An organization is a collection of people who work together to achieve individual and organizational goals

DefinitionOrganizationalbehaviour, is
Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people organization relationships in ter!s of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social syste!. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving hu!an ob"ectives, organizational ob"ectives, and social ob"ectives.

Organizational behavior studies organizations from multiple viewpoints and levels, including behavior within the organization and in relation to other organizations.
Micro organizational behavior refers to individual and group dynamics in an organizational setting. Macro organizational theory studies whole organizations and industries, including how they adapt, and the strategies, structures, and contingencies that guide them.

OB highlights four central characteristics of the field: • It is firmly grounded in the scientific method • It studies individuals, groups, and organizations. • It is interdisciplinary in nature. • It is used as the basis for enhancing orgainsational effectiveness and individual well being. !he study of OB involves: • "onsideration of the interaction among the formal structure #organizational conte$t in which the process of management takes place% • !he technology employed and the methods of carrying out work • !he behaviour of people

• !he process of management • !he e$ternal environment Interrelated dimensions influencing behaviour: • !he Individual & working environment should satisfy individual needs as well as attainment of organizational goals • !he 'roup formal and informal. (nderstanding of groups complements a knowledge of individual behaviour. • !he Organisation & impact of organization structure and design, and patterns of management, on behaviour. • !he )nvironment & technological and scientific development, economic activity, and governmental actions. Providesa set of toolsthat allow: • People to understand, analyze, and describe behavior in organizations • Managers to improve, enhance, or change work behaviors so that individuals, groups and the whole organization can achieve their goals

Generalisationsabouthumanbehaviour: > happy workers are productive workers. > Individuals are most productive when the boss is friendly, reliable and unassuming. > behaviour of good leaders is consistent irrespective of the situations they face. > Interviews are effective selection devices. > Everybody likes a challenging job > People will have to be bullied/intimidated to make them to do their jobs. > Money motivates all. > >People are more concerned about their own salaries than others’. >Members of effective groups do not quarrel among themselves.

A Short Historyof OrganizationalBehavior The Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the essence of leadership. Aristotle addressed the topic of persuasive communication. The writings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius in 500 BC are beginning to influence contemporary thinking about ethics and leadership. The writings of 16th century Italian philosopher Niccolò Machiavelli laid the foundation for contemporary work on

Adam Smith advocated a new form of organizational structure based on the division of labour. Influential work was done by Herbert Alexander Simon and James G. Australian-born Harvard professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues conducted productivity studies at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant in the United States. In the 1920s. much of it at Stanford University and Carnegie Mellon. Abraham Maslow . and Victor Vroom. Informal Organization . Institutional Theory . German sociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismatic leadership. Contingency Theory . and Organizational Ecology theories. They discovered the importance of formal and informal group dynamics in the work place. Studies of different compensation systems were carried out. Resource Dependence . among . a transformation propelled by the identification of the Hawthorne Effect .organizational power and politics. In 1776. the study of organizations with a complexity theory perspective and complexity strategy. including systems theory. with Taylorism representing the peak of this movement. of organizational behavior In the 1960s and 1970s. Proponents of scientific management held that rationalizing the organization with precise sets of instructions and time-motion studies would lead to increased productivity. Carnegie School & quot. as the invention of large-scale logistics and operations research led to a renewed interest in rationalist approaches to the study of organizations. the field was strongly influenced by social psychology and the emphasis in academic study was on quantitative research . the focus of organizational studies shifted to analysis of how human factors and psychology affected organizations. An explosion of theorizing. One hundred years later. After the First World War. The Second World War further shifted the field. motivation . Henri Fayol . This Human Relations Movement focused on teams . resulting in a dramatic shift towards the ‘human relations’ school of thought. and the actualization of the goals of individuals within organizations. Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees. Frederick Herzberg . organizational studies is generally considered to have begun as an academic discipline with the advent of scientific management in the 1890s. produced Bounded Rationality . Though it traces its roots back to Max Weber and earlier. March and the so-called &quot. Interest grew in theory and methods native to the sciences. David McClelland . Prominent early scholars included Chester Barnard . Soon after.

