This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. FTP is built on a client-server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server. !" FTP users ma# authenticate themselves usin$ a clearte%t si$n-in protocol, normall# in the form of a username and password, but can connect anon#mousl# if the server is confi$ured to allow it. For secure transmission that hides (encr#pts) the username and password, and encr#pts the content, FTP is often secured with &&'(T'& ()FTP&)). &&* File Transfer Protocol ()&FTP)) is sometimes also used instead, but is technolo$icall# different. The first FTP client applications were command-line applications developed before operatin$ s#stems had $raphical user interfaces, and are still shipped with most +indows, ,ni%, and 'inu% operatin$ s#stems. -" ." /o0ens of FTP clients and automation utilities have since been developed for desktops, servers, mobile devices, and hardware, and FTP has been incorporated into hundreds of productivit# applications, such as +eb pa$e editors.
The ori$inal specification for the File Transfer Protocol was written b# 1bha# 2hushan and published as 3FC !!4 on !5 1pril !67!. ,ntil !689, FTP ran on :CP, the predecessor of TCP(IP. -" The protocol was later replaced b# a TCP(IP version, 3FC 75; (<une !689) and 3FC 6;6 (=ctober !68;), the current specification. &everal proposed standards amend 3FC 6;6, for e%ample 3FC ---8 (<une !667) proposes securit# e%tensions and 3FC -4-8 (&eptember !668) adds support for IPv5 and defines a new t#pe of passive mode. 4"
In this mode. As a conse'uence. four data representations can be usedC -" ." 5" which the client then uses to open a data connection from an arbitrar# client port to the server IP address and server port number received. 2 . 8" The server responds over the control connection with three-di$it status codes in 1&CII with an optional te%t messa$e. updatin$ it to extended passive mode.$. For e%ample )-99) (or )-99 =?)) means that the last command was successful." 4" • ASCII mode: used for text. if necessar%& to the receiving host's character representation. which determines how the data connection is established. A:eed account for storin$ fileB). In situations where the client is behind a firewall and unable to accept incomin$ TCP connections. passive mode ma# be used. the client creates a TCP control connection." In active mode. Data is converted. the client uses the control connection to send a P1&> command to the server and then receives a server IP address and server port number from the server.Protocol overview Communication and data transfer Illustration of starting a passive connection using port 21 FTP ma# run in active or passive mode. The numbers represent the code for the response and the optional te%t represents a human-readable e%planation or re@uest (e. . +hile transferrin$ data over the network. and $again. from the sending host's character representation to !"#it ASCII #efore transmission. this mode is inappropriate for files that contain data other than plain text. . !" 1n on$oin$ transfer of file data over the data connection can be aborted usin$ an interrupt messa$e sent over the control connection. Further chan$es were introduced to the passive mode at that time. if needed. 7" 2oth modes were updated in &eptember !668 to support IPv5.
relieving )*+ from doing an% processing. 1o . 0ather. unless the data is divided into records.s the data into several #loc. all processing is left up to *C+.(CDIC character set. header.nd" of"file indicator is needed. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission across Internet Protocol (IP) networks. different format control and record structure options are provided.. • /ocal mode: Allo-s t-o computers -ith identical setups to send data in a proprietar% format -ithout the need to convert it to ASCII For te%t files.-! (-998) -" 5 . $Image mode support has #een recommended for all implementations of )*+&.e ASCII mode. These features were desi$ned to facilitate files containin$ Telnet or 1&1 /ata transfer can be done in an# of three modesC !" -" • Stream mode: Data is sent as a continuous stream.• Image mode $commonl% called (inar% mode&: the sending machine sends each file #%te for #%te. !" and last updated b# 3FC .(CDIC mode: use for plain text #et-een hosts using the . eventuall# declared &T/ !9).234 • Compressed mode: Data is compressed using a single algorithm $usuall% run"length encoding&. • . and the recipient stores the #%testream as it receives it. mode: )*+ #rea. • (loc. #%te count. *his mode is other-ise li. and data field& and then passes it on to *C+. &DTP was first defined b# 3FC 8-! (!68-.s $#loc.
