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Publication Data
Filtration News (ISSN:1078-4136) is published
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IN THIS ISSUE
March/April 2013, Vol. 32, No. 2
C#*e& S(#&- / M-&#" L
Testing for Better System Efficiency 6
Bagh#)'e / D)'( C#ec(i#"
Ensuring Effective Dust Collection in Challenging Environments 10
Che!ica / Fi(&a(i#"
Poroplate MaxPore Extended Area Filters For Chemical
Processing Applications 18
Back+a'h / Fi(e&'
Automatic Backwash Filter Improves Performance in
Pharmaceutical Process 20
Eec(&#'(a(ic / Di'cha&ge
Controlling Static Discharge in Hydraulic Systems 24
H-d&a)ic' / Fi(&a(i#"
Combining Filter in Reservoir of Hydraulics 32
Ac(i*a(ed / Ca&b#"
Changing Activated Carbon Demand and Supply 34
P&ec#a(i"g / Fi(e&'
Engineering Principles of Precoating 40
P&#d)c( / Ne+'
Scientific Dust Collectors Announces New Nozzle Design Feature 46
Pfeiffer Vacuum Introduces Energy-Saving Dry Pumps A 100 L ES 47
Sartorius Extends arium Lab Water Family by
Three New Product Lines 48
Membrane Technology for Water with Fouling Potential 49
I N T E R N A T I O N A L
Your G|oba| Source
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NarchlApr|| 2013
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|mprov|og 80 Systems Thro0gh Test|og
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0ootro|||og Stat|c 0|scharge |o hydra0||c Systems
og|oeer|og Pr|oc|p|es oI Precoat|og






























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Cover courtesy of
Myron L Company
4 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Editorial Advisory Board
Editorial Board Chairman
Edward C. Gregor,
Chairman
E.C. Gregor & Assoc. LLC
Tel: 1 704 442 1940
Fax: 1 704 442 1778
ecg@egregor.com
M&A, Filtration Media
Haluk Alper, President
MyCelx Technologies Corp.
Tel: 1 770 534 3118
Fax: 1 770 534 3117
alper@mycelx.com
Oil Removal Water and Air
Jim Joseph
Joseph Marketing
Tel/Fax: 1 757 565 1549
josephmarketing@verizon.net
Coolant Filtration
Robert W. Mcilvaine
Tel: 1 847 272 0010
Fax: 1 847 272 9673
mcilvaine@
mcilvainecompany.com
www.mcilvainecompany.com
Mkt. Research & Tech. Analysis
Dr. Graham Rideal
Whitehouse Scientic Ltd.
Tel: +44 1244 33 26 26
Fax: +44 1244 33 50 98
rideal@
whitehousescientic.com
Filter and Media Validation
Tony Shucosky
Pall Microelectronics
Tel: 1 410 252 0800
Fax: 1 410 252 6027
tony_shucosky@pall.com
Cartridges, Filter Media,
Membranes
Scott P. Yaeger
Filtration and Separation
Technology LLC
Tel/Fax: 1 219 324 3786
Mobile: 1 805 377 5082
spyaeger@msn.com
Membranes, New Techn.
Mark Vanover
Bayer MaterialScience LLC
Key Account Manager
Tel: 1 314 591 1792
Email:
mark.vanover@bayer.com
Polyurethane Systems
Dr. Bob Baumann
Advisory Board
Member Emeritus
Andy Rosol
Global Filtration Products Mgr.
FLSmidth Minerals
andy.rosol@smidth.com
Tel: 1 800 826 6461/1 801 526 2005
Precoat/Bodyfeed Filter Aids
Clint Scoble
Filter Media Services, LLC
Ofce: 1 513 528 0172
Fax: 1 513 624 6993
cscoble@ltermediaservices.com
Fabric Filters , Filter Media,
Baghouse Maintenance
Gregg Poppe
The Dow Chemical Company
Tel: 1 952 897 4317
Fax: 1 942 835 4996
poppeg@dow.com
Industrial Water, Power,
and Membrane Technology
Henry Nowicki, Ph.D. MBA
Tel: 1 724 457 6576
Fax: 1 724 457 1214
Henry@pacslabs.com
www.pacslabs.com
Activated Carbons Testing,
R&D, Consulting, Training
Brandon Ost, CEO
Filtration Group
High Purity Prod. Div.
