Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION

Development of Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) was one of the biggest mile stones in the history of mankind. With industrial revolution, the fuel consumption was dramatically increased thanks to the growth of automobile field along with increase in industrial fuel consumption. Control of pollution was also a concern for engineers. Better and better designs were put forward to address the problem. Even though the attempts were successful, there are increasing challenges in this area. The key challenges for ICEs in the context of energy are in Arbitrary order: (a) To reduce the effect of ICEs on climate change due to emissions (of green house gases, mainly CO2 but alsoN2O and of particulates). (b) To use in ICEs new fuels, developed in the context of either sustainability or energy security (e.g. gas to liquid, bio-derived), consistent with challenges (a), (c) and (d). (c) To reduce the effect of ICEs on health due to their emitting pollutants (e.g.NOx, particulates, aldehydes, etc.).This challenge is related to energy because many of the measures to reduce, o r limit, the emissions of noxious pollutants are costly in terms of energy. It is an important challenge because the legislation associated with emissions has arguably been the key challenge in the past two decades, and so inevitably determines the current scientific challenges and is certain to remain a key driver for at least the next decade (d) To reduce the consumption of primary energy resources, particularly in the context of ‘security of supply’. Soon after the invention of the conventional internal combustion engine, engineers realized that a tremendous savings in both weight and energy could be realized if the combustion of gasoline could be used to produce rotary motion directly instead of via the reciprocating action of the typical piston engine. The engineer who transformed this idea into a working rotary engine was a German inventor Felix Wankel, beginning with drawings and prototypes
1

has the merit of constant volume heat addition and high compression ratio. 2 .in the 1920s. claims to have an upper hand over the present piston engines as well as rotary engines. Several modifications for Wankel Engine were proposed along with other type of rotary engines. This new design. He worked through the 1940s and 1950s to improve the design. Diji N J (Indian patent. that the Wankel rotary was developed to the point of actually being useable in a motor vehicle. patent no is 207449). patented by Mr. Anyoon Rotary engine is such a new concept rotary engine. when Wankel began collaboration with German car and motorcycle manufacturer NSU. which is only in the proposed stage. His first patent for a rotary piston engine was granted in 1936.

Many of them were successfully installed. 3 . the goal of emissions compliance further restricts the design possibilities for an optimized IC engine are mentioned in Advanced Internal Combustion Research-Hydrogen Program Review. recent patented developments in heat and mass recirculating systems over 10 years (2000-2009). (6) A set of Rankine steam cycle system is coupled on IC engine exhaust pipe. Implementation of electronics – micro processor control was a remarkable development in the field of IC engines. Caris and Nelson (1959) investigated the use of high compression ratios for improving the thermal efficiency of a production V8 spark ignition engine. Ganesan (10).Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. New methods or modifications were put forward as given in Jianqin Fu a et al. its effect on combustion is given in Wojciech M.Taylor (4). since it uses IC engine exhaust pressure energy to drive the turbine [Jianqin Fu a et al. Electronic Fuel Injection systems.1 Improvement in efficiency Improvement of Thermal efficiency of IC engine was one of the favourite fields of engineers and scientists researching on Thermodynamics and a number of efficiency improvement techniques was put forward from various parts of the world in various times.(9).M. (6)] . Another type of approaches were also there for improving efficiency. Still intense studies are going on in this area as the thermal efficiency of IC engine is around 25% on an average as given in C. Edson (1964) analytically investigated the efficiency potential of the ideal Otto cycle using compression ratios (CR) up to 300:1. which uses IC engine exhaust energy to generate steam and then drive the turbine.finite burn duration when using high compression ratios. Electronic Control Systems improved fuel economy considerably. udzianowski(8). Injection Timing Systems. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Harold Schock et al (7). For heat recovery from IC engine and thermal efficiency enhancement various techniques were introduced. Exhaust turbo charging is used most widely as a method for IC engine exhaust energy recovery (EER). V. Difficulties still faced by designers .