People communicated with one another usin$ s#stems developed for specific mainframe computers." but is discussed in 3FC !65 and other 3FCs. . accordin$ to 3FC --. until the 13P1:ET converted into 3 .87 instead.9 hosts were connected to the 13P1:ET at this time.. 3a# Tomlinson of 22: invented for TE:EH computers to send mail messa$es across the 13P1:ET. whose implementation has been disputed. standards were developed to allow users of different s#stems to e-mail one another. both from !67. and is the protocol in widespread use toda#. and the &:/D&F pro$ram. especiall# in the . user-level client mail applications t#picall# use &DTP onl# for sendin$ messa$es to a mail server for rela#in$. which. &DTP $rew out of these standards developed durin$ the !679s. It is an 1pplication 'a#er protocol in the =&I reference model.. &DTP uses TCP port -.& FovernmentGs 13P1:ET..which includes the E%tended &DTP (E&DTP) additions. but it uses port . client applications usuall# use either the Post =ffice Protocol (P=P) or the Internet Dessa$e 1ccess Protocol (ID1P) or a proprietar# s#stem (such as Dicrosoft E%chan$e or 'otus :otes(/omino) to access their mail bo% accounts on a mail server.." 5" Fewer than . thou$h &DTP& is not a protocol in its own ri$ht. History >arious forms of one-to-one electronic messa$in$ were used in the !659s. 4" . &DTP connections secured b# &&' are known b# the shorthand &DTP& on TCP port 45. &DTP can trace its roots to two implementations described in !67!C the Dail 2o% Protocol. 1s more computers were interconnected. For receivin$ messa$es. 6" /evelopment work continued throu$hout the !679s. 7" Further implementations include FTP Dail 8" and Dail Protocol. The protocol for new submissions (D&1) is effectivel# the same as &DTP.. +hile electronic mail servers and other mail transfer a$ents use &DTP to send and receive mail messa$es.
From there. Dost mailbo% providers still allow submission on traditional port -. The boundar# DT1 has to locate the tar$et host.87. The DT1 ne%t connects to the e%chan$e server as an &DTP client. =ften. <on Postel then proposed a Dail Transfer Protocol in !689 that be$an to remove the mailGs reliance on FTP. Mail processing model (lue arro-s can #e implemented using S6*+ variations. The returned DH record contains the name of the tar$et host. or split amon$ various appliancesJ in the former case. the D&1 delivers the mail to its mail transfer a$ent (DT1. with each host confi$ured to use the ne%t appliance as a smart host. Each process is an DT1 in its own ri$htJ that is. Email is submitted b# a mail client (D. 'ocal processin$ can be done either on a sin$le machine. these two a$ents are Iust different instances of the same software launched with different options on the same machine..1. mail user a$ent) to a mail server (D&1. mail submission a$ent) usin$ &DTP on TCP port .the modern Internet around !689. It uses the /omain name s#stem (/:&) to look up the mail e%chan$er record (DH record) for the recipientGs domain (the part of the email address on the ri$ht of @). !9" &DTP was published as 3FC 788 in :ovember !68!. an &DTP server. also b# Postel. involved processes can share filesJ in the latter case. (The 7 . &DTP is used to transfer the messa$e internall#. mail transfer a$ent).
