Day 3 Behaviorism2 Stu | Reinforcement | Classical Conditioning

9/10/2013

As you settle in, find out 1) What group am I in? Look at one of the printed copies or the file on learn@uw (in Materials > General Information). Write this information down so that you have it to refer to later today when we get into the groups.

T 9/9/13, Day 3

Today’s Plan
• Principles and Theories • Behaviorism
– Brief review of Classical Conditioning
• Associative bias

Behaviorism
Day 3, 9/9/13 Cooper, Ed Psych 301

– Instrumental Conditioning – Comparing Classical and Instrumental Conditioning

Principles: “What?”
• Tend to be stable • Facts of the data • Can be further developed (e.g., differences)

Theories: “Why?”
• Adapt and change as new data and new explanations • Scientifically supported (and accepted!) hypotheses • Make testable predictions • Theories are bigger than principles (see later slide) • Add meaning to results • CONS:
– assumptions can be limiting (tunnel vision) – May exclude non-agreeing data

BOTH Principles and Theories
• Applicable to many situations • Summarizing across multiple studies • Use both to help construct learning environments • Based on data and research! Both are scientifically based!

Principles AND Theories are developed through research and scientific thought

Non-animated picture

Theory 1
Principle can be explained by different theories

Classical Conditioning in Summary
An automatic response

Principle B

Neutral

Theories explain multiple principles
Principle D

Principle A

Theory Theory 3 3
Principle C

Theory 2

In higher ordering conditioning

A learned response

US1

UR1

1

and CR) – UCS and UCR came FIRST … they are UNconditioned trickier when they change roles in higher order conditioning! Tips Based on your Examples (cont.) 3. In many of the examples. the higher order conditioning was implicit – make sure you know how to lay out the whole sequence UCS (clowns) UCR (fear) NS (bad smell) paired with clowns (UCS)  UCR (fear) CS (bad smell)  CR (fear) How would you make this example into higher order conditioning? – R stands for response … that is the behavior or reaction – S stands for stimulus … that is the environmental cue Tips Based on your Examples (cont. CS-UCS belongingness) NS  CS NS  CS • Applications: UCS Based on Garcia & Koelling.) 2.they become CSs)  see that car (CS1) and become scared of it (CR1). How would you make this example into higher order conditioning? Weakness of ‘Pure’ Classical Conditioning • Not enough attention to cognition and other factors! Extending Classical Conditioning to incorporate associative bias • Doing so brings in cognition and knowing information • It is more than ‘pure’ behaviorism 4.9/10/2013 More on Higher Order Conditioning: Tips Based on your Examples 1. try applying the terminology (NS.  See that driver (CS2) and become scared of it (CR2). Ask yourself if it is higher order conditioning or two things being conditioned at once? Get in a car accident (UCS)  fear (UCR) (Car model and driver had previously each been a NS --. CS. UCS. To help you figure out if the scenario works. 1966 UCS Image from Michael Drew @ Columbia 2 . … BUT it still is behaviorism Non-animated picture Associative Bias and Biological Predisposition • Has evolutionary roots! • Food aversion is a interesting case of classical conditioning – Why did you get sick? Associative bias (aka. Moving beyond examples used in class pushes you to deeply understand what is going on. UCR.

mushrooms). 42 – 44) differ from one another? How are they the same? • What do you need to consider if you are attempting to countercondition a more desirable response in someone who has been conditioned to fall asleep when they start to read? • Does systematic desensitization meet the three requirements set up as part of counterconditioning? • How do Guthrie’s steps for breaking bad habits(p. 2.com/2008/02/episode-47-the-littlealbert-study-what-you-know-ismostly-wrong/ – Little Albert: http://www. but often treated as the same 3 . B.com/17499814 • The search for Little Albert – http://www. B.ca/Thorndike/Animal/chap2.. http://pss. Refer to video clip.youtube. & Packer (2004) – Increasing implicit selfesteem through classical conditioning. you often wind up eating salty snacks. 45 – 46) relate to the more general ideas they presented (p.com/watch?v=HNsqHtzxY1o A. Classical Conditioning: the NS must ________ the UCS. – Sorting first by letter – Then sorting by number • Thorndike’s experiments – http://psychclassics. In a lab experiment.thepsychfiles. What underlying assumption of the original behaviorist theories does this violate? Classical Conditioning  Instrumental Conditioning In Classical Conditioning. Here.sagepub.9/10/2013 Information and Biology Constrain Conditioning • Pavlov’s belief that any stimulus could be paired with any response  NOT TRUE – So there was not 100% equipotentiality Continuing on your own in the chapter: • The “belongingness” of the CS and UCS matters • Garcia and Koelling (1966) – ONLY pairings that worked: • Radiation/Nausea (UCS) with Sweet Water (CS) • Electric Shock (UCS) with Light / Sound (CS) • How do the two approaches (p. 42 – 44)? Changing Undesirable Conditioned Responses Further Resources for Classical Conditioning • Watson & Little Albert http://vimeo. you are thirsty.htm • Then.pdf (on campus) • Pavlov dogs reenactment http://www. The researchers found a stronger conditioned response when images associated with common phobias (e. Review A. people are taught that a certain image on the screen predicted shock. Now whenever you go out with them (even if there are no snacks).youtube.g. What is this process called? 4. 3. • Two concerns: – Not all our behavior is involuntary! – What happens next? Instrumental Conditioning • Known* by 2 terms: Instrumental Conditioning === Operant Conditioning * Some minor differences within their specialized field.yorku.. In order for a CR to be learned.youtube.full. CHAOS! • Baccus.com/watch?v=CpoLxEN54ho 1. This is because: _________.com/watch?v=Xt0ucxOrPQE Who is in your group? • Your group identifier had a letter and a number.g. A. the CS is the image that appears. Identify the 4 parts of classical conditioning in this scenario. Whenever you hang out with your friends. Identify the parts of this that relate to classical conditioning. Baldwin.com/content/15/7/498. spiders) were presented compared to neutral images (e. Identify the other parts of the classical conditioning scenario.. http://www.