Tel: 1 630 723 2900
bost@ltrationgroup.com
Air Filters, Pharmaceutical
and Micro-Electronic
Dr. Ernest Mayer
E. Mayer Filtration
Consulting, LLC
Tel: 1 302 981 8060
Fax: 1 302 368 0021
emayer6@verizon.net
Wu Chen
The Dow Chemical Company
Tel: 1 979 238 9943
wuchen@dow.com
Process Filtration (liquid/gas)
Equipment and Media
Peter R. Johnston, PE
Tel/Fax: 1 919 942 9092
ddandp3@aol.com
Test procedures
Peter S. Cartwright, PE
Cartwright Consulting Co.
Tel: 1 952 854 4911
Fax: 1 952 854 6964
pscartwright@msn.com
Membranes, RO,
Ultraltration
6 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Cover Story | Myron L Company
ater quality testing is
not only vital to the
design of an efficient,
cost-effective RO system, it is also
one of the best ways to preserve sys-
tem life and performance.
And with the right instruments,
its easy to do. Myron L Company
manufactures innovative high quality
portable meters and cost-effective
monitor/controllers designed to sim-
plify the management of those pa-
rameters most critical in screening,
treatment, and distribution.
Using an accurate Total Dissolved
Solids (TDS) measurement to cor-
rectly assess the system load prevents
costly mistakes up front. The TDS
measurement gives users the infor-
mation they need to determine
whether or not pretreatment is re-
quired and the type of membrane/s to
select. Myron L Ultrameter and
ULTRAPEN PT1 Series TDS in-
struments feature the unique ability
to select from 3 industry standard so-
lution models: Myron L 442 Natural
Water; NaCl; and KCl. Choosing
the model that most closely matches
the characteristics of the source
water yields measurements accurate
enough to check and calibrate TDS
monitor/controllers that alert to sys-
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Figure 1: The Ultrameter Series Myron L manufactures easy to use multiparameter instruments that make managing basic
critical water quality parameters required for optimizing any treatment fast and simple.
tem failures, reducing downtime and
increasing productivity. The same in-
struments provide a fast and accurate
test for permeate TDS quality con-
trol. Measuring concentrate values,
as well, and analyzing quality trends
lets users accurately determine mem-
brane usage according to the manu-
facturers specifications so they can
budget consumption correctly. These
daily measurements are invaluable in
detecting problems with system per-
formance where changes in the ionic
concentration of post-filtration
streams can indicate scaling or foul-
ing. System maintenance is generally
indicated if there is either a 10-15%
drop in performance or permeate
quality as measured by TDS.
Membranes such as thin-film
composite membranes degrade when
exposed to chlorine. In systems
where chlorine is used for microbio-
logical control, the chlorine is usu-
ally removed by carbon adsorption or
sodium bisulfite addition before
membrane filtration. The presence of
any chlorine in such systems will at
best reduce the life of the membrane,
thus, a target of 0 ppm free chlorine
in the feedwater is desirable.
ORP gives the operator the total
picture of all chemicals in solution
www.ltnews.com April 2013 7
Figure 2: Point Source Sampling An integrated cell and sampling cup makes the Ultrameter II highly portable. Real-time
data makes fast field analysis possible.
8 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Cover Story | Myron L Company
that have oxidizing or reducing po-
tential including chlorine, bromine,
chloramines, chlorine dioxide, per-
acetic acid, iodine, ozone, etc. How-
ever, ORP can be used to monitor
and control free chlorine in systems
where chlorine is the only sanitizer
used. ORP over +300 mV is generally
considered undesirable for mem-
branes. Check manufacturers speci-
fications for tolerable ORP levels.
An inline ORP monitor/controller
placed ahead of the RO unit to auto-
matically monitor for trends and
breakthroughs coupled with spot
checks by a portable instrument will
prevent equipment damage and fail-
ure. Myron L 720 Series II ORP
monitor/controllers can be config-
ured with bleed and feed switches as
well as visible and audible alarms.
Myron L Ultrameter and ULTRAPEN
PT3 and PT4 portable handhelds
are designed for fast field testing and
are accurate enough to calibrate
monitor/controllers. Myron L meas-
urement methods are objective and
have superior accuracy and conven-
ience when compared to colorimetric
methods where determination of
equivalence points is subjective and
can be skewed by colored or turbid
solutions.