*his command can #e issued multiple times.) Protocol overview &DTP is a connection-oriented. to esta#lish a recipient of this message. 1n SMTP session consists of commands ori$inated b# an &DTP client (the initiatin$ a$ent.) The# areC 1. or receiver) so that the session is opened. and the second time after the end"of"data se'uence. te%t-based protocol in which a mail sender communicates with a mail receiver b# issuin$ command strin$s and suppl#in$ necessar# data over a reliable ordered data stream channel. It consists of a message header and a message body separated #% an empt% line. *his is the content of the message. 2. to esta#lish the return address. mfrom. DA*A is actuall% a group of commands. DATA to send the message text. 1n SMTP transaction consists of three command(repl# se@uences (see e%ample below.. one for each recipient. MAIL command.article on DH record discusses man# factors in determinin$ which server the sendin$ DT1 connects to. 5.a. 2citation needed4 . as opposed to its envelope. a. 0eturn"+ath. *his is the address for #ounce messages. Telnet 9 . to ac. and session parameters are e%chan$ed. RCPT command. *hese addresses are also part of the envelope. to either accept or re8ect the entire message. 1 session ma# include 0ero or more &DTP transactions. or envelope sender. t#picall# a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) connection..no-ledge that it is read% to receive the text. or transmitter) and correspondin$ responses from the &DTP server (the listenin$ a$ent. sender. and the server replies t-ice: once to the DATA command proper.
and standardi0ed as Internet En$ineerin$ Task Force (IETF) Internet &tandard &T/ 8. : . T#picall#. either with command line client or with a pro$rammatic interface.ser data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit b#te oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).) Dost often. its use for this purpose has waned si$nificantl# citation needed" in favor of &&*. one of the first Internet standards. e%tended in 3FC 8. ..ni%-like server s#stem or a network device (such as a router) and obtainin$ a lo$in prompt to a command line te%t interface or a character-based full-screen mana$er.Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive te%t-oriented communication facilit# usin$ a virtual terminal connection. based on a reliable connection-oriented transport. of an operatin$ s#stem) on a remote host. The term telnet ma# also refer to the software that implements the client part of the protocol. this protocol is used to establish a connection to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port number -. Telnet provided access to a command-line interface (usuall#.4. log in and run the passwd command. a user will be telnetting to a . a common directive mi$ht beC )To change your password.. Dost network e@uipment and operatin$ s#stems with a TCP(IP stack support a Telnet service for remote confi$uration (includin$ s#stems based on +indows :T). To telnet means to establish a connection with the Telnet protocol. because of serious securit# issues when usin$ Telnet over an open network such as the Internet. where a Telnet server application (telnetd) is listenin$. Telnet is also used as a verb. *owever. For e%ample. Telnet client applications are available for virtuall# all computer platforms. *istoricall#. Telnet was developed in !656 be$innin$ with 3FC !. telnet to the server. History and standards Telnet is a client-server protocol.
man# e%tensions were made for it.7-. &ome e%tensions have been widel# implemented and others are proposed standards on the IETF standards track (see below) Security +hen Telnet was initiall# developed in !656.. and b# e%tension the number of people attemptin$ to hack other peopleGs servers. some of which have been adopted as Internet standards. Telnet was an ad hoc protocol with no official definition. does not encr#pt an# data sent over the connection (includin$ passwords)... !67. E%perts in computer securit#. a Telnet protocol standard was defined at . !" Essentiall#.. 1n# b#te with the hi$h bit set was a special Telnet character.7. for the followin$ reasonsC • Telnet. hub or $atewa# located on the network between the two hosts where ! .. such as &1:& Institute.C'1 -" with the publication of two :IC documentsC Telnet Protocol &pecification. b# default. !67.Telnet. recommend that the use of Telnet for remote lo$ins should be discontinued under all normal circumstances. and so it is often practical to eavesdrop on the communications and use the password later for malicious purposesJ an#bod# who has access to a router. 2efore Darch . =n Darch .-. however. predates TCP(IP and was ori$inall# run over :etwork Control Pro$ram (:CP) protocols. and Telnet =ption &pecifications. it used an 8-bit channel to e%chan$e 7-bit 1&CII data. 2ecause of ne$otiable options protocol architecture. IETF documents &T/ -7 throu$h &T/ . In this environment.. made encr#pted alternatives necessar#.. :IC K!. most users of networked computers were in the computer departments of academic institutions. or at lar$e private and $overnment research facilities. :IC K!. switch. securit# was not nearl# as much a concern as it became after the bandwidth e%plosion of the !669s. The rise in the number of people with access to the Internet.
