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Behaviour of High Strength Concrete L-Beams Under Combined Bending and Shear
Eng. & Technolog ! "ol.#$! Su%%l. of &o.#! #''( )r. *mer +. ,-i- . & /erhad 0. 1arim.. 0eceived on2 134#4#''5 ,cce%ted on2 #54114#''5 ,bstract This investigation e6amines e6%erimentall and statisticall the behaviour and ultimate strength of L-sha%e reinforced high strength concrete beams under combined bending and shear. The e6%erimental investigation consists of casting and testing of nine beams 7hich 7ere tested under bending and shear. The effect of com%ressive strength! longitudinal reinforcement on the load carr ca%acit and the effect of transverse reinforcement on the shear strength is studied. ,n increase in com%ressive strength b 85$.$59: causes an increase in load carr ing ca%acit and shear strength at crac;ing load b 8#1.<(9 and 15#.39: res%ectivel . ,n increase in longitudinal reinforcement ratio for bending b 81$=.>9: caused an increase in load carr ing ca%acit b 8<5.=(9: 7hen the longitudinal reinforcement ratio is ;e%t constant! an increase in transverse reinforcement inde6 b 8$3.#$9 9: causes an increase in shear strength at ultimate load b 85.$$ 9:. B using multi%le nonlinear ste%7ise regression method! based on data in this research and from other literature? e@uations 7ere %ro%osed for %redicting shear strength at crac;ing and ultimate loads. These %ro%osed e@uations sho7 good agreement and the are conservative 7hen com%ared 7ith e@uations given b Codes of %ractice.

#. Behaviour *f High Strength Concrete Under Combined Bending ,nd Com%ression CBA-CB Bnternational Cor;sho%! 1arachi! Da;istan )r. A. ,. "icente
,BST0,CT This %a%er describes the develo%ment of a com%uteri-ed closed-loo% testing facilit for e6%erimentall obtaining the stress-strain behaviour of high strength concrete s%ecimens under combined com%ression and bending. Using this closed-loo% com%uteri-ed testing facilit ! #<' test s%ecimens 7ere tested to failure. The test variables 7ere geometr or sha%e of s%ecimens! age at testing and the concrete strength. The com%uteri-ed closed-loo% testing facilit assures that the vertical load is at the edge of the central core during the test! thus ensuring -ero strain at one e6treme face. This mimics the strain distribution in the com%ression -one. The effect of cross-section sha%e and the strength of concrete on the com%ression -one is the most significant result obtained during the tests.

=. High Derformance 0einforced Concrete Beams made 7ith Sandstone 0eactive ,ggregates
The Open Civil Engineering Journal, 2008, 2, 41-50 41 1874-1495/08 2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Daramasivam Suresh 1umar.!1! Ad. ,bdul Aannan.!# and 1urian"elluru-hathil Eohn Civil Engineering Program, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabal , Malaysia

bstract! ,n investigation on the fle6ural behaviour of reinforced high %erformance concrete 8HDC: has been conducted. Crushed sandstone ;no7n as reactive aggregate 7as used for both fine and coarse aggregates. Bn addition! mineral admi6tures such as silica fume and fl ash combined 7ith su%er%lasticiser 7as used. The beams 7ere made 7ith concrete having com%ressive strength in the range of (< - >> &4mm# and tensile reinforcement in the range of 1.=< to =.1< 9. The e6%erimental ultimate moment 7as found to be about 1< - =< 9 and = - 1$ 9 higher than the %redicted ultimate moment based on BS >11' and ,CB =1> res%ectivel . )ue to lo7er stiffness of reactive sandstone aggregates! the actual deflections of the beams 7ere found to be slightl above allo7able values under service loads. The observed crac; 7idths under service loads 7ere 7ithin acce%table limits. Bt 7as found that HDC made 7ith crushed sandstone coarse and fine aggregate had better structural integrit . Hence! there is a high %otential to %roduce high strength HDC using sandstone aggregates 7ith silica fume and fl ash.