psychology and sociology . and experiment with ways of improving the way tasks are performed. capacity. Qualitative methods of study became more acceptable. believing that humans are primarily motivated by money. Started in 1924– to examine the relationship between light intensity and employee productivity – a test group and a control group were used – the test group initially did not show any increase or decrease in output in proportion to the . A leading scholar was Karl Weick FrederickWinslowTaylorFrederickWinslowTaylor(1856–1915) was the first person who attempted to study human behavior at work using a systematic approach. and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level. durability. Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures. speed. cost and their interaction with each other. physical environment. Study the way employees perform their tasks. 4. informed by anthropology . Carefully select employees so that they possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task. 3. 1924-1932 – these studies mark the starting point of the field of Organisational Behaviour Initiated as an attempt to investigate how characteristics of the work setting affect employee fatigue and performance (i. lighting)..many others. Starting in the 1980s. including being accused of telling managers to treat workers as machines without minds. Establish an acceptable level of performance for a task. task. cultural explanations of organizations and change became an important part of study. but his work was very productive and laid many foundation principles for modern management studies Four Principles of Scientific Management 1. Found that productivity increased regardless of whether illumination was raised or lowered. and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures.e. gather informal job knowledge that employees possess. 2. Taylor studied human characteristics. His overall objective was to reduce and/or remove human variability Taylor worked to achieve his goal of making work behaviors stable and predictable so that maximum output could be achieved. The HawthorneStudies Hawthorne Works of the Western Electric Company near Chicago. He relied strongly upon monetary incentive systems. He faced some strong criticism. social environment.

#econd.    Components of Attitudes . and will try to do as little as possible Manager’s task is to supervise closely and control employees through reward and punishment Theory Y Employees will do what is good for the organization when committed Manager’s task is create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for employees to be exercise initiative http://www.slideshare. attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has !eelings $sometimes called %a!!ect&' and belie! ATTITUDE The attitude is the evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects. Third. MaryParkerFollett Management must consider the human side Employees should be involved in job analysis Person with the knowledge should be in control of the work process regardless of position Cross-functioning teams used to accomplish projects DouglasMcGregor: Theory X and Theory Y Theory X Average employee is lazy. but productivity increased. something besides the level of illumination was causing the change in productivity – the complex human variable.increase/decrease in illumination. dislikes work. Subsequent phases brought the level of light down to moonlight intensity: the workers could barely see what they were doing. ore precisely attitudes can be de!ined as a persistent tendency to !eel and behave in a particular way toward some object which may include events or individuals as well. Obviously. The control group with unchanged illumination increased output by the same amount overall by the test group. or events. The results baffled the researchers. attitudes can !all anywhere along a continuum !rom very !avorable to very un!avorable. people. Attitude can be characterized in three ways: "irst. they tend to persist unless something is done to change them.

: -/m looking !or other work0 -/ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen. it is likely to be translated into a particular type o! behavior. )!ter introducing a particular policy.: . e. such as buying or procuring that object. Affective Component of Attitude re!ers to the emotional aspect o! attitude.  Attitudes he p predict wor" behavior# The !ollowing e. These develop over time. e. Behaviora Component of Attitude re!ers to the behavioral part o! attitude.: y supervisor gave a promotion to a coworker who deserved it less than me. These in turn give rise to development o! your attitudes.The three basic components o! attitude are (ognitive.  Attitudes he p peop e to adapt to their wor" environment# )n understanding o! attitudes is also important because attitudes help the employees to get adjusted to their work. that the workers are not too happy about it.positive attitude among the employees.ample might help to illustrate it. +hen you !orm your opinion or judgment on the basis o! available in!ormation and decide whether you have a !avorable or un!avorable opinion on that. This is perhaps the most o!ten re!erred part o! attitude and decides mostly the desirable or undesirable aspect attitude.dislike my supervisor. e.   !ormation of Attitude 1ow attitudes are !ormed2 1ow do you develop your attitude2 3ssentially attitudes are the outward mani!estation o! your inner values and belie!s. )!!ective and *ehavioural part. thus !orming your value system. 4uring the subse5uent week it is !ound that the attendance o! the employees drops sharply !rom the previous standard.  Cognitive Component of Attitude re!ers to opinion or belie! part o! attitude. . 1ere management may conclude that a negative attitude toward new work rules led to increased absenteeism. they will be better adjusted to their work. -! the management can success!ully develop a. it the cognitive part o! attitude we are talking about. it is !ound !rom an attitude survey. -! we have a positive attitude !or a particular object. y supervisor is un!air. )s you grow you watch the signi!icant people around you behaving in a particular way0 you are being told to cherish certain things over others and you learn !rom your teachers and peers and come to value certain thins over other.