a Telnet client application ma# also be used to establish an interactive raw TCP session.-79 workstation emulation is supported via custom telnet clients. 1&CII !. such as the re@uirement for a bare carria$e return character (C3.-. citation needed" Telnet data 1ll data octets e%cept 9. which also can be used to manuall# )talk) to other services without speciali0ed client software. or -. man# s#stems now possess true raw TCP clients. and it is commonl# believed that such session which does not use the I1C (9. such as netcat or socat on .:IH and PuTTL on +indows. .-79. however.is the default port for secured telnet. port 66.nder =&(499. FTP or P=P. citation needed" This is not the case. • Dost implementations of Telnet have no authentication that would ensure communication is carried out between the two desired hosts and not intercepted in the middle. .-. Telnet is still sometimes used in debu$$in$ network services such as &DTP. and I2D servers. because there are other network virtual terminal (:>T) rules. • &everal vulnerabilities have been discovered over the #ears in commonl# used Telnet daemons. . that distin$uish the telnet protocol from raw TCP sessions. Clients and servers desi$ned to pass I2D .) to be followed b# a :.-. clarification needed" =n the other hand. servers. T:.77 character.9 data streams over Telnet $enerall# do support &&' encr#ption.9 emulation..Telnet is bein$ used can intercept the packets passin$ b# and obtain lo$in. password and whatever else is t#ped with a packet anal#0er. as &&* does not include . to issue commands to a server and e%amine the responses.9 or .-. Therefore. Telnet ! " I2D .'' (1&CII 9) character.9(T:. *TTP. in decimal) is functionall# identical. :evertheless. but of all these protocols onl# FTP reall# uses Telnet data format. I3C.77 are transmitted over the TCP transport as is.
which connects to the server usin$ Transport 'a#er &ecurit# (T'&) or &ecure &ockets 'a#er (&&') on well-known TCP port 66.Post Office Protocol In computing# t$e +ost <ffice +rotocol %+<+& is an application'layer Internet standard protocol used (y local e'mail clients to retrieve e'mail from a remote server over a TCP)IP connection*+.P $as (een developed t$roug$ several versions# wit$ version 0 %P. or b# P=P.P0& (eing t$e current standard* Most we(mail service providers suc$ as 1oogle Mail# Microsoft Mail and 2a$oo3 Mail provide (ot$ an IMAP and P. delete them from the server. store them on the userGs PC as new messa$es. fewer Internet &ervice Providers (I&Ps) support ID1P. Encr#pted communication for P=P. =ther protocols." 1lthou$h most P=P clients have an option to leave mail on server after download. retrieve all messa$es.P and IMAP %Internet Message Access Protocol& are t$e two most prevalent Internet standard protocols for e'mail retrieval*+!. notabl# ID1P. Dan# e-mail clients support P=P as well as ID1P to retrieve messa$esJ however. .. e-mail clients usin$ P=P $enerall# connect. is either re@uested after protocol initiation.P0 service* .P. usin$ the &T'& command. and then disconnect. server listens on well-known port !!9. dubious – discuss" 1 P=P..&./irtually all modern e'mail clients and servers support (ot$* P. if supported. (Internet Dessa$e 1ccess Protocol) provide more complete and comple% remote access to t#pical mailbo% operations.verview P=P supports simple download-and-delete re@uirements for access to remote mailbo%es (termed maildrop in the P=P 3FCGs). 1= .