<. Behaviour ,nd Strength *f High Strength Concrete L-Beams Under Combined Shear! Bending ,nd Torsional Loading
,l-0afidain Engineering "ol.15 &o.< *ct. #''> *mer +arani ,-i-! /erhad 0. 1arim bstract This investigation e6amines e6%erimentall the behavior and ultimate strength of Lsha%ed reinforced high strength concrete beams under combined shear! bending and torsion. The e6%erimental %rogram consists of casting and testing 81=: high strength concrete beams under bending! shear and torsion. The main %arameters are the effect of com%ressive strength! the eccentricit reinforcement ratio. ,n increase in transverse to longitudinal reinforcement ratio b 8#1.<=9: for beams under >'mm eccentricit of loading causes decrease in ultimate resisting torsional moment b 81=.139:! and for an eccentricit of 1('mm? the decrease in resisting torsional moment is 81$.1<9:. Bncreasing in eccentricit for torsion of 811#.$9: caused a decrease in load carr ca%acit b 8<=.==9: if all t %es of reinforcement remain the same. B using multi%le nonlinear ste%7ise regression anal sis! based on data in this research and from other literatures? e@uations are %ro%osed for %redicting shear strength at crac;ing and ultimate loads and torsional ca%acit at crac;ing and ultimate loads. These %ro%osed e@uations sho7ed good agreement 7hen com%ared 7ith e@uations given b Codes of %ractice li;e 8,CB! Canadian and BS: and sho7ed good relations.. and transverse to longitudinal

$. ,llo7able S%an4)e%th 0atio /or High Strength Concrete Beams

0. Drabha;ara! 1. U. Authu.! ,nd 0. Aeena;shi !e"artment #f Civil Engineering, M S $amaiah Instit te #f Technology, %angalore, India
October 2007 The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 32, Number 2B

"#$%&'()$"&# )eflection is an im%ortant serviceabilit limit state to be satisfied in the design of concrete structures. Bn recent times! high strength concrete and steel have been used 7idel in construction. This has resulted in the design of beams of smaller de%ths! 7hich ma undergo greater deflections. This has been investigated in references F1G1#H. Basicall ! there are t7o a%%roaches used in the design offices2 vi-. 81: control of deflection a%%roach? and 8#: com%utation of deflections a%%roach. Bn the first a%%roach! s%an to effective de%th ratios are

s%ecified in the codes of %ractices to control the deflections. Control is obtained b %roviding a suitable effective de%th of the beam 7hich is obtained based on su%%ort conditions! s%an! area and t %e of tension reinforcement! area of com%ression reinforcement! and flanges for flanged beams. ,n im%ortant %arameter! i&e& ratio of sustained load to total load 8's4': on the beam 7hich influences the cree% deflections does not find a %lace in several cases. , fe7 researchers have incor%orated this effect F1=! 1<H. The control a%%roach is %referred b man due to its sim%licit . Ho7ever! several investigators F1'! 1=! 1$G1>H %ointed out the discre%ancies and dis%arities. 0ecentl Scanlon and Lee F13H %ro%osed a unified s%an to de%th ratio e@uation for control of deflections in one and t7o 7a concrete construction. The above method re@uires further e6amination 7ith res%ect to the high strength concrete beams and slabs. ,n attem%t has been made in the %resent stud to obtain the s%anGto effectiveGde%th ratio for singl G reinforced and doubl Greinforced highGstrength concrete beams. The method is based on ,CB =1>-'$ and the effect of the ratio of the sustained load to total load and the breadth of the beam has been included in the anal sis. , total of (<( singl G reinforced beams and #5= doubl Greinforced beams 7ere used in develo%ing the %ro%osed e@uation. )esign charts are %resented for read use.