a manager who values hard and sincere work will be more vocal against an employee who is having a very casual approach towards work. #ometimes people simply see any reason to change their attitude due to unavailability o! ade5uate in!ormation. These are as !ollows.  The 6nowledge "unction. There are some barriers wliich have to be overcome i! one strives to change somebody/s attitude. Changing Attitudes Emp oyees( attitudes can be ) changed and sometimes it is in the best interests of managements to try to do so# !or e'amp e* if emp oyees be ieve that their emp oyer does not oo" after their we fare* the management shou d try to change their attitude and he p deve op a more positive attitude in them# +owever* the process of changing the attitude is not a ways easy. There are two major categories o! barriers that come in the way o! changing attitudes: 8. 9rior commitment when people !eel a commitment towards a particular course o! action that have already been agreed upon and thus it becomes di!!icult !or them to change or accept the new ways o! !unctioning. joins the organization. -n other words. Attitudes often he p peop e to ad$ust to their wor" environment# +ell-treated employees tend to develop a positive attitude towards their job. :. attitudes serve !our important !unctions !rom the viewpoint o! organizational behaviour.!unctions of Attitude )ccording to 6atz.and perceive the world around him. whatever the management does.  Ego%Defensive !unction# Attitudes he p peop e to retain their dignity and se f% image# +hen a young !aculty member who is !ull o! !resh ideas and enthusiasm.  The &a ue%E'pressive !unction.  The Ad$ustment !unction. management and the organization in general while berated and ill treated organizational members develop a negative attitude. )ttitudes provide standards and !rames o! re!erence that allow people to understand. attitudes help employees adjust to their environment and !orm a basis !or !uture behaviour. *ut they tend to disapprove his creative ideas as 7crazy/ and 7impractical/ and dismiss him altogether. the older members might !eel somewhat threatened by him.ample. . -! one has a strong negative attitude towards the management. even employee wel!are programmes can be perceived as something 7bad/ and as actually against them. -nsu!!icient in!ormation also acts as a major barrier to change attitudes. Attitudes provide individua s with a basis for e'pressing their va ues# "or e.

he person might resolve the his dilemma. . chances are high that an individual will slowly accept that even when he had initial reservations !or that. #canty and incomplete in!ormation can be a major reason !or brewing negative !eeling and attitudes. the degree o! the arousal o! !ear will have to be taken into consideration as well. 1owever. Inf uence of friends and peers ) very e!!ective way o! changing one/s attitude is through his !riends and colleagues.ew Information# #ometimes a dramatic change in attitude is possible only by providing relevant and ade5uate in!ormation to the person concerned. 9eople might resort to change their work habit !or the !ear o! !ear o! unpleasant conse5uences.ike in the case o! the union leader who are all the time vehemently against any management decision. <<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<<< < How Are Employee Attitudes Measured? • The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitude surveys. can be the person who takes active initiative in implementing a new policy when he had participated in that decision making process himsel!. /eso ving Discrepancies: +henever %people !ace %a dilemma or con!licting situation they !eel con!used in choosing a particular course o! action.ike in the case where one is to choose !rom& between two alternative courses o! action. it is o!ten become di!!icult !or him to decide which is right !or him. )ttitudes can be changed through the use o! !ear. it is o!ten becomes very e!!ective i! you can include him in your own group.ample. Their opinion and recommendation !or something o!ten proves to be more important. -! some one helps him in pointing out the positive points in !avour o! the chosen course o! action. . -! !or e. Use of !ear. Co%opting. he might still !eel con!used. -! you want to change the attitude o! some body who belongs to a di!!erent group.ome of the possib e ways of changing attitudes are described be ow# -roviding . they are all praise !or a particular policy introduced in the work place. .. 3ven when he chooses one over the other.

Managers present the employee with set statements or questions to obtain specific information. Individual Responses are then combined and analyzed Important Attitudes /e ated to 0rganisations: • =ob #atis!action > is a set o! !avorable or un!avorable !eelings and emotions with which employees view their work. and culture) .” A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences (Locke. An employee’s cognitive and affective evaluation of his or her job Determinants of Job Satisfaction: • Personality (the enduring ways a person has of feeling. and considers per!ormance important to sel!worth. • Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably.the degrees to which a person identi!ies with a job. • =ob -nvolvement . supervisors.the degree to which an employee identi!ies with a particular organizational and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization. pay and job security) • Values (intrinsic and extrinsic work values) • Social Influence (coworkers. groups. and behaving) • Work Situation (the work itself. thinking. and subordinates. =?* #)T-#")(T-?@ A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job • A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice versa. coworkers. and working hours.• Using attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback on how employees perceive their working conditions. • Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee job satisfaction. actively participates in it. • ?rganizational (ommitment . physical working conditions. 1976).

Workplace Deviance • Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize abuse substances. steal. which helps build long-term customer relationships Organizational Citizenship behavior (OCB) • Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. • Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. and responsive. and withdraw CognitiveDissonance • A state of tension that is produced when an individual experiences conflict between attitudes and behavior Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Leon Festinger • Any Incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes or between behavior • Internal state that results when individuals notice inconsistency between 2 or more of their attitudes or between their attitudes and their behavior . Customer Satisfaction • Satisfied workers provide better customer service Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: • They are more friendly.The Effectof Job Satisfactionon EmployeePerformance Job Performance • Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! • Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. be tardy. upbeat. • They are less likely to turnover. Turnover • Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Absenteeism • Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. 93G(39T-?@ • is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world (Lindsay & Norman. Stimulation 2. Interpretation . Organization http://www. Registration 3.Self Perception Theory • Daryl Bem • Asserts that we develop our attitudes by observing our own behavior and concluding what attitudes must have caused them!!ects http://www. Four Stages: 1.slideshare.wordpress. 1977).

people are selective in what they perceive and tend to filter information based on the capacity to absorb new data. combined with preconceived thoughts. evaluating a person’s characteristics by comparison to others (contrast effect).com/borkowski/chapterC. Van der Heijden. a person must process information selectively and. 1989) and selective perception as a result of activation of cortical maps and neural networks (Rizzolatti & Craighero.e. Recent studies of the brain have also led to new models. perceiving others in ways that really reflect a perceiver’s own attitudes and beliefs (projection). Therefore. A “Selectionfor-Action View” suggests that filtering is not just a consequence of capacity limitations.. http://healthadmin. However. Broadbent’s filter theory has been updated in recent years. . but is driven by goal-directed actions (Allport. Selective perception occurs when an individual limits the processing of external stimuli by selectively interpreting what he or she sees based on beliefs. one will skip over information that does not support one’s plan. when one is working toward a goal. etc. experience. methods of delivery such as visual and auditory). due to limited capacity. This is accomplished through various means such as classifying an individual based on a single characteristic (halo effect). when presented with information from two different channels (i. In any case. Neumann. attitudes. judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs (stereotyping). 1992). perceptual defense creates an internal barrier that limits the external stimuli passing through the perception process when it is not congruent with the person’s current beliefs. 1987. 1998). 1993. or controlling another person’s perception of oneself (impression management). motivation. an individual’s perceptual system processes only that which it believes to be most relevant. at the same time. filtering other aspects that are action irrelevant. 1945). suggesting multiple channels of processing (Pashler. The concept is that any action requires the selection of certain aspects of the environment that are action relevant and. causing a person to act erroneously based on another person’s perception (pygmalion effect). or attitudes (Sherif & Cantril.pd! SocialPerception Social perceptionis how an individual “sees” others and how others perceive an individual. therefore.Broadbent (1958) addressed the concept of perceptual vigilance with his filter model. Broadbent argued that. This is referred to as selective perception. on the one hand.jbpub. 1987.