semantics. !" To reach a$reement a protocol ma# be developed into a technical standard. P=P. +hen messa$es are e%chan$ed throu$h a computer network. Communications protocol +ithin computer science. so there is a close analo$# between 11 . Thus.). software.rhosts access control.has been assi$ned well-known port !96.&E3(P1&& lo$in mechanism or 2erkele# . clients support &1&' authentication methods via the 1. Each messa$e has an e%act meanin$ intended to provoke a particular response of the receiver.6.b# 3FC 6. or both. Communications protocols have to be a$reed upon b# the parties involved. P=P. e%tension mechanisms. a protocol must define the s#nta%.4. Communicatin$ s#stems use well-defined formats for e%chan$in$ messa$es. the rules s#stem is called a network protocol. 1 programming language describes the same for computations.History P=P (P=P!) is specified in 3FC 6!8 (!684). Its current specification is 3FC !6. updated with an e%tension mechanism. The ori$inal P=P. DIT ProIect 1thena also produced a ?erberi0ed version. 3FC -446 and an authentication mechanism in 3FC !7. currentl# supports several authentication methods to provide var#in$ levels of protection a$ainst ille$itimate access to a userGs e-mail.7 (!68. P=P. 1 protocol can therefore be implemented as hardware.T* e%tension. The ori$inal specification of P=P. Dost are provided b# the P=P. P=P. a communications protocol is a s#stem of di$ital rules for messa$e e%chan$e within or between computers. specification supported onl# an unencr#pted . and s#nchroni0ation of communicationJ the specified behavior is t#picall# independent of how it is to be implemented. is 3FC !98! (!688).
This communication is $overned b# wellunderstood protocols. which can be embedded in the process code itself. because there is no common memor#. In di$ital computin$ s#stems. or other mediaMis $overned b# rules and conventions that can be set out in technical specifications called communication protocol standards. -" Communicating systems The information e%chan$ed between devicesMthrou$h a network. la#erin$ was applied to 12 . and individual s#stems ma# use different hardware and(or operatin$ s#stems. The nature of a communication. E%pressin$ the al$orithms in a portable pro$rammin$ lan$ua$e makes the protocol software operatin$ s#stem independent. . the rules can be e%pressed b# al$orithms and data structures. the actual data e%chan$ed and an# state-dependent behaviors. communicatin$ s#stems have to communicate with each other usin$ a shared transmission medium. the protocol software modules are interfaced with a framework implemented on the machineGs operatin$ s#stem. =peratin$ s#stems usuall# consist of a set of cooperatin$ processes that manipulate a shared data to communicate with each other. 1t the time the Internet was developed. To implement a networkin$ protocol. Transmission is not necessaril# reliable. la#erin$ had proven to be a successful desi$n approach for both compiler and operatin$ s#stem desi$n and." 4" In contrast." The best known frameworks are the TCP(IP model and the =&I model.protocols and pro$rammin$ lan$ua$esC protocols are to communications as programming languages are to computations. $iven the similarities between pro$rammin$ lan$ua$es and communication protocols. is defined b# its specification. This framework implements the networkin$ functionalit# of the operatin$ s#stem. .
much of the followin$ should be addressedC !!" • Data formats for data exchange. The selection of the ne%t protocol is accomplished b# e%tendin$ the messa$e with a protocol selector for each la#er. 1ppleTalk and TCP(IP. sometimes called a protocol famil# or protocol suite. Digital message #itstrings are exchanged.-. In $eneral. Conceptuall% the #itstring is divided into t-o parts called the header area and the data area. The functionalities are mapped onto the la#ers. transport-. Instead the# use a set of cooperatin$ protocols.. 8" &ome of the best known protocol suites includeC IPH(&PH.the protocols as well. for instance there is a $roup of transport protocols. 6" To transmit a messa$e. Protocols should therefore specif# rules $overnin$ the transmission. !9" 4asic re5uirements of protocols Dessa$es are sent and received on communicatin$ s#stems to establish communications.-. (itstrings longer than the maximum transmission unit $6*>& are divided in pieces of appropriate si?e. 7" &#stems t#picall# do not use a sin$le protocol to handle a transmission.. 5" This $ave rise to the concept of la#ered protocols which nowada#s forms the basis of protocol desi$n. internet.and network interface-functions. so some sort of multiple%in$(demultiple%in$ takes place. *he actual message is stored in the data area. 1H.2124 15 . for instanceC application-. each la#er solvin$ a distinct class of problems relatin$ to. H. so the header area contains the fields -ith more relevance to the protocol. *he #itstrings are divided in fields and each field carries information relevant to the protocol. a protocol has to be selected from each la#er. The protocols can be arran$ed based on functionalit# in $roups.
>suall% some address values have special meanings..ets.2174 • Acknow edgements of correct reception of pac. to their respective senders.ets on C0C differences and arranges someho.s -hich cannot guarantee error"free operation.2154 • Address mapping.ets is re'uired for connection"oriented communication.• Address formats for data exchange. *his -a% of connecting net-or. *he rules descri#ing the meanings of the address value are collectivel% called an addressing scheme.s is called internetworking. <n the Internet. C0Cs of the data area are added to the end of pac.for retransmission..no-ledgements are sent from receivers #ac. intermediar% s%stems along the route to the intended receiver$s& need to for-ard messages on #ehalf of the sender. receiver address). • Detection of transmission errors is necessar% on net-or. In a common approach. Ac.thernet hard-are address. A connection #et-een a sender and a receiver can #e identified using an address pair (sender address.ing it possi#le for the receiver to detect differences caused #% errors. Sometimes protocols need to map addresses of one scheme on addresses of another scheme.en to mean an addressing of all stations on the net-or. *he addresses are stored in the header area of the #itstrings. Addresses are used to identif% #oth the sender and the intended receiver$s&. allo-ing the receivers to determine -hether the #itstrings are intended for themselves and should #e processed or should #e ignored.2134 • Routing. ma. @hen s%stems are not directl% connected.s are connected using routers. An all"1s address could #e ta.2194 13 . the net-or. *his is referred to as address mapping. so sending to this address -ould result in a #roadcast on the local net-or. *he receiver re8ects the pac. )or instance to translate a logical I+ address specified #% the application to an .
As a result pieces ma% arrive out of se'uence. These kind of rules are said to 17 .s. individuall%. as. e'uipment can process the transmissions.ets ma% #e lost on the net-or.et -as not received and retransmit it. In case of a permanentl% #ro.control can #e implemented #% messaging from receiver to sender. *his is . for necessar% retransmissions and reassem#le the original message. *o cope -ith this. )lo. +ac. a sender ma% expect an ac. the receiver can determine -hat -as lost or duplicated.no-ledgement of correct reception from the receiver -ithin a certain amount of time. and then sent on the net-or.no-n as 6edia Access Control. *he pieces ma% get lost or dela%ed or ta.en lin. or suffer from long dela%s.e different routes to their destination on some t%pes of net-or. the sender must assume the pac.xceeding the retr% limit is considered an error. under some protocols. so a protocol has to specif# rules describin$ the conte%t.ing the pieces -ith se'uence information at the sender.21:4 • Direction of information f ow needs to #e addressed if transmissions can onl% occur in one direction at a time as on half"duplex lin.s. <n timeouts. The data received has to be evaluated in the conte%t of the pro$ress of the conversation.• !oss of information " timeouts and retries.21!4 • #e$uence contro . @e have seen that long #itstrings are divided in pieces. (% mar. Arrangements have to #e made to accommodate the case -hen t-o parties -ant to gain control at the same time. the retransmission has no effect so the num#er of retransmissions is limited. .22=4 Fettin$ the data across a network is onl# part of the problem for a protocol.21.4 • % ow contro is needed -hen the sender transmits faster than the receiver or intermediate net-or. 0etransmissions can result duplicate pieces..