Prior to 1910. Developed by the German engineer Felix Wankel in 1956. it has a disk that looks like a triangle with bulging sides rotating inside a cylinder shaped like a figure eight with a thick waist. Furthermore.2 Rotary Engine Designs for rotary engines were proposed as early as 1588 by Ramelli. Constant volume heat addition can provide 50% more power as given in Gordon P Blair (11). more than 2000 patents for rotary pistons were filed as in Wankel [5] . it took Felix Wankel to catalogue and organizes 862 configuration pairs. though it took the development of the Otto cycle engine in 1876 and the advent of the automobile in 1896 to set the stage for a proper rotary combustion engine. Donald A Kelly (12) . Wankel investigated 149.(9). 2. and thus the highest possible thermal efficiencies Advanced Internal Combustion Research-Hydrogen Program Review. The most successful rotary engine developed is sill the Wankel engine.3 Problem Description Understanding the scope of development in the improvement of IC engine efficiency can be understood from the heat balance given graphically as below: 4 .Constant volume combustion or heat addition at constant volume condition leads to the highest possible peak temperatures. 2. A large number of patents were registered in various verities of Rotary engine like cylindrical outer housing with a special shaped stator cavity which provides a maximum compression ratio. of which 278 were impractical. being an example.

is increased thermal efficiency . The major advantage of newly proposed Anyoon Rotary Engine (ARE) . in economical terms.In order for better understanding. It has got merits of rotary engine and covers many drawbacks of early designs. and it can address the above said problems. 5 .

The spaces between the sides of the disk and the walls of the cylinder form combustion pockets. then larger. because of the contoured outline of the cylinder.Wankel Engine and ARE: Wankel engine has a disk that looks like a triangle with bulging sides rotating inside a cylinder shaped like a figure eight with a thick waist. This provides for compression and expansion (Fig 1-2). During a single rotation of the disk each pocket alternately grows smaller. Fig. The engine runs on a four-stroke cycle.2: Wankel Engine Newly proposed engine details are listed below 6 . Intake and exhaust are through ports in the flat sides of the cylinder.

Casing: Casing is shaped like a hollow cylinder with sides closed and opening in the side for drive shaft. They block the gap between rotor profile and casing and is operated by a groove cam integrated to rotor. Valves: There are 4 valves in this engine. Thus no leakage between side of groove and 7 . Basic parts: Fig.Rotor: The width of the top of this in such a way that it seals the gap in the casing and the thickness of it is in such away that the opening in the combustion chamber can be completely sealed when it comes in line with it. In the new Seal a microcellular (closed) rubber strip is affixed to the inside of seal and spring is inserted in Rubber.3 Newly designed rubber sealing is one of the distinguishing features of the new engine. It has two combustion chambers with an opening into the cylinder and there is a spark plug / injector inside combustion chamber. In such a way that when inserted in groove microcellular rubber strip seals the gap between inside of grove and seal. This provides complete sealing between rotor and casing.

compression takes place in combustion chamber1 between intake stopper2 and lobe2 of rotor as shown in figure3 (blue letter c shows compression). intake stopper1operates inwards and intake takes place between intake stopper1. Intake continues in figure2. Two cycles per revolutions are completed per revolution of rotor since at any time four phases of four different cycles are present simultaneously at four different compartments of the rotary engine. Since we have control over injected water suitable additives can be added to prevent corrosion like alkaline materials to neutralize acid formation. Above all pressure of the compressed microcellular rubber strip produces a more uniform pressure along the surface of the seal to the wall. Since charge is cooler higher compression ratio can be achieved. In figure2 exhaust is happening through exhaust port1. 8 . Since exhaust side and intake side are separate intake side is cooler than exhaust side and less heat is transferred from rotor to charge. Then as lobe2 crosses exhaust stopper2. lobe2 and exhaust flange of rotor.side of seal occurs. Thus one cycle is completed in 2 revolutions of rotor for combustion chamber1. lobe1 and intake flange of rotor as shown in figure1 (blue letter i shows intake). through exhaust port1. exhaust port2 is closed by intake flange of rotor. water vaporizes and pushes rotor (yet to study practicality and various technical problems of water injection). Then as lobe2 closes combustion chamber1 ignition takes place. Then as lobe1 crosses intake stopper2 intake stopper2 operates inwards. Rotor rotates counter clockwise. Constant volume heat addition takes place until the whole width of lobe2 crosses combustion chamber1. Then water is injected in combustion chamber. In figure1 power stroke continues (red letter p shows power stroke of same cycle). As the design in such a way that the exhaust side is bigger than intake side giving high expansion ratio. exhaust stopper1 operates inwards and exhaust is happening between exhaust stopper1 and lobe1. Similarly another cycle is happening in combustion chamber2. exhaust stopper2 operates inwards and power stroke takes place between exhaust stopper2. as lobe1 crosses intake stopper1. In figure3 as lobe2 crosses exhaust stopper1. This result in uniform sealing and less wearing of seal.Intake port2 is closed by exhaust flange of rotor.

