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# Unit 112

Level: 6

## Circuits and Waves

Introduction This unit is about electrical circuits and includes electromagnetic fields and waves. Unit aim The aim of this unit is to develop sufficient skills and techniques in solving problems with electrical circuits and networks. It also includes problems on electromagnetic fields and waves. Learning outcomes There are two learning outcomes to this unit. The learner will: 1. Solve problems involving electrical circuits and networks 2. Solve problems involving electromagnetic field and waves Guided learning hours It is recommended that 150 hours should be allocated for this unit of which 60 would be direct taught hours while the remainder is for independent study and laboratory practical work. The unit may be carried out on a full time or part time basis. Assessment This unit will be assessed by means of one three hour examination paper plus satisfactory completion of prescribed assignments and laboratory work. The assessments will be carried out separately. The learner is expected to have knowledge on basic circuit theory and to know the basic laws of electric and magnetic fields as per the City & Guilds Advanced Technician Diploma 8030-221 or relevant HND or other equivalent.

Outcome 1
Assessment Criteria The learner can:

## Solve problems involving electrical circuits and networks

Circuit Analysis 1. Explain the superposition theorem. 2. Apply the superposition theorem to calculate voltage and current of dc and ac circuits with multiple sources. 3. Explain the disadvantages of working directly with the branch variables in solving circuit problems. 4. Write the matrix equation for Mesh analysis from the equilibrium equations and by inspection. 5. Write the matrix equation for Nodal analysis from the equilibrium equations and by inspection. 6. Solve the matrix equations for both mesh and nodal analysis. 7. Draw the network graph, trees and co-trees for the given electrical network. 8. Form the tie-set matrices and cut-set matrices for the given tree. 9. Form the mesh impedance matrix and mesh source vector. 10. Form the nodal admittance matrix and vector for the nodal injected currents. 11. Form the matrix equilibrium equations for mesh analysis and nodal analysis and solve them. Electrical network and their functions 12. Explain how passive network function is represented by pole zero plot. 13. Synthesize an LC network having given impedance in Foster and Cauer Forms. 14. Obtain transient and steady state response of a given passive network using nodal and mesh analysis. Two port network 15. Derive A, B, C, D, Y, Z and H parameters for a two-port network. 16. Transfer the parameters of a given network from one to another. 17. Derive parameters of composite network obtained by connecting a number of networks in different ways. 18. Obtain expressions for characteristic impedance and propagation constant. 19. Explain how two-port network theory relates to transmission line. Laplace Transform, Fourier series and Fourier Transform 20. Define Laplace transform as a definite integral. 21. Obtain transform of simple functions. 22. Explain the need for a table of standard transforms. 23. Derive the transform of f(t)eat . 24. Define inverse Laplace transform. 25. Determine inverse transform of simple functions using a table of standard transforms. 26. Uses the method of partial fractions to find the inverse transform of more complicated functions. 27. Explain the principle of the Fourier Series representation of periodic signals. 28. Define the generalized Fourier series. 29. Prove the expressions used to evaluate the coefficients of a Fourier series. 30. Explain what is meant by an even and odd function. 31. Evaluate the frequency components of typical periodic signal (rectangular pulse train, Triangular and saw tooth etc).

Outcome 2

## Solve problems involving electromagnetic field and waves

Assessment Criteria The learner can: 1. Apply Gauss law for electric flux density calculation. 2. Calculate electric field strength (E) and Electric flux density (D) of different objects such as rod, sphere, disc, plates with the distribution of electric charge. 3. Calculate capacitance of different configurations such as parallel plates and concentric

cylinders. 4. Calculate the energy in an electrostatic field. 5. Define magnetic field strength in terms of magnetic flux density. 6. Apply Amperes Circuital law to solenoids and toroids. 7. Explain the relationship between mmf, flux and reluctance. 8. Produce an electric circuit analogue for magnetic circuit. 9. Calculate magnetic force and torque due to current carrying conductor. 10. Calculate capacitance and inductance per unit length of wire pair and coaxial line. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation 11. Obtain Maxwells equations in integral and differential forms. 12. Obtain wave equation for free space and for a lossy medium for uniform plane wave propagation. 13. Determine the energy stored in an electromagnetic wave using Poynting Theorem. 14. Explain Polarization of electromagnetic waves. 15. Examine reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves when incident at a boundary. 16. Determine the reflection coefficient at normal incidence and at oblique incidence at a boundary separating two dielectric media. 17. Explain wave propagation through rectangular metal waveguides. 18. Determine the dominant mode and identify propagating modes; TE and TM. 19. Determine the power transmitted through a rectangular waveguide. 20. Draw radiation pattern of antennas; isotropic, omni-directional and directive antennas. 21. Define, directivity, gain, radiation resistance of an antenna. 22. Express the far field electric field due to an infinitesimal dipole, short dipole, half-wave dipole, monopole, small loop and large loop and draw their radiation patterns. 23. Express antenna impedance of an infinitesimal dipole, short dipole, half-wave dipole, monopole, small loop and large loop. 24. Draw radiation patterns of uniform linear isotropic arrays; broadside and end-fire arrays and obtain beam-width between first nulls and discuss applications of antenna arrays. 25. Obtain beam-width, directivity and gain of horn antenna and parabolic reflector antenna.

## Test specification for written paper

This examination paper is of three hours duration structured in two parts (A and B) with five questions in each part giving a total of ten (10) questions. The learners must answer five (05) questions in total by selecting at least one question from each section. The examination will cover the knowledge specifications: Topic sections Section A Circuit Analysis Electrical network and their functions Two port network Laplace transform Fourier series and Fourier Transform Section B Electric and Magnetic Fields Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Approximate % examination weighting 10 10 10 10 10 25 25

The requirements to achieve overall success for this unit are: Written examination Pass /Merit /Distinction Practical work Pass