5. Aechanical %ro%erties and stress-strain behaviour of high %erformance concrete under unia6ial com%ression
B Dornchai Eiratat%rasot , Thesis Submitted to the /acult of &e7 Eerse Bnstitute of Technolog in Dartial /ulfillment of the 0e@uirements for the )egree of Aaster of Science in Civil Engineering Eanuar #''# BS$% )$ Aan recent innovations in advanced concrete materials technolog have made it %ossible to %roduce concrete 7ith e6ce%tional %erformance characteristics. High %erformance concrete 8HDC: is defined as concrete that meets s%ecial %erformance and uniformit re@uirements that cannot al7a s be achieved routinel b using conventional materials and normal mi6ing! %lacing! and curing %ractices. The im%ortance of HDC to structural engineering is un@uestionable. Ho7ever! HDC is a relativel ne7 material. Some results of research on conventional concrete are not entirel a%%licable. Bn this e6%eriment! the main mechanical %ro%erties of HDC including com%ressive strength! modulus of elasticit ! and DoissonIs ratio 7ere investigated and com%ared to those of normal strength concrete 8&SC:. The stress-strain behavior under unia6ial and c clic com%ression as 7ell as crac;ing characteristics of HDC 7ere also observed in this research and com%ared to the e6isting results from the former researchers. ,ccording to the test results of HDC in this e6%eriment! com%ressive strength 7as the one that 7as most s%ectacularl im%roved. The modulus of elasticit 7as also increased! 7hich could be observed from the stee%er slo%e of the ascending %art of the stress-strain curve. DoissonIs ratio of HDC 7as found to be lo7er than that of &SC! 7hich means HDC e6%eriences less lateral deformation than &SC 7hen it is subJected to the same level of loading. Bt can be seen in the studies of stress-strain behavior for both t %es of concrete that HDC has a lo7er ductilit ratio than that of &SC. /or this reason! it can be concluded that HDC has less ca%abilit to sustain large inelastic deformation 7ithout substantial reduction in strength. This ca%abilit can be im%roved b using steel

reinforcements! mostl in the form of lateral confinements such as in columns. Chen the results of stressstrain curves 7ere com%ared to the e6isting models! it 7as found that the e6isting models could be a%%lied to the e6%erimental data. Crac;ing in HDC 7as observed to be more locali-ed? the number and length of continuous crac; %atterns develo%ed at failure are smaller than those of &SC. /or this reason! the failure mode of HDC c linders is t %ical of that of nearl homogeneous material. /inall ! HDC sho7ed less amount of h steresis under c clic loading. Bt can be concluded that HDC has less ca%abilit to dissi%ate energ under loading than that of &SC. HDC also sho7ed less stiffness degradation under unloading and reloading c cles than that of &SC! es%eciall in the %ost-%ea; regime.

(. )eflection Drediction for 0einforced Concrete Beams Through )ifferent Effective Aoment of Bnertia E6%ressions
Int&(&Eng&$esearch ) !evelo"ment,*ol&+,,o&-,(an ary +.-. ,bstract L The effective moment of inertia e6%ressions %ro%osed b Branson and Bischoff are

b Kl;er 1al;an

e6amined b com%aring the deflection estimates from these t7o a%%roaches to the measured deflection values of reinforced concrete beams 7ith high reinforcement ratios 8'.'#<M /M'.'=<:. Bt 7as found out that both methods ield to deflection estimates in close agreement 7ith the actual values and the method %ro%osed b Bischoff %rovides a slightl better correlation 7ith the actual in-%lane bending deformations of heavil -reinforced concrete beams. /urthermore! the restrained shrin;age crac;ing 7as found to cause the deflection res%onse of a concrete beam to be much 7ea;er than the res%onses estimated b the effective moment of inertia e6%ressions. /inall ! the crac;ing moment estimates from the methods given in ,CB =1>-'$! Eurocode # and TS $'' are com%ared to the e6%erimental crac;ing moments of reinforced concrete beams. The crac;ing moment estimates based on the modulus of ru%ture e6%ression in Eurocode # 7ere found to be in closest agreement 7ith the e6%erimental values.

