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ARABESQUE.

Arabesque simply means "in the Arab fashion" in French and few scholars of Islamic art use it until today. Arabesque is an element of Islamic art usually found for decoration on walls of the mosques, the arabesque is an elaborative application of repeating geometric forms that often echo from plants, shapes and sometimes animals. The choices and formation of these geometric forms are depending upon the Islamic view of the world where they also said that the patterns concretely symbolize the infinite, and therefore uncentralized nature of the creation of one od. !ostly Islamic arabesque artist always conveys spirituality without the iconography of the "hristian world.

HISTORY OF ARABESQUE #ntil today scholars still debating on the origins of arabesque pattern although it is clearly evident that much of the development and acceptance of this art were due to the !uslims. $i%e any other primitive arts, this primitive geometrical decoration was used in the early !esopotamia, &ersia, 'yria and also India where ,3th century arabesque, the ottoman the usage of the star patterns has anatolia been widely used by the "opts of (gypt. The early Islamic era adopted the semi naturalistic pre)Islamic motifs and patterns inspired from the barbarian nomads, *omans, followed by the diversity of ideas and e+perimentation according to the taste of the new !uslim generation. The highly abstract form was originated features the most original pattern generally %nown as the arabesque bac% in the early ,-th to ,.th century. Then followed by /apoleon0s framed e+pedition in the early ,1 th century, which contribute to the 2rientalism phenomenon in (urope.

4ac% to the ,5th century, first in Italy and then in the north was where the Islamic)style vegetal patterns were than developed. It was when the empires of the 2ttomans, 'afavids and the !ughals complicated versions of established their pattern were utilize which created the interest in naturalistic)loo%ing flowers or blossoms. 6ith it visual reference to the paradise, vegetal motifs and patterns in the Islamic art are largely being used and have their own symbolic meaning. 7owever, this geometric artwor% in the form of Arabesque was not widely used in the Islamic world but not until the golden age of Islam. At this time, ancient te+t were translated from the ree% and $atin into Arabic, where this were the times when many of great Islamic scholars were born in various fields li%e medicine, mathematics, geography, physics and many others. For an e+ample, the wor%s of &lato became popular at the time, which it was his ideas about the e+istence of a separate reality that was perfect in form, function and crystalline in character also contributed to the development of the Arabesque.

ITS SYMBOLIZATION The comple+ity and beauty of the Islamic geometric patterns always have the source of interest not only among !uslims but also other religions too. The Arabesques is a symbolic of their united faith and the way in which traditional Islamic cultures view the world which are, first, it recall the principles that govern the order of the worlds such as what ob8ects structurally sound. 'econdly, it is The wall decoration of Al)7ambra wall based upon the flowing nature of plant forms where it recalls the feminine nature if life giving.

!oreover, these geometric patterns create the aura of spirituality without abandoned the teaching of Islam. Thus, it

;etails on the wall of the hall of ambassador in Al) 7ambra,'pain.

shows the purity and orderliness of patterns and symmetries could create the sense of beauty and calmness where it will stimulate the intellect rather than trap in dreams and illusions.

TYPES OF ARABESQUE There are basically . types of Arabesque found in the Islamic art, which are9 ,. eometric interlacing wor%s or geometric patterns .. 'tylized plant forms or vegetal forms 1. GEOMETRIC PATTERNS. This was said the reasons why the Islamic world unites which is the factor of construction and meaning of Islamic geometric arabesque. This principle is seen in the clean and clear construction in the arabesques on various mosques and other Islamic buildings although they are in different countries, cultures and era. eometric patterns vary in their comple+ity and design, from a simple shapes to a very comple+ polygons and stars where they are constructed from the basic elements such as triangles, circles, squares, stars and polygons. Is was said that the theory of the Islamic geometrical patterns are based on the :square and he+agonal repeat unit and the root two and root three system of proportion0. For an e+ample a circle can be divide into four, or multiples of four, and other equal parts.

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VEGETAL FORMS.

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These patterns are used along with the geometric patterns or as a filling for the comple+ geometric patterns. It consists of combination or individual forms of many leaves and plants especially the vine leaves, simply because they continuously growing and shows the concept of infinity. <egetal forms also are one of the ways to show and appreciate the beauty of Allah and 7is creation. #sually these forms are placed besides a contrasting bac%ground so that they will give an emphasis to the foreground. These %ind of forms are widely and commonly used in ceramics, woodwor%, even in carpets and te+tiles. In 2ttoman empire or the 2ttoman art usually use the large and feathery leaves called saz has been very popular and were used in drawings 8ust to show 8ust one or more leaves. 4esides the 2ttoman, the "hinese !uslims also used these vegetal forms on the porcelain, replaces the arabesque such as in pottery, te+tile and also miniature.

The iwan of Ta8 !ahal using the vegetal forms of arabesques

,?--0s pair of Islamic !amlu% *evival "andelstic%s

,5th century tile panel with vegetal forms of arabesques

An Izni% pottery plate with vegetal forms of leaves and flowers, Tur%ey.