or appearance. Contrast effectsrelate to an individual’s evaluation of another person’s characteristics based on (or affected by) comparisons with other people who rank higher or lower on the same . Projection Whereas. sociability. For example. Study participants were asked to complete an Implicit Associations Test to assess overall implicit weight bias (associating “obese people” and “thin people” with “good” vs “bad”) and three ranges of stereotypes: lazy–motivated. such as intelligence. where we attribute our own attitudes onto someone else as a defense against our feelings of anxiety or guilt. Chambliss. Blair & Billington. A study on obesity conducted with health professionals and researchers reflects the horn effect concept. The study respondents were much quicker to pair “fat’’ with “lazy’’ and other negative traits and/or stereotypes (Schwartz. then the manager may also erroneously perceive the employee as having competencies in other areas such as management or technology Opposite to the halo effect is the horn effect. Although stereotyping can be positive because it allows us to Contrast Effects Research has provided evidence that perceptions are also subject to what is termed perceptual contrast effects.Halo Effect The halo effect occurs when an individual draws a general impression about another person based on a single characteristic. smart–stupid. the term stereotype is defined to mean a conventional image applied to whole groups of people. whereby a person evaluates another as low on many traits because of a belief that the individual is low on one trait that is assumed to be critical (Thorndike. along with his daughter Anna Freud (1936). All of us are guilty of unconsciously projecting our own beliefs onto others. 1920). and valuable– worthless. Brownell. suggested that projection was a defensive mechanism. Sigmund Freud (1894). contrast effect is the perception of an individual based on the comparison to others. 2003). and the treatment of groups according to a fixed set of generalized traits or characteristics. if an employee performs a difficult accounting task well due to the manager’s belief of the employee’s high intelligence. projection is the attribution of one’s own attitudes and beliefs onto others. The perceiver may evaluate the other individual high on many traits because of his or her belief that the individual is high in one trait. Stereotyping As such.

or self-fulfilling prophecy. Accurate decoding of the message by the receiver is critical to effective communication. and social anxiety (Thornton and Moore. how we do it. Details on barriers are described in a later section. feedback is a necessary component of the communication process. describes a person’s behavior that is consistent with another individual’s perception whether ornot it is accurate. or unit of an organization or system who originates the message. environmental and personal barriers can hamper the communication process. and how we say it as we try to influence the perceptions others have of us. department. public selfconsciousness. what we say. The sender receives and decodes the feedback. The receiver creates feedback to a message and encodes it before transmitting it back to the sender. once an expectation is made known by another person. Workplace Communication # COMMUNICATION PROCESS Figure 4-1illustrates the communication process.characteristics. In other words. However. It is an important element of communication since it allows for information to be shared between the receiver and . The contrast effect not only applies to the perception of attractiveness. Individuals will try to present themselves in ways that will lead to positive evaluations by others by highlighting their achievements and avoiding the disclosure of failures. . Pygmalion Effect The pygmalion effect. Messages are then received and decoded or interpreted by the receiver. but it has also been shown to influence self-esteem. Impression management incorporates what we do. the more effective the communication. Decoding is affected by the receiver’s prior experiences and frames of reference. It shows that the sender is a person. the contrast effect relates to how an individual is perceived in relation to others around him or her. 1992). A sender uses words and symbols to put forth information into a message for the receiver. an individual will have the tendency to behave in ways consistent with the expectation. To ensure messages are received as intended. the individual(s) receiving the message. Feedback is the destination’s reaction to a message (Certo. 1993). In other words. The closer the decoded message gets to the intent of the sender.

. clear. Feedback can be information related to the productivity of Feedback 79 Sender Message • Create • Encode Sender Message • Receive • Decode Barriers • Environment • Personal Feedback • Receive • Decode Feedback • Create • Encode Figure 4-1 The Communication Process Source:McShane.sender in a two-way communication. For instance. Feedback can be information related to the productivity of groups in an organization. or the performance of a particular individual. Feedback that identifies or describes how a person communicates. B provides a descriptive feedback of A’s behavior at the staff meeting. B indicates that A was specific. M. Feedback is any information that individuals receive about their behavior. and Von Glinow. and instructive on introducing the staff to the computer database for managing patient accounts.A. (2003) Organizational behavior: Emerging realities for the workplace revo Descriptive feedback. # FEEDBACK Feedback is any information that individuals receive about their behavior. S. Manager A asks Manager B to comment on her behavior at a staff meeting. Feedback that provides an assessment of the . • Evaluative feedback.L.