>. Load-)eformation 0elationshi% of High-strength 0einforced Concrete Beams b S. *tani! S. &agai and H. ,o ama
,merican concrete Bnstitute SD-15#-#! Aete ,. So-en S m%osium - Tribute from his students! Eames 1. Cight! Editor! 1335! %%.=$ - $#.
S*n+,sis2 /orce-deformation relationshi% of high-strength reinforced concrete beam members observed in the laborator test 7as ideali-ed b a trilinear relation for use in a nonlinear earth@ua;e res%onse anal sis. Aethods to evaluate the relationshi% 7ere e6amined and the reliabilit of the methods 7ere discussed 7ith res%ect to the observed relations. Calculated initial stiffness is sho7n to significantl underestimate the observed value? a large coefficient of variation 7as attributed to accidental and shrin;age crac;ing in the s%ecimen %rior to the test. , similar large coefficient of variation 7as observed in the evaluation of crac;ing moment. Nield and ultimate moments could be favorabl estimated b the theor . ,n em%irical formula 7as %ro%osed to evaluate ield deformation. ,n im%ortance of controlling the elastic modulus of concrete in construction is em%hasi-ed if a structure is e6%ected to behave as designed during an earth@ua;e.

3. /racture %ro%erties & Brittleness of High strength concrete

1'. Structural significance of high %erformance concrete

B C.S. Sur a7anshi Aarch #''( THE B&)B,& C*&C0ETE E*U0&,L High performance in a broad manner can be related to any property of concrete. It can mean excellent workability in the fresh state like self-levelling concrete or low heat of hydration in case of mass concrete, or very rigid setting and hardening of concrete in case of sprayed concrete or quick repair of roads and airelds, or very low imperviousness of storage vessels, or very low leakage rates of encapsulation containments for contaminating material. However, when high performance is linked to structural signicant behaviour high performance is usually synonymous with high strength. !he "I# code of practice on plain and reinforced concrete I# $%&' ())) or Indian *oads +ongress, I*+-(, do not dene H-+. .ccording to the new /uropean standard, /0 ()& high strength concrete ranges from +%%1&2 to +,))1,,% for normal weight concrete and from 3+%%1&) to 3+4)144 for lightweight aggregate concrete. !hese are large ranges and the relevant concretes are not alike. !he lower strength classes can be designed similarly to normal strength concrete with a little lower water cement ratio whereas the higher strength classes require some extra additions like silica fume and additives like high performance water reducers. !he question remains as to how these high strength concretes differ from nominal strength concrete with respect to the structural

behaviour of concrete components. In the succeeding sections some aspects like ultimate load cracking and deformation are presented and discussed.

11. /inite Element ,nal sis *f 0einforced Concrete Structures Under Aonotonic Loads
0e%ort &o. UCB4SEAA-3'41< Structural Engineering! Aechanics and Aaterials )e%artment of Civil Engineering Universit of California! Ber;ele &ovember 133' ABSTRACT This stud deals 7ith the finite element anal sis of the monotonic behavior of reinforced concrete beams! slabs and beam-column Joint subassemblages. Bt is assumed that the behavior of these members can be described b a %lane stress field. Concrete and reinforcing steel are re%resented b se%arate material models 7hich are combined together 7ith a model of the interaction bet7een reinforcing steel and concrete through bond-sli% to describe the behavior of the com%osite reinforced concrete material. The material behavior of concrete is described b t7o failure surfaces in the bia6ial stress s%ace and one failure surface in the bia6ial strain s%ace. Concrete is assumed as a linear elastic material for stress states 7hich lie inside the initial ield surface. /or stresses outside this surface the behavior of concrete is described b a nonlinear orthotro%ic model! 7hose a6es of orthotro% are %arallel to the %rinci%al strain directions. The concrete stress-strain relation is derived from e@uivalent unia6ial relations in the a6es of orthotro% . The behavior of crac;ed concrete is described b a s stem of orthogonal crac;s! 7hich follo7 the %rinci%al strain directions and are thus rotating during the load histor . Crushing or crac;ing of concrete ta;es %lace 7hen the strains lie outside the ultimate surface in the bia6ial strain s%ace. , ne7 smeared finite element model is %ro%osed based on an im%roved crac;ing criterion! 7hich is derived from fracture mechanics %rinci%les. This model retains obJectivit of the results for ver large finite elements! since it considers crac;ing to be concentrated over a small region around the integration %oint and not over the entire finite element! as do %revious models. , ne7 reinforcing steel model 7hich is embedded inside a concrete element! but accounts for the effect of bond-sli% is develo%ed. This model results in significant savings in the number of nodes needed to account for the effect of bond-sli%! %articularl ! in three dimensional finite element models. , ne7 nonlinear solution scheme is develo%ed in connection 7ith this model. /inall ! correlation studies bet7een anal tical and e6%erimental results and several %arameter studies are conducted 7ith the obJective to establish the validit of the %ro%osed models and identif the significance of various effects on the local and global res%onse of reinforced concrete members. These studies sho7 that the effects of tension-stiffening and bond-sli% are ver im%ortant and should al7a s be included in finite element models of the res%onse of reinforced concrete members. *n the other hand! %arameters! such as the tensile strength of concrete and the value of the crac;ed shear constant! do not seem to affect the res%onse of slender beams in bending.