9/10/2013 • Classical Conditioning A-B-C A (antecedent)  B (behavior)  C (consequence) • Antecedent is the environmental cue (a discriminative stimulus) that sets up the situation for the behavior to occur • Instrumental Conditioning environment – This is the “stimulus” from classical conditioning Likelihood of behavior increasing or decreasing Behavior (voluntary) Consequences • Behavior is the behavior to be modified – This is the “response” in classical conditioning A B C A-B-C A (antecedent)  B (behavior)  C (consequence) Consequences • What is the effect of having consequences? – Behavior will increase – Behavior will decrease • Behavior is the behavior to be modified – This is the “response” in classical conditioning • Consequence is what happens after the behavior to increase or decrease the probability that it will happen again – This is unique to operant conditioning and is not part of the classical conditioning model • If likelihood of behavior increases. – The consequence was a REINFORCER • If likelihood of behavior decreases. – The consequence was a PUNISHER More Terminology about Consequences • Positive = adding a stimulus to the environment • Negative = taking something away Positive Reinforcement Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Instrumental Conditioning Positive Punishment (Type I) Punishment Negative Punishment (Type II) Positive Reinforcement • Reinforcers INCREASE BEHAVIOR – Positive reinforcers ADD something to the environment Behavior increases • Strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus that you like after a response Behavior decreases 4 .

9/10/2013 Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement • Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive (disliked) stimulus • Something the subject doesn’t like is removed (subtracted) • Will strengthen the behavior • Negative Reinforcement allows you to either: – Escape something you don’t like that is already present – Avoid something before it occurs Negative Reinforcement Positive and Negative Reinforcement BOTH ARE GOOD THINGS!!! Reinforcement = Response is INCREASED Positive and Negative Reinforcement Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcer • Primary – Things that affect our survival • Secondary – Not necessary for survival • Think of reinforcers you have had in learning environments. Were they primary or secondary? Positive Reinforcement Add Something (Money) to environment Negative Reinforcement Remove Something (headache) from environment 5 .

? Primary Reinforcement Secondary Reinforcement ? Perspective matters! Images from http://barefootbehavior. NOT LIKE. Behavior Behavior S DECREASES Negative (-) Reinforcement TAKES AWAY something you DO NOT LIKE. Behavior DECREASES S 6 . and the parent gives them a pacifier.com Types of Punishment • Punishment DECREASES the frequency of behavior – An undesirable event following a behavior – Behavior ends a desirable event or state Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Review Positive and Negative Punishment • Positive Punishment – Punishment by Application • adding something you do not like to the environment Principles of Reinforcement Reinforcing/Desirable Stimulus Aversive/UnDesirable Stimulus Stimulus is presented or added to environment… Positive (+) Positive (+) Reinforcement Punishment INCREASE • Negative Punishment – Punishment by Removal • Something is taken away that you like • Lose a privilege Stimulus is removed or taken away from environment… Add something you DO Add something you DO LIKE.wordpress.9/10/2013 The baby is crying. Behavior INCREASE Negative (-) Punishment TAKES AWAY something you DO LIKE.

com/GroupPlacement – www. 9/12 • Instrumental Conditioning – Positive and negative reinforcement – Positive and negative punishment Ch 4: 48 – 72 and 75 – 77 Ch 5.com/301Survey1 • Before this Friday night.tinyurl.tinyurl. 9/10 For Thursday. 78 – 99 and 109 .9/10/2013 Summary • Principles and theories • Classical conditioning – Higher order conditioning – Associative bias To Do • Have you done the two surveys? – www. do your first Weekly Reflection For Tuesday.110 7 .

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