Specific issues that relate to task feedback include the quantity or quality of a group’s output. Feedback that provides information about interpersonal dynamics within a group. Manager A asks Manager B how she could have made changes to better communicate her message to her staff. Feedback that provides advice about how one should behave or communicate. Feedback that focuses on how well the group is performing. Feedback at this level involves issues of effectiveness and appropriateness. and audio # COMMUNICATION CHANNELS Another important component of the communication process is selecting the appropriate communication channel. and that causes the staff to feel comfortable when going to A for help or asking questions. In the above case. It is the means by which .person who communicates. Like the questions raised at the individual feedback level. For example. Relational feedback. surveys. For example. similar questions are asked for the group. then B has provided positive evaluative feedback of A’s interaction with the staff. B suggests for A to be friendlier and more cooperative by giving the staff specific times that A is available for help with the new computer database. are patients satisfied with the new outpatient clinic? Did the group complete the project on time? Procedural feedback refers to whether a correct procedure was used appropriately at the time by the group. This level of feedback emphasizes how a group gets along while working together. It is effective when it is combined with the descriptive and prescriptive forms of feedback. • Individual feedback. Do team members within the group have adequate knowledge to complete a task? Have they developed a communication network to facilitate their objectives? Feedback can be in the form of questionnaires. if Manager B evaluates Manager A’s behavior and concludes that she is instructive and helpful. • Prescriptive feedback. For instance. Feedback that focuses on a particular individual in a group. This type of advice is prescriptive feedback. Task or procedural feedback. is an individual in the group knowledgeable? Does he or she have the skills helpful to this group? What attitudes does he or she have toward the group as they work together to accomplish their tasks? Is the individual able to plan and organize within a schedule that contributes to the group’s goal attainment? • Group feedback.

and Darr (2000)classifythesebarriersinto two categories:environmentaland personal. Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication is sharing information without using words to encode messages. saved. The various channels of communication and the amount of information transmitted through each type are illustrated in Figure 4-2. other forms of technology have infused healthcare organizations and directly enhance and impact the communication process. Verbal Communication Verbal communication relies on spoken or written words to share information with others. Environmentalbarriersare characteristicof the organizationand its environmentalsetting. severalformsof barrierscan impedethe communicationprocess. There are four basic forms of nonverbal communication: proxemics. which is used to convey meanings and messages.Rakich. and paralanguage (Nelson & Quick. 2003). Dialogue is a form of verbal communication. One can select any part of the message to read and skip to important parts of the message. E-mail allows messages to be rapidly created. There are two types of channels: verbal and nonverbal. It is a process in which participants are exposed to new information. and sent to many people at the same time. The process involves a series of meetings of organizational members that represent different views on issues of mutual interest. facial and eye behavior. BARRIERSTO COMMUNICATION As illustratedin Figure4-1 (page79). Computer-Aided Communication Electronic mail has revolutionized the way we communicate. It is a discussion or conversation between people. changed.messages are transmitted. Proxemicsis the study of an individual’s perception and use of space Kinesics refers to body language. kinesics. Messages can be clearly defined through concrete and specific instructions rather than abstract words or generalization Other Computer-Aided Communication In addition to e-mail technology. Personalbarriersarisefromthe natureof individual .Longest. E-mail is a preferred channel for coordinating work and schedules.

Multipleand simultaneousdemandscause messagesto be incorrectlydecoded. PersonalBarriers Personalbarriersarisedueto an individual’sframeof referenceor beliefs andvalues. Longestandcoauthors(2000)provideus with severalguidelinesfor overcomingbarriers: 1. 3. Dueto inadequateattentionpaid to the message.the receiveris not really “listening. 2.However. Thepower/statusbarriercan be removedby consciouslytailoring wordsand symbolsso that messagesare understandable. A managementphilosophythat encouragesthe free flowof communicationis can consciouslyminimizetheir impact. emotional. Recognizingthat environmentand personalbarriersexist is the first step to effectivecommunication. 4.positiveactionsare neededto overcomethesebarriers(see Table4-1).but doesnot understandit.”Listeningis a process that integratesphysical.By becomingcognizantof their existence.EnvironmentalBarriers Examplesof environmentalbarriersincludecompetitionfor attention andtimebetweensendersand receivers.and intellectualinputsinto the quest for meaningand understanding. 5.The receiverhearsthe message.reinforcingwordswith actions significantlyimprovescommunicationamong differentpower/statuslevels. Usingmultiplechannelsto reinforcecomplexmessagesdecreasesthe likelihoodof misunderstanding. EFFECTIVECOMMUNICATIONFORKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT .Theyare basedon one’ssocioeconomicbackgroundand prior experiencesand shapehowmessagesare encodedanddecoded. Environmentalbarriersare reducedif receiversand sendersensure that attentionis givento their messagesand that adequatetimeis devotedto listeningto whatis beingcommunicated.Onemay alsoconsciouslyor unconsciouslyengagein selectiveperceptionor be influencedby fear or jealously. Reducingthe numberof links(levelsin the organizationalhierarchy or stepsbetweenthe senderin the healthcareorganizationand the receiverwhois an externalstakeholder)reducesopportunitiesfor distortion.