1#. Bond ,nd Serviceabilit Characteri-ation *f Concrete 0einforced Cith High Strength Steel

,mir Soltani! Dh). Universit of Dittsburgh! #'1' , Thesis Submitted to the Oraduate /acult of S7anson School of Engineering in %artial fulfillment of the re@uirements for the degree of )octor of Dhiloso%h

0ecent revisions to the 00S1T# Constr ction S"ecifications %ermit the s%ecification of ,STA ,1'=$ reinforcing steel. ,1'=$ reinforcing bars are lo7 carbon! chromium steel bars characteri-ed b a high tensile strength 81'' or 1#' ;si: and a stress-strain relationshi% having no ield %lateau. Because of their high chromium content! ,1'=$ bars are re%orted to have su%erior corrosion resistance 7hen com%ared to conventional reinforcing steel grades. /or this reason! designers have s%ecified ,1'=$ as a direct! one-to-one! re%lacement for conventional reinforcing steel as an alternative to stainless steel or e%o6 -coated bars. The 00S1T# 2$3! !esign S"ecifications! ho7ever! limit the ield strength of reinforcing steel to ($ ;si for most a%%lications. Therefore! although ,1'=$ steel is being s%ecified for its corrosion resistance! its higher ield strength cannot be utili-ed. The obJective of this research is to evaluate e6isting 00S1T# 2$3! !esign S"ecifications to determine their a%%licabilit 7hen using high strength ,STA ,1'=$ reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structures. The stud encom%asses material testing and characteri-ation! detailed anal tical studies! com%onent tests! and full-scale member testing. The anal tical and e6%erimental research %rogram investigates ultimate strength and service behavior and detailing of members designed 7ith high-strength reinforcement. S%ecificall ! the to%ics addressed are2 a: e6%erimental evaluation of hoo;ed bar develo%ment length of high-strength reinforcement? b: e6%erimental evaluation of the fatigue %erformance of members reinforced 7ith highstrength reinforcement? and c: %arametric evaluation of serviceabilit and crac; o%ening in fle6ural members! com%aring the results 7ith available e6%erimental results. The a%%licabilit of current S"ecification re@uirements for hoo;ed bar develo%ment lengths 7as confirmed through a series of %ull-out tests having develo%ment lengths that 7ere shorter than those re@uired b %resent S"ecifications e@uations. Tests resulted in bar ru%ture outside of the anchorage region 7ith ver little sli% clearl indicating the efficac of the hoo;ed bar develo%ment re@uirements in S"ecifications. Bt is recommended that such anchorage regions be %rovided 7ith cover and confining reinforcement G based on current design re@uirements G 7hen high-strength bars are used. The %resence of confining reinforcement effectivel mitigates %otential s%litting failures and results in suitabl conservative anchorage ca%acities. T7o large-scale %roof tests conducted as %art of this stud and a revie7 of available %ublished data demonstrate that %resentl acce%ted values for the fatigue or PenduranceQ limit for reinforcing steel are a%%licable and li;el conservative! 7hen a%%lied to higher strength bars. ,dditionall ! it is sho7n that fatigue considerations 7ill rarel affect the design of t %ical reinforced concrete members having f R 1'' ;si. The e6tension of %resent 00S1T# 2$3! %ridge !esign S"ecifications for hoo;ed bar anchorage and fatigue to %ermit reinforcing bar ield strengths not e6ceeding 1'' ;si 7as validated for concrete strengths u% to 1' ;si. , fundamental issue in using ,1'=$ or an other high-strength reinforcing steel is that the stress at service load is e6%ected to be greater than 7hen conventional steel is used. Conse@uentl ! the service-load reinforcing strains are greater! affecting deflection and crac; 7idths. Based on the results of available fle6ural test! deflections and crac; 7idths at service load levels 7ere evaluated. Both metrics of serviceabilit 7ere

found to be 7ithin %resentl acce%ted limits! and 7ere %redictable using current S"ecifications %rovisions. , limitation on service-level stresses of fs R 5' ;si is recommended.

1=. E6%erimental and ,nal tical Bnvestigation of /le6ural Behavior of 0einforced Concrete Beam
bstract - E6%erimental based anal sis has been 7idel used as a means to find out the res%onse of individual elements of structure. To stud these com%onents finite element anal ses are no7 7idel used & become the choice of modern engineering tools for the researcher. Bn the %resent stud ! destructive test on sim%l su%%orted beam 7as %erformed in the laborator & load-deflection data of that under-reinforced concrete beams 7as recorded. ,fter that finite element anal sis 7as carried out b ,&SNS! S,S #''$ b using the same material %ro%erties. /inall results from both the com%uter modeling and e6%erimental data 7ere com%ared. /rom this com%arison it 7as found that com%uter based modeling is can be an e6cellent alternative of destructive laborator test 7ith an acce%table variation of results. Bn addition! an anal tical investigation 7as carried out for a beam 7ith ,&SNS! S,S #''$ 7ith different reinforcement ratio 8under! balanced! over:. The observation 7as mainl focused on reinforced concrete beam behavior at different %oints of interest 7hich 7ere then tabulated and com%ared. /rom these observation it sho7s that 1 crac;ing location is '.<=L S '.<$L

from the su%%ort. Aa6imum load carr ing ca%acit at 1 crac;ing 7as observed for over reinforced beam but on the other

it 7as the balanced condition beam at ultimate load. Aa6imum deflection at failure 7as also observed for the beam that balanced reinforced.

1<. ,dvanced Tnite element modelling of %erforated com%osite beams 7ith Ue6ible shear connectors
)e%artment of Civil and Structural Engineering! The Hong 1ong Dol technic Universit ! Hung Hom! 1o7loon! Hong 1ong! China 0eceived #> ,%ril #''(? received in revised form #3 /ebruar #''>? acce%ted 1 Aarch #''> ,vailable online #> ,%ril #''>

bstract ,n e6tensive research and develo%ment %rogramme has been underta;en b the authors to develo% advanced anal sis and design tools for %ractical design of long s%an com%osite beams in buildings. Both t7o- and three-dimensional Tnite element models em%lo ing solid and shell elements 7ith material! geometrical and interfacial non-linearit 7ere established to e6amine the full range structural behaviour of com%osite beams. Bn this %a%er! t7o-dimensional Tnite element models em%lo ing %lane stress elements are established to e6amine the structural behaviour of %erforated com%osite beams! and shear connectors 7ith non-linear deformation characteristics are incor%orated into the models through the use of both vertical and hori-ontal s%rings. Bt is demonstrated that after careful calibration against test data! the Tnite element models are able to %redict the load carr ing ca%acities of com%osite beams 7ith large rectangular 7eb o%enings against P"ierendeelQ mechanism satisfactoril . Aoreover! a number of im%ortant structural @uantities such as local a6ial and shear forces together 7ith local bending moments acting onto the com%osite and the steel tee sections at failure are obtained after data anal ses. Together 7ith the load carr ing ca%acities! these @uantities com%are favourabl 7ith the values obtained from a design method %ro%osed %reviousl b the authors! and hence! this %rovides @uantitative JustiTcation to the %ro%osed design method. /urthermore! the Tnite element models %rovide detailed information on the structural behaviour of shear connectors along the beam length!

such as the longitudinal shear forces! the %ull-out forces as 7ell as the sli%%age of the shear connectors. Based on the Tndings of the Tnite element modelling! a number of recommendations on the design and construction of %erforated com%osite beams are suggested. C #''> Elsevier Ltd. ,ll rights reserved.

1$. /le6ural %erformance of la ered ECC-concrete com%osite beam

Eun Vhang! Christo%her 1.N. Leung Nin &ee Cheung! Com%osites Science and Technolog 55 8#''5: 1$'1G 1$1# bstract The %seudo strain-hardening behavior of Tber reinforced engineered cementitious com%osites 8ECC: is a desirable characteristic for to act as a substitute for concrete to su%%ress brittle failure. The use of ECC in the industr is! ho7ever! limited b its high cost. achieve higher cost4%erformance ratio! ECC can be strategicall a%%lied in %arts of a structure that is under relativel high stress. Bn this %a%er! la ered ECCconcrete beams subJected to Ue6ural load are investigated from both theoretical and e6%erimental as%ects. /our%oint bending tests are %erformed on beam members 7ith ECC la er at its tensile side. The a%%lication of ECC la er leads to increase in both the Ue6ural strength and ductilit ! and the degree of im%rovement is found to increase 7ith the ECC thic;ness. , semi-anal tical a%%roach for modeling the Ue6ure behavior of la ered ECC-concrete beams is also develo%ed. Bn the model! the stressGcrac; 7idth relation of both concrete and ECC are em%lo ed as fundamental constitutive relationshi%s. The model and e6%erimental results are found be in good agreement 7ith one another. Simulation 7ith the model sho7s that 7hen the ECC thic;ness goes be ond a certain critical value! both the Ue6ural strength and ductilit 8reUected b crac; mouth o%ening and crac; length at ultimate load: 7ill signiTcantl increase. The critical ECC thic;ness is hence an im%ortant design %arameter! and it can be determined 7ith the theoretical a%%roach develo%ed in the %resent 7or;. W #''$ Elsevier Ltd. ,ll rights reserved.

15. /ull automatic modelling of cohesive discrete crac; %ro%agation in concrete beams using local arc-length methods
VhenJun Nang ! Eianfei Chen! Bnternational Eournal of Solids and Structures <1 8#''<: >'1G>#5 bstract , Tnite element model for full automatic simulation of multi-crac; %ro%agation in concrete beams is %resented. &onlinear interface elements are used to model discrete crac;s 7ith concrete tensile behaviour re%resented b the cohesive crac; model. ,n energ -based crac; %ro%agation criterion is used in combination 7ith a sim%le remeshing %rocedure to accommodate crac; %ro%agation. "arious local arc-length methods are em%lo ed to solve the materialnonlinear s stem e@uations characterised b strong sna%-bac;. Three concrete beams! including a single-notched three-%oint bending beam 8mode-B fracture:! a single-notched four-%oint shear beam 8mi6ed-mode fracture: and a double-notched four-%oint shear beam 8mi6ed-mode fracture:! are modelled. Com%arisons of the numerical results 7ith e6%erimental data sho7 that this model is ca%able of full automaticall modelling concrete tensile fracture %rocess 7ith accurate %re4%ost-%ea; loadGdis%lacement res%onses and crac; traJectories. Bts mesh-obJective nature! together 7ith the high e 5cienc of the energ crac; %ro%agation criterion! ma;es using coarse meshes to obtain reasonabl accurate simulations %ossible. The local arc-length numerical algorithms are found to be ca%able of trac;ing com%le6 e@uilibrium %aths including strong sna%-bac; 7ith high robustness! generalit and e5cienc .

#''= Elsevier Ltd. ,ll rights reserved.

1(. Structural behavior of ultra high %erformance concrete beams subJected to bending
Bn H7an Nang! Changbin Eoh! B ung-Su; 1im . Engineering Structures =# 8#'1': =<(>G=<>( bstract Ultra high %erformance concrete 8UHDC: e6hibits im%roved %erformance com%ared to conventional concrete. "arious e6%erimental tests on structural behavior are of im%ortance in order to establish reasonable design s%ecifications for UHDC. Therefore! this stud %rovides a detailed %resentation of e6%erimental test results for the fle6ural behavior of ultra high %erformance concrete beams. The e6%erimental %arameters included the amount of rebar and the %lacing method for the UHDC. The fle6ural behavioral characteristics 7ere e6amined 7ith res%ect to test results on UHDC beams 7ith rebar ratios less than '.'# and steel fibers 7ith a volumetric ratio of #9. Steel fiber-reinforced UHDC %roves to be effective at controlling crac;s and e6hibits ductile behavior 7ith a ductilit inde6 ranging bet7een 1.5' and =.($. Bn addition! the method of %lacing UHDC affects the fle6ural behavior 7ith regard to the orientation of the steel fibers. The results of this stud %rovide valuable data that can be used in future studies on the develo%ment of com%utational models of the deflection and fle6ural behavior of UHDC. X #'1' Elsevier Ltd. ,ll rights reserved.

