Day 3 Behaviorism2 Stu | Reinforcement | Classical Conditioning


As you settle in, find out 1) What group am I in? Look at one of the printed copies or the file on learn@uw (in Materials > General Information). Write this information down so that you have it to refer to later today when we get into the groups.

T 9/9/13, Day 3

Today’s Plan
• Principles and Theories • Behaviorism
– Brief review of Classical Conditioning
• Associative bias

Day 3, 9/9/13 Cooper, Ed Psych 301

– Instrumental Conditioning – Comparing Classical and Instrumental Conditioning

Principles: “What?”
• Tend to be stable • Facts of the data • Can be further developed (e.g., differences)

Theories: “Why?”
• Adapt and change as new data and new explanations • Scientifically supported (and accepted!) hypotheses • Make testable predictions • Theories are bigger than principles (see later slide) • Add meaning to results • CONS:
– assumptions can be limiting (tunnel vision) – May exclude non-agreeing data

BOTH Principles and Theories
• Applicable to many situations • Summarizing across multiple studies • Use both to help construct learning environments • Based on data and research! Both are scientifically based!

Principles AND Theories are developed through research and scientific thought

Non-animated picture

Theory 1
Principle can be explained by different theories

Classical Conditioning in Summary
An automatic response

Principle B


Theories explain multiple principles
Principle D

Principle A

Theory Theory 3 3
Principle C

Theory 2

In higher ordering conditioning

A learned response




and CR) – UCS and UCR came FIRST … they are UNconditioned trickier when they change roles in higher order conditioning! Tips Based on your Examples (cont.) 3. In many of the examples. the higher order conditioning was implicit – make sure you know how to lay out the whole sequence UCS (clowns) UCR (fear) NS (bad smell) paired with clowns (UCS)  UCR (fear) CS (bad smell)  CR (fear) How would you make this example into higher order conditioning? – R stands for response … that is the behavior or reaction – S stands for stimulus … that is the environmental cue Tips Based on your Examples (cont. CS-UCS belongingness) NS  CS NS  CS • Applications: UCS Based on Garcia & Koelling.) 2.they become CSs)  see that car (CS1) and become scared of it (CR1). How would you make this example into higher order conditioning? Weakness of ‘Pure’ Classical Conditioning • Not enough attention to cognition and other factors! Extending Classical Conditioning to incorporate associative bias • Doing so brings in cognition and knowing information • It is more than ‘pure’ behaviorism 4.9/10/2013 More on Higher Order Conditioning: Tips Based on your Examples 1. try applying the terminology (NS.  See that driver (CS2) and become scared of it (CR2). Ask yourself if it is higher order conditioning or two things being conditioned at once? Get in a car accident (UCS)  fear (UCR) (Car model and driver had previously each been a NS --. CS. UCS. To help you figure out if the scenario works. 1966 UCS Image from Michael Drew @ Columbia 2 . … BUT it still is behaviorism Non-animated picture Associative Bias and Biological Predisposition • Has evolutionary roots! • Food aversion is a interesting case of classical conditioning – Why did you get sick? Associative bias (aka. Moving beyond examples used in class pushes you to deeply understand what is going on. UCR.

mushrooms). 42 – 44) differ from one another? How are they the same? • What do you need to consider if you are attempting to countercondition a more desirable response in someone who has been conditioned to fall asleep when they start to read? • Does systematic desensitization meet the three requirements set up as part of counterconditioning? • How do Guthrie’s steps for breaking bad habits(p. – Little Albert: http://www. but often treated as the same 3 . • The search for Little Albert – http://www. http://pss. Refer to video & Packer (2004) – Increasing implicit selfesteem through classical conditioning. you often wind up eating salty snacks. 45 – 46) relate to the more general ideas they presented ( A. Classical Conditioning: the NS must ________ the UCS. – Sorting first by letter – Then sorting by number • Thorndike’s experiments – http://psychclassics. In a lab experiment.thepsychfiles. What underlying assumption of the original behaviorist theories does this violate? Classical Conditioning  Instrumental Conditioning In Classical Conditioning. Here.sagepub.9/10/2013 Information and Biology Constrain Conditioning • Pavlov’s belief that any stimulus could be paired with any response  NOT TRUE – So there was not 100% equipotentiality Continuing on your own in the chapter: • The “belongingness” of the CS and UCS matters • Garcia and Koelling (1966) – ONLY pairings that worked: • Radiation/Nausea (UCS) with Sweet Water (CS) • Electric Shock (UCS) with Light / Sound (CS) • How do the two approaches (p. 42 – 44)? Changing Undesirable Conditioned Responses Further Resources for Classical Conditioning • Watson & Little Albert http://vimeo. you are thirsty.htm • Then.pdf (on campus) • Pavlov dogs reenactment http://www. The researchers found a stronger conditioned response when images associated with common phobias (e. Review A. people are taught that a certain image on the screen predicted shock. Now whenever you go out with them (even if there are no snacks).youtube.g. What is this process called? 4. 3. • Two concerns: – Not all our behavior is involuntary! – What happens next? Instrumental Conditioning • Known* by 2 terms: Instrumental Conditioning === Operant Conditioning * Some minor differences within their specialized field.yorku.. In order for a CR to be CHAOS! • 1. This is because: Who is in your group? • Your group identifier had a letter and a number.g. A. the CS is the image that appears. Identify the 4 parts of classical conditioning in this scenario. Whenever you hang out with your friends. Identify the parts of this that relate to classical conditioning. spiders) were presented compared to neutral images (e. Identify the other parts of the classical conditioning scenario.. http://www.