or arriveat a decision. A managermustmakean intentionaleffort to master communicationskills and usethemstrategically. The organizationalimportanceof the communication. whetherthe messageis to provideinformation. analyticvs.Effectivecommunicationbrings knowledgeinto the organizationanddisseminatesit to employeeswho requirethat information. STRATEGICCOMMUNICATION Strategiccommunicationis an intentionalprocessof presentingideasin a clear.Upwardcommunicationoccursbetween . and peers. or organization FLOWSOF INTRAORGANIZATIONALCOMMUNICATION Communicationcan flowupward. 5.Communicationplaysan importantrole in knowledgemanagement. abstractvs. • An effectivecommunicatormusthavean understandingof how otherslearn. The followingsummarizesthesekey elements: • An effectivecommunicatormusthavea desireto communicate.and strategy.managersmustdevelopa methodologyfor thinking throughandeffectivelycommunicatingwith superiors. Sperryand Whiteman(2003)provideus with a strategiccommunication plan. written). To planstrategiccommunication.and diagonallywithin organizations. and communicationrepresentsthe nervous systemthat carriesinformationandsharedmeaningto vital partsof the organizationalbody.Thespecificresult that an individualwantsto achieve. unit. concrete. Outcome.verbalvs.Thekey informationthat staff needto know. whichconsistsof five components. 1.g. consistentlywith the organization’svalues. staff.that is. that is. whichis influencedboth by one’spersonalvaluesandthe expectationthat the communicationwill be receivedin a meaningfulway.mission. concise.Tacticsor methodsusedto reinforcethe message. elicit a responseor reaction.horizontally.downward. 2. whichincludesconsiderationof differencesin how othersperceiveand processinformation(e. StrategicCommunication93 47688_CH04_077_110. Tactical reinforcement. 3. intuitive.Thewaythe messageis receivedand its impacton the individual.qxd3/9/054:51PMPage934. Messages. Employeesare the organization’sbraincells.. • The receiverof the messageshouldbe cuedas to the purposeof the message.andpersuasiveway. Feedback.

It is an invitation for subordinatesto comein andtalk to the superioraboutthingsthat troublethem.union–managementcommittees. UpwardFlow The purposesof upwardcommunicationfloware to providemanagers with informationto makedecisions.Informationgained fromtheseformsof communicationcan be usedto makeimprovements.and revealemployeethoughtsand feelingsaboutthe organization.The departmentof humanresourcesin a healthcareorganizationcan facilitate subordinateinitiatedcommunicationby conductingconfidential counseling.andsuggestion boxes.Upwardflowbecomesespeciallyimportantwith increased organizationalcomplexity.Theuse of an ombudspersonprovidesan outlet for personswhofeel theyhavebeentreatedunfairly.Sinceemployeescan partic Ombudsperson. 94 CHAPTER4 WORKPLACECOMMUNICATION 47688_CH04_077_110.and exit interviews.determinestaff morale.suchas instructionsfor completing tasks. (2000)providesus with severalformsof intraorganizationalcommunication for healthcareorganizations. • Participativedecisionmakingtechniques.and holdingexit interviewsfor thoseleavingthe organization.This allowsemployeesto makean appealupwardbeyondtheir immediatesupervisor. Diagonalflowoccursbetweendifferentlevelsof differentdepartments.qxd3/9/054:51PMPage94• Counseling.administeringattitudequestionnaires. • Grievanceprocedure.Throughthe use of informalinvolvementof subordinatesor formalparticipationprograms suchas qualityimprovementteams.participativetechniquescan improve employeeperformanceand satisfaction.collectdata for performanceassessments.It protectsthe individual fromarbitraryactionby their direct supervisorandencourages communicationaboutcomplaints.Horizontalflowis frommanagerto manager or fromco-workerto co-worker.identifyproblemareas.Downwardcommunicationprimarilyinvolvespassingon informationfromsupervisorsto well as communications on a one-to-onebasis. Downwardcommunicationsincludemeetingwith .questionnaires. This includesverbal and nonverbalcommunication. Thesupervisor’sdooris alwaysopento subordinates. • Opendoorpolicy. DownwardFlow Downwardcommunicationinvolvespassinginformationfromsupervisorsto subordinates.supervisorsand subordinates. Longestet al.

Decentralizednetworksalloweachgroupmemberto talk to every othergroupmemberwithoutrestrictions.task forces.horizontalflowor lateral communication mustalso occur.diagonal flowis especiallyuseful in healthcarefor efficientcommunicationand coordinationof patientcare.. andproblemsolving.To reducecommunicationoverload.decisionmaking.A communicationnetwork is the interactionpatternbetween andamonggroupmembers.2002).proceduralmanuals.A networkcreatesstructurefor the group becauseit controlswhocan and shouldtalk to whom(Keyton. Diagonalflowsare growingin importance.coordinatingthe continuumof patientcare requirescommunicationamongmultipleunits. 2000). 2002).bulletinboards.all-channelor decentralizednetworkis best usedfor groupdiscussions. Whena communicationoverloadis produced.messagesmayconflict with eachother andresult in confusionor disagreement. A centralizednetworkrestrictsthe numberof peoplein the communicationchain. Groupsgenerallydeveloptwo typesof communicationnetworks:centralizedand decentralized(Figure4-4). Thesenetworksare interconnectedby communicationchannels.2002).committees.a facilitator shouldbe usedto monitorgroupdiscussions.employees. For example. The purposeof lateral communicationis the sharingof informationamongpeersat similarlevelsto keep organizationalstaff informedof all currentpractices.writtenmemos. DiagonalFlow The least usedchannelof communicationin healthcareorganizationsis diagonalflow. Furthermore. COMMUNICATIONNETWORKS Flowsof communicationcan be combinedinto patternscalledcommunicationnetworks.In complexhealthcareorganizations.newsletters.Whilediagonalflowdoesnot followthe typical hierarchicalchainof whichtoo muchinformationor too complexcommunicationmayoccur(Keyton.and crossfunctional projectteamsare all usefulformsof horizontalcommunication.and clinical andadministrationinformationsystems.Theall-channelnetworktendsto be fast and accuratecomparedwith the centralizednetworksuchas the chainor Y-pattern networks(Longestet al.and procedures(Spillanet al.An open. policies.a decentralizednetwork can createcommunicationoverload. HorizontalFlow Upwardand downwardcommunicationsare inadequatefor effectiveorganizational performance. Nevertheless.. In a group settingwherea dominantleadertakesover groupdiscussionsby controllingthe numberof messagesand amountof .

75 percentof employeestypicallyreceivenewsfromthe grapevinebeforethey hear aboutit throughformalchannels(McShane& VonGlinow.groupmembersdo not interactexceptthrough the leader. Sucha networkcan createcommunicationunderload.The grapevineis an unstructuredandinformalnetworkfoundedon social relationshipsratherthan organizationalchartsor job descriptions.communicationoccursupwardand downwardand followsline authority relationships.informationbeingpassed.2003).In the chain network. .In this typeof network.whoreportsto the directorof nursing.whichhave their which too fewor simplemessagesare transmitted. thereare informalcommunicationflows. whoreportsto the vice presidentfor clinicalservices. This networkdelineatesthe chain of commandand showsclear linesof authority ■ INFORMALCOMMUNICATION In additionto formalcommunicationflowsand membersfeel isolatedfromgroupdiscussionsandgenerallyfeel dissatisfied.An exampleis a staff nurse whoreportsto the chargenurse.Employeeshavealwaysreliedon the oldestcommunicationchannel— the corporategrapevine.Accordingto someestimates.and whofinally reportsto the CEOof a largehospital.

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