=ther rules determine whether the data is meanin$ful for the conte%t in which the e%chan$e takes place. Internet service providers (I&Ps) have used PPP for customer dial-up access to the Internet.-. Description PPP was desi$ned somewhat after the ori$inal */'C specifications. without some data link protocol. It can provide connection authentication. transmission encr#ption (usin$ ECP. 19 . phone line. trunk line. and compression. :2F. PPP is also used over Internet access connections (now marketed as )broadband)). where it has lar$el# superseded the older &erial 'ine Internet Protocol (&'IP) and telephone compan# mandated standards (such as 'ink 1ccess Protocol. and fiber optic links such as &=:ET. protocol suite). are used most commonl# b# Internet &ervice Providers (I&Ps) to establish a /i$ital &ubscriber 'ine (/&') Internet service connection with customers.e%press the syntax of the communications. cellular telephone. :ovellGs Internetwork Packet E%chan$e (IPH). /ECnet and 1ppleTalk. includin$ Internet Protocol (IP). Point-to-point protocol In networkin$. PPP is commonl# used as a data link la#er protocol for connection over s#nchronous and as#nchronous circuits. These kind of rules are said to e%press the semantics of the communications. Two derivatives of PPP. 2alanced ('1P2) in the H. The desi$ners of PPP included man# additional features that had been seen onl# in proprietar# data-link protocols up to that time. the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol commonl# used in establishin$ a direct connection between two networkin$ nodes. The onl# re@uirement for PPP is that the circuit provided be full duple%. PPP is used over man# t#pes of ph#sical networks includin$ serial cable. PPP was desi$ned to work with numerous network la#er protocols. Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) and Point-to-Point Protocol over 1TD (PPPo1). 3FC !658). T3I''. speciali0ed radio links. since IP packets cannot be transmitted over a modem line on their own.
54 describes Point-to-Point Protocol over 1TD (PPPo1) as a method for transmittin$ PPP over 1TD 1daptation 'a#er . Individual users ma# read messa$es from and post messa$es to a local server operated b# a commercial usenet provider.senet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. thou$h posts are stored on the server se@uentiall#. /uke .senet resembles a bulletin board s#stem (22&) in man# respects. as with web forums and 22&es. the article is copied from server to server and should eventuall# reach ever# server in the network.senet can be superficiall# re$arded as a h#brid between email and web forums. In this fashion. . =ne notable difference between a 22& or web forum and . constantl# chan$in$ con$lomeration of servers that store and forward messa$es to one another in so-called news feeds.niversit# $raduate students Tom Truscott and <im Ellis conceived the idea in !676 and it was established in !689.sers read and post messa$es (called articles or posts. known as news$roups.CP dial-up network architecture. Introduction +hen a user posts an article. and collectivel# termed news) to one or more cate$ories. universit#. and is the precursor to Internet forums that are widel# used toda#.senet it is 1: . (11'. which is also a common alternative to PPPoE used with /&'.. PPP is a la#ered protocol that has three componentsC Usenet Usenet is a worldwide distributed Internet discussion s#stem. emplo#er. . Each news server talks to one or more other servers (its )newsfeeds)) and e%chan$es articles with them. !" . 3FC -.senet is distributed amon$ a lar$e. or their own server.3FC -.!5 describes Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) as a method for transmittin$ PPP over Ethernet that is sometimes used with /&'. /iscussions are threaded.). It was developed from the $eneral purpose . their Internet service provider. . it is initiall# onl# available on that userGs news server. The later peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principleJ but for .
Dan# sites on the ori$inal . 1! . and not alwa#s available. The $roups in alt.senet was desi$ned under conditions when networks were much slower.senet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums. &ome have noted that this seems an inefficient protocol in the era of abundant hi$h-speed network access.senet differs from such media in several wa#sC . The difference between the two is that .senet has si$nificant cultural importance in the networked world. . as opposed to email messa$es which have one or more specific recipients. but a news client. rather than the receiver.senet articles can be read b# an# user whose news server carries the $roup to which the messa$e was posted. or populari0ed. . 4" This is lar$el# because the P=T& (telephone) network was t#picall# used for transfers. . who initiates transfers. 5" Toda#.normall# the sender.senet re@uires no personal re$istration with the $roup concernedJ information need not be stored on a remote serverJ archives are alwa#s availableJ and readin$ the messa$es re@uires not a mail or web client. . havin$ $iven rise to.senet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messa$es. blo$s and mailin$ lists. man# widel# reco$ni0ed concepts and terms such as )F1N) and )spam).binaries are still widel# used for data transfer. . and phone char$es were lower at ni$ht.senet network would connect onl# once or twice a da# to batch-transfer messa$es in and out." The format and transmission of .