1>. *verall structural behavior of high strength concrete s%ecimens

Luigi Biol-iY! Oian Luca OuerriniZ and Oian%aolo 0osati. Construction and Building Aaterials! "ol. 11! &o. 1! %%. $(-5=! 133( Elsevier Science Ltd. bstract The effects of steel micro-fibre on the com%lete load-dis%lacement res%onse of a high %erformance concrete in tension and com%ression 7ere e6amined from tests %erformed on s%ecimens com%osed of high strength concrete under controlled strain through a closed-loo% s stem. The concrete had a ma6imum aggregate si-e of = mm! an aggregate to binder ratio of t7o! silica fume to binder ratio of '.#! 7ater to binder ratio of '.##$ and randoml dis%ersed steel micro-fibres of '9! #9! <9 and 59 b volume. Unia6ial tensile tests! bending tests and unia6ial com%ressional tests 7ere conducted and anal -ed in order to %rovide a mechanical characteri-ation of the materials. Aoduli of elasticit and fracture energies 7ere evaluated and com%ared. 133( Elsevier Science Ltd.

13. Strength! crac;ing and deflection %erformance of large-scale self-consolidating concrete beams subJected to shear failure
,.,.,. Hassan! 1.A.,. Hossain! A. Lachemi! Engineering Structures =# 8#'1': 1#5#W1#(1 bstract ,n e6%erimental investigation 7as conducted to stud the shear strength! crac;ing behavior and deflection characteristics of large-scale concrete beams made 7ith both self-consolidating concrete 8SCC: and normal concrete 8&C:. T7ent concrete beams 7ithout shear reinforcement 7ere tested to shear failure under

sim%l su%%orted three-%oint loading conditions. The variables 7ere concrete t %e! coarse aggregate content! beam de%th 81$'W($' mm: and longitudinal reinforcing steel ratio.W4 819 and #9:. The %erformance 7as evaluated based on crac; %attern! crac; 7idth! load at first fle6ure4diagonal 8shear: crac;! ultimate shear resistance! %ost-crac;ing shear resistance4ductilit ! loadWdeflection res%onse and failure mode. The results sho7ed that the ultimate shear strength of SCC beams 7as slightl lo7er than that of their &C counter%arts. The results also validated the %erformance of various Code-based e@uations in %redicting the crac; 7idth and first fle6ural crac;ing moment4load. #'1' Elsevier Ltd. ,ll rights reserved.

#'. ,s%ects of behaviour of C/0D reinforced concrete beams in bending

Auhammad Aasood 0aT! ,li &adJai! /aris ,li! )idier Talamona! Construction and Building Aaterials ## 8#''>: #((G#>$
bstract The corrosion of steel %oses a serious %roblem to the durabilit of reinforced concrete structures and Tbre reinforced %ol mer 8/0D: has emerged as a %otential alternative material to the traditional steel. The results of a test series consisting of carbon /0D 8C/0D: and steel bars reinforced concrete beams are re%orted in this %a%er. The results indicated that the behaviour of C/0D and steel reinforced beams 7as similar in man as%ects. Both t %e of beams failed in their %redicted modes of failure. The strength design method underestimated nominal moment ca%acit of C/0D reinforced beams. The deUection of C/0D reinforced beams 7as satisfactor at service load level! corres%onding to theoretical load ca%acit . The deformabilit factor of C/0D reinforced beams 7as more than 5 indicating their ductile nature of failure. #''5 Elsevier Ltd. ,ll rights reserved.


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