Fig.4 9 .

We can be sure about the practicality of the engine only after developing a working model and conduct laboratory tests. I am only doing CFD simulation of the engine. 10 . In my project work. using Ansys CFD solvers.

with same parameters for comparison. indicative torque. CFD simulation of the engine in Fluent was planned for next stage. power are compared and PV diagram was plotted with obtained results. In addition to thermal efficiency.  The causes for deviation in standard cycle in the case of present engines were identified and its possible effects on the ARE engine were listed   The importance of constant volume combustion was studied. 11 . and that of the piston engine was calculated.Chapter 3 METHEDOLOGY  The efficiencies of the ARE were calculated with air standard cycle.

Practically. ARE takes care of all the major losses that affect piston engine.irreversibilities. deviation from constant volume combustion etc. the new rotary engine has 69% while with same parameters piton engine has only 58%. from preliminary calculations is high. The available work in ARE.5 12 . But. as shown below: Fig. engines show only half of the calculated efficiencies due to a number of reasons like frictional loss.1 Calculation Indicated Thermal efficiency when calculated in air standard cycle assumption .Chapter 4 RESULTS 4.

2 Future Work:  Modelling and testing of the proposed engine using CFD. Fuel –air cycle study should be done inorder to account for the variation in specific heats. Entire working of the rotary engine can be simulated in ANSYS work bench including friction. So Brake Thermal Efficiency can be calculated.4. in Fluent is the main stage of the work. The quality of mesh needed and the time needed for a quality work are the present concerns. effect of dissociation etc. 13 . Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) Transient motion of structure CFD can be coupled.     Modelling of Combustion can be done in ANSYS.

1969. Design of rotary engines from the apex seal profile. Taylor Automobile engine tribology design considerations for efficiency and Durability .’ Internal Combustion Engines’.M. 38. 1–8 int. Wear 221 _1998 5. 6. AUGUST 1989. Energy Policy 36 (2008) 4657 --4667 2. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. ‘Towards Improvements in Thermal Efficiency and Reduced Harmful Emissions of Combustion Processes by Using Recirculation of Heat and Mass: A Review’. 150-159 Applied thermal engineering. Jianqin Fu a. Gordon P Blair. Wankel. 2013.REFERENCE 1. Recent Patents in Mechanical Engineering (2009) 9. Budzianowski and Ryszard Miller.C. ‘Science Review of IC Engines’. Chengqin Ren b. Guohui Zhu ‘A new approach for exhaust energy recovery of internal combustion engine: Steam turbocharging’ p. ‘Estimate of Indicated Torque from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations: A Model for the Dynamics of the IC Engine’.j. Taylor .1965. Sarah Warren and Daniel C.K. Rotary Piston Machines.Ramin Barzegar and Ali Mirizadeh . World Applied Sciences Journal 18 (7): 890-895. 13.Harold Schock. NO. Eldon Case.P. 3. Int.H.’Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine PoweredVehicle’. 14 . SAE press. Tata Mcgraw Hill Publications 11.J.Ganesan. Mechanism and Machine Theory .F.2013. Yanping Yang a. Peter Van Blarigan. 12. Wojciech M. ‘ ADVANCED INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE RESEARCH’ 10. 3. 7. Iowa State university (2009). Giorgio Rizzoni . ‘Design and Simulation of Four Stroke Engines’. Iliffe Books. Second Edition.’Three Dimensional Modeling of Combustion Process and Emission Formation in Spark Ignition Engine’.Alex M. High Compression Rotary Engine. VOL. V. United States patent office (3452725). 1996. 8. Jingping Liu b. Thierry Caillet. Charles Cauchy . 2012 4. Yang.

15 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful