
22,200
24,200

20,200
25,700
24,500
22,700

1,000
1,100
1,100
1,500

5,400
4,800
3,900
3,700

20,500
20,500
20,700
19,700

15,100
15,500
14,200
12,600

10,300
9,700
10,400
9,800

2,700
5,400
4,900
4,700

66,500
47,800
60,300
39,200

6,200
7,100
9,100
9,000

Other

All ages

Under age 18
1996
1997
1998
1999

70,300
157,900
82,200
95,500

35,800
31,500
28,700
25,100

6,600
4,600
5,400
5,000

a
a
a
a

2,700
5,100
3,700
3,700

5,400
3,600
2,900
5,000

a
...
a
a

2,700
1,800
2,500
2,200

4,000
1,900
2,100
2,100

2,500
3,000
3,200
5,300

700
600
500
a

a
a
a
a

6,300
104,400
31,200
45,000

2,600
1,100
1,000
900

2000
2001
2002
2003

80,200
68,400
83,100
63,700

24,100
23,400
27,900
25,600

6,400
5,100
5,700
3,700

a
a
a
a

4,100
4,200
4,800
3,900

3,700
5,900
5,700
5,000

a
a
...
a

3,000
2,000
2,300
2,500

1,600
1,500
1,400
1,800

6,600
5,900
6,500
5,200

a
a
a
a

a
a
...
a

28,800
18,700
27,500
14,100

1,000
700
700
800

1996
1997
1998
1999

466,900
408,300
388,500
397,900

222,600
212,000
220,100
221,300

87,100
79,300
77,200
78,600

7,000
5,800
8,800
6,100

11,300
12,500
10,000
10,800

9,500
9,700
9,200
11,700

900
700
a
a

2,600
3,100
1,900
2,200

23,400
22,900
17,000
17,700

2,300
5,100
4,300
6,100

3,100
3,700
3,500
3,800

2,700
3,300
a
a

84,400
47,700
32,100
35,000

10,000
2,500
2,800
3,300

2000
2001
2002
2003

414,900
409,200
446,400
431,400

228,200
229,300
254,800
256,900

84,500
81,900
88,200
83,700

5,700
7,900
8,200
7,100

12,600
9,600
9,900
11,900

9,900
11,800
11,800
10,400

800
800
1,100
1,300

1,800
2,100
1,300
900

18,200
18,700
18,900
17,400

7,100
7,400
6,700
4,600

2,300
2,200
2,100
2,100

1,500
3,100
2,900
2,800

37,700
29,100
32,800
25,100

4,600
5,300
7,700
7,200

Aged 18–64

Aged 65 or older
1996
1997
1998
1999

222,700
203,800
210,800
205,600

44,100
38,600
36,700
36,400

117,600
110,800
118,500
111,700

28,900
25,400
29,600
29,900

8,800
9,800
9,200
8,300

6,500
5,900
6,500
7,500

...
...
...
...

800
a
a
a

800
a
600
800

600
1,300
1,500
2,100

12,100
8,400
6,100
7,500

800
1,300
1,000
700

...
...
...
...

1,700
1,100
a
a

2000
2001
2002
2003

200,400
196,400
193,000
189,700

32,600
31,600
29,200
32,500

112,500
106,500
108,800
101,400

29,600
28,700
28,000
26,400

7,100
7,800
7,500
8,400

6,600
8,000
7,000
7,300

...
...
...
...

600
a
a
a

700
a
a
a

1,400
2,200
1,000
2,800

7,800
7,400
8,100
7,600

900
2,100
2,000
1,500

...
...
...
...

600
1,100
700
1,000

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 1 percent sample.
NOTES: Data are obtained by following recipients in Table 60 for 12 months.
. . . = not applicable.
a. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals.
CONTACT: Alfreda Brooks (410) 965-9849 or ssi.asr@ssa.gov.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 131

Appendix and Glossary

Appendix:
Sampling Variability
Estimates based on sample data may differ from the
figures that would have been obtained had all, rather
than specified samples, of the records been used.
These differences are termed sampling variability. The
standard error is a measure of the sampling variability.
About 68 percent of all possible probability samples
selected with the same specifications will give estimates within one standard error of the figure obtained
from a compilation of all records. Similarly, approximately 90 percent will give estimates within 1.645 standard errors, about 95 percent will give estimates within
two standard errors, and about 99 percent will give estimates within two and one-half standard errors. The
standard error of an estimate depends on the design
elements such as the method of sampling, sample
size, and the estimation process.
Because of the large number of data cells tabulated from the sample files, it is not practical to calculate the standard error for every possible cell. However,
standard errors for a large number of cells were estimated. These estimates were used to fit regression
curves to provide estimates of approximate standard
errors associated with tabulated counts and proportions.
The tables showing the sampling variability provide
a general order of magnitude for similar estimates from
the various sample files. Table A-1 presents approximate standard errors for the estimated number of persons from the 1 percent and the 10 percent files. The
reliability of an estimated percentage depends on both
the size of the percentage and on the size of the total
on which the percentage is based. Data in Table A-2
provide approximations of the standard errors of the
estimated percentage of persons in the 1 percent and
10 percent files. The standard errors are expressed in
percentage points, and the bases shown are in terms
of inflated data.

Table A-1.
Approximations of standard errors of estimated
number of persons
Size of estimate (inflated)

Standard error

1 percent file
500

250

1,000

300

2,500

500

5,000

800

7,500

900

10,000

1,100

25,000

1,700

50,000

2,400

75,000

3,000

100,000

3,400

250,000

5,400

500,000

7,800

750,000

9,600

1,000,000

11,100

5,000,000

25,800

10,000,000

36,900

25,000,000

57,700

50,000,000

76,100

75,000,000

82,900

10 percent file
100
500

30
70

1,000

100

5,000

225

10,000

300

50,000

700

100,000

1,000

500,000

2,200

1,000,000

3,200

2,000,000

4,300

3,000,000

5,300

5,000,000

6,500

10,000,000

8,500

20,000,000

9,300

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 135

Table A-2.
Approximations of standard errors of estimated
percentage of persons
Size of base
(inflated)

2 or 98 5 or 95

10 or
90

25 or
75

50

1 percent file
1,000

4.7

7.3

10.1

14.5

16.8

10,000

1.5

2.3

3.2

4.6

5.3

50,000

0.7

1.0

1.4

2.1

2.4

100,000

0.5

0.7

1.0

1.5

1.7

500,000

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.7

0.8

1,000,000

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.5

0.5

5,000,000

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

10,000,000

a

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

50,000,000

a

a

a

0.1

0.1

100,000,000

a

a

a

a

a

10 percent file
500

1.9

3.0

4.1

5.9

6.8

1,000

1.3

2.1

2.9

4.1

4.8

2,500

0.8

1.3

1.8

2.6

3.0

10,000

0.4

0.6

0.9

1.3

1.5

50,000

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.6

0.7

100,000

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

500,000

a

0.1

0.1

0.2

0.2

1,000,000

a

0.1

0.1

0.1

0.2

5,000,000

a

a

a

a

0.1

10,000,000

a

a

a

a

a

50,000,000

a

a

a

a

a

a. Less than 0.05 percent.

136 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

Glossary
abbreviated applications. An SSI application in which all nondisability factors of eligibility are verified before the
case is sent for a disability determination.
adult. A person who is older than age 21, is aged 18–21 but is not a student, is under 21 and married, or is the
head of a household.
aged person. A person aged 65 or older.
allowance. A determination by the Disability Determination Services, an administrative law judge, or the Appeals
Council that an applicant meets the medical definition of disability under the law.
auxiliary benefit (OASDI). Monthly benefit payable to a spouse or a child of a retired or disabled worker or to a
survivor of a deceased worker.
award. An administrative determination that an individual is entitled to receive monthly benefits.
blind. "Blindness," for Social Security purposes, means either central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better
eye with the use of a correcting lens or a limitation in the fields of vision so that the widest diameter of the visual
field subtends an angle of 20 degrees or less (tunnel vision).
blind work expenses (BWE). Permits the exclusion of any earned income of a blind person that is used to meet
expenses reasonably attributable to earning the income.
child. An unmarried blind or disabled person who is not the head of a household and who is either under age 18 or
aged 18–21 and a student.
concurrent application. An application for both Title II (Social Security) and Title XVI (Supplemental Security
Income) benefits at the same time.
deeming (SSI). Counting part of the income and resources of certain persons who live with an SSI recipient when
determining the amount of the payment. These persons include the ineligible spouses of adult recipients, the
ineligible parents of child recipients under age 18, and the immigration sponsor for certain noncitizens.
diagnostic group. Classification of impairments, by body system, that identifies the medical condition(s) on which
disability-related benefits are based. Before 1985, the coding of the primary and secondary diagnoses for
Social Security and Supplemental Security Income applicants was in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases: 9th revision, Clinical Modification, 4th ed., using 4–digit ICD-9 codes. In 1985, the Social
Security Administration (SSA) implemented a revised method to determine and enter impairment codes in
administrative records. This revised approach provides for a modified impairment coding system, generally
using 3 digits (followed by zero), loosely based on the ICD-9 codes. For research purposes, the ICD-9 codes
and SSA impairment codes are, typically, identical. However, the diagnostic groupings shown in the statistical
tables closely parallel the major ICD-9 disease classifications.
disability. The inability to engage in substantial gainful activity (SGA) by reason of any medically determinable
physical or mental impairment that can be expected to result in death or to last for a continuous period of not
less than 12 months. (Special rules apply for workers aged 55 or older whose disability is based on blindness.
The 12-month requirement does not apply to SSI beneficiaries who are blind.)
Individuals are considered to be disabled only if their physical or mental impairment(s) is of such severity that
they are not only unable to do their previous work but cannot—because of their age, education, or work experience—engage in any other kind of substantial gainful activity that exists in the national economy, regardless of
whether such work exists in the immediate area in which they live, or whether a specific job vacancy exists for
them, or whether they would be hired if they applied for work.
The SGA criterion does not apply to children under age 18 in the Supplemental Security Income program. The
standard for them is a medically determinable physical or mental impairment that results in marked and severe
functional limitations.
Disability Determination Services (DDS). The state agency responsible for developing medical evidence and
rendering the initial determination and reconsideration on whether a claimant is disabled or a beneficiary continues to be disabled within the meaning of the law.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 137

federal benefit rates (FBR). The basic benefit standards used in computing the amount of federal SSI payments.
Benefit levels differ for individuals and couples living in households and for persons in Medicaid institutions.
Individuals or couples living in their own household receive the full federal benefit. The federal benefit is
reduced by one-third if an individual or couple is living in another person’s household and receiving support
and maintenance there. The federal benefit rates are increased annually to reflect increases in the cost of living.
impairment-related work expenses (IRWE). The costs of items or services that a disabled person needs to work.
The expenses, when paid by the beneficiary, are deducted from his or her gross earnings when determining if
the work is considered substantial gainful activity.
Medicaid institution. Living arrangement for persons in public or private institutions when more than 50 percent of
the cost of care is met by the Medicaid program. In these situations, the monthly federal SSI payment is limited
to no more than $30.
own household. Used to determine the federal benefit rate. Applies to adults who own their living quarters, are liable for the rent, pay their pro rata shares of household expenses, are living in households composed only of
recipients of public income–maintenance payments, and are placed by agencies in private households. Also
applies to children living in their parent's household. See federal benefit rates.
plans for achieving self-support (PASS). Permits a recipient with an approved PASS to set aside earned or
unearned income and resources for a work goal. The income or resources set aside are used to pay for goods
or services needed to reach the goal, such as education, vocational training, starting a business, or purchasing
work-related equipment. The income and resources that are set aside under a PASS are excluded from SSI
income and resource tests, but they do not influence the determination of ability to engage in substantial gainful activity.
poverty thresholds. The poverty thresholds are a series of income levels, with different values for family units of
different sizes, below which the family units are considered poor. The thresholds are used mainly for statistical
purposes in calculating official poverty population figures. They are issued annually by the U.S. Census Bureau
in the Current Population Reports series. The thresholds are adjusted annually for price changes using the
annual average consumer price index for all urban consumers (CPI-U).
presumptive disability or blindness. For certain diagnoses, where there is high probability of a favorable medical
determination of disability or blindness, payments may be made for up to 6 months before the formal determination, if the applicant meets the nonmedical eligibility requirements.
representative payee. A person designated by the Social Security Administration to receive monthly benefit
checks on behalf of an adult beneficiary who is unable to manage his or her own funds. A beneficiary under
age 18 is generally considered incapable of managing benefit payments, and a representative payee will be
selected to receive benefits on the beneficiary’s behalf.
Section 1619(a). Continuing cash benefits for disabled individuals whose gross earned income is at the amount
designated as the substantial gainful activity level. The person must continue to be disabled and meet all other
eligibility rules. Also known as special cash payment.
Section 1619(b). For Medicaid purposes, provides special status to working disabled or blind individuals when
their earnings make them ineligible for cash payments. Also known as special recipient status.
SSA administrative regions

Boston: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont
New York: New Jersey and New York
Philadelphia: Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia
Atlanta: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee
Chicago: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin
Dallas: Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas
Kansas City: Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska
Denver : Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming
San Francisco: Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, and Northern Mariana Islands
Seattle: Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington

138 ♦ SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004

state conversions. Persons who were eligible for payments under the federal and state adult assistance programs
in December 1973 were automatically eligible for SSI payments beginning January 1974.
state supplementation. Payments to eligible persons made under state provisions. These payments may vary by
the recipient's living situation and by geographic area within the state. The payments may be administered by
the Social Security Administration or the state.
substantial gainful activity (SGA). Describes a level of work activity that is productive and yields or usually yields
remuneration or profit. The Social Security Administration’s regulations establish a dollar amount to indicate
whether a person’s work is substantial.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI). A federal program for low-income aged, blind, and disabled individuals who
meet income and resource requirements. Beginning in 1974, SSI replaced the former federal and state programs of Old-Age Assistance, Aid to the Blind, and Aid to the Permanently and Totally Disabled. SSI is funded
by general tax revenues, not Social Security taxes.
Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). The SIPP is a household survey of the noninstitutionalized
resident population of the United States, conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It was designed to improve the
measurement of the economic situation of persons, families, and households in the United States and to provide a tool for managing and evaluating government transfer and service programs.
suspended benefit. A payment that has been temporarily stopped until the condition or conditions causing the
suspension are known to have ended. The suspension does not affect eligibility for Medicare benefits.

SSI Annual Statistical Report, 2004 ♦ 139