9/10/2013 • Classical Conditioning A-B-C A (antecedent)  B (behavior)  C (consequence) • Antecedent is the environmental cue (a discriminative stimulus) that sets up the situation for the behavior to occur • Instrumental Conditioning environment – This is the “stimulus” from classical conditioning Likelihood of behavior increasing or decreasing Behavior (voluntary) Consequences • Behavior is the behavior to be modified – This is the “response” in classical conditioning A B C A-B-C A (antecedent)  B (behavior)  C (consequence) Consequences • What is the effect of having consequences? – Behavior will increase – Behavior will decrease • Behavior is the behavior to be modified – This is the “response” in classical conditioning • Consequence is what happens after the behavior to increase or decrease the probability that it will happen again – This is unique to operant conditioning and is not part of the classical conditioning model • If likelihood of behavior increases. – The consequence was a REINFORCER • If likelihood of behavior decreases. – The consequence was a PUNISHER More Terminology about Consequences • Positive = adding a stimulus to the environment • Negative = taking something away Positive Reinforcement Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement Instrumental Conditioning Positive Punishment (Type I) Punishment Negative Punishment (Type II) Positive Reinforcement • Reinforcers INCREASE BEHAVIOR – Positive reinforcers ADD something to the environment Behavior increases • Strengthens a response by presenting a stimulus that you like after a response Behavior decreases 4 .

9/10/2013 Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement • Strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive (disliked) stimulus • Something the subject doesn’t like is removed (subtracted) • Will strengthen the behavior • Negative Reinforcement allows you to either: – Escape something you don’t like that is already present – Avoid something before it occurs Negative Reinforcement Positive and Negative Reinforcement BOTH ARE GOOD THINGS!!! Reinforcement = Response is INCREASED Positive and Negative Reinforcement Primary vs. Secondary Reinforcer • Primary – Things that affect our survival • Secondary – Not necessary for survival • Think of reinforcers you have had in learning environments. Were they primary or secondary? Positive Reinforcement Add Something (Money) to environment Negative Reinforcement Remove Something (headache) from environment 5 .

? Primary Reinforcement Secondary Reinforcement ? Perspective matters! Images from http://barefootbehavior. NOT LIKE. Behavior Behavior S DECREASES Negative (-) Reinforcement TAKES AWAY something you DO NOT LIKE. Behavior DECREASES S 6 . and the parent gives them a Types of Punishment • Punishment DECREASES the frequency of behavior – An undesirable event following a behavior – Behavior ends a desirable event or state Positive Punishment Negative Punishment Review Positive and Negative Punishment • Positive Punishment – Punishment by Application • adding something you do not like to the environment Principles of Reinforcement Reinforcing/Desirable Stimulus Aversive/UnDesirable Stimulus Stimulus is presented or added to environment… Positive (+) Positive (+) Reinforcement Punishment INCREASE • Negative Punishment – Punishment by Removal • Something is taken away that you like • Lose a privilege Stimulus is removed or taken away from environment… Add something you DO Add something you DO LIKE.wordpress.9/10/2013 The baby is crying. Behavior INCREASE Negative (-) Punishment TAKES AWAY something you DO LIKE.

com/GroupPlacement – www. 9/12 • Instrumental Conditioning – Positive and negative reinforcement – Positive and negative punishment Ch 4: 48 – 72 and 75 – 77 Ch • Before this Friday night.tinyurl.tinyurl. 9/10 For Thursday. 78 – 99 and 109 .9/10/2013 Summary • Principles and theories • Classical conditioning – Higher order conditioning – Associative bias To Do • Have you done the two surveys? – www. do your first Weekly Reflection For Tuesday.110 7 .

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