Monitoring pH of the source water
will allow users to make adjustments
that optimize the performance of an-
tiscalants, corrosion inhibitors and
anti-foulants. Using a 720 II Series
Monitor/controller to maintain pH
along with an Ultrameter Series or
ULTRAPEN PT2 handheld to spot
check pH values will reduce con-
sumption of costly chemicals and en-
sure their efficacy.
Most antiscalants used in chemical
system maintenance specify a Lange-
lier Saturation Index maximum value.
Some chemical manufacturers and
control systems develop their own
proprietary methods for determining
a saturation index based on solubility
constants in a defined system. How-
ever, LSI is still used as the predomi-
nant scaling indicator because
calcium carbonate is present in most
water. Using a portable Ultrameter III
9PTKA provides a simple method
for determining LSI to ensure the
chemical matches the application.
The 9PTKA computes LSI from in-
dependent titrations of alkalinity and
hardness along with electrometric
measurements of pH and tempera-
ture. Using the 9PTKA LSI calcula-
tor, alterations to the water chemistry
can be determined to achieve the de-
sired LSI. Usually, pH is the most
practical adjustment. If above 7, acid
additions are made to achieve the pH
value in the target LSI. Injections are
made well ahead of the RO unit to
ensure proper mixing and avoid pH
hotspots. A Myron L 720 Series II pH
Monitor/controller will automatically
detect and divert solution with pH out-
side the range of tolerance for the RO
unit. ULTRAPEN PT2, TechPro II
and Ultrameter Series instruments can
be used to spot check and calibrate the
monitor/controller as part of routine
maintenance and to ensure uniform
mixing. Myron L handheld pH instru-
ments are useful for monitoring pH
during excursions, as well.
Water hardness values indicate
whether or not ion exchange beds are
required in pretreatment. Checking
hardness values directly after the
softening process with the 9PTKA
ensures proper functioning and an-
ticipates the regeneration schedule.
Alkalinity is not only important in
its effect on the scaling tendency of so-
lution, but on pH maintenance. Addi-
tions of lime are used to buffer pH
during acid injection. Titrate ppm alka-
linity values with a 9PTKA for fast field
analysis where other instrumentation is
too cumbersome to be practical.
Though testing and monitoring
pressure is a good way to evaluate
system requirements and perform-
ance over time, measuring other
water quality parameters can help
pinpoint problems when trou-
bleshooting. For example, if the pres-
sure differential increases over the
second stage, the most likely cause is
scaling by insoluble salts. This means
that any degradation in performance
is likely due to the dissolved solids in
the feed. Using a 9PTKA to evaluate
LSI and calculate parameter adjust-
ments is a simple way to trou-
bleshoot a costly problem.
For more information contact:
Myron L Company
2450 Impala Drive
Carlsbad, Ca 92010-7226
Tel: 1-760-438-2021 X1223
Email: hrekalske@myronl.com
Website: www.myronl.com
Figure 3: Free Chlorine in the Field
The new 6PFCE features an innovative
ORP-based free chlorine analyzer
exclusive to Myron L products.
FN
10 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Baghouse | Dust Collection
hen it comes to selecting
a dust collector for a par-
ticular environment, the
characteristics of the specific dust to be
collected needs to be considered. What
is the size of the dust? Is it extremely
small? Is it a mix of sizes? Is it abrasive?
Is it hygroscopic, or moisture absorb-
ing? Does it agglomerate easily, or not
at all? Is it explosive/combustible? Is it
corrosive/toxic/unstable?
All these are necessary considera-
tions, related to the dust being col-
lected, but the dust is not the only
factor to consider. It is essential that the
properties and conditions of the gas
stream entering and passing through
the collector be also factored into the
choice of a dust collector.
Gas stream characteristics have a
significant and sometimes greater
impact on equipment selection than
dust characteristics. The combination
of the dust and gas stream characteris-
tics can make for some challenging
equipment selections. Lets look at just
a couple of the more common gas
stream characteristics and their impacts
on selecting an appropriate collector:
temperature, moisture, and chemistry.
TEMPERATURE
Temperature especially high tem-
perature affects not only the selection
of filter media, but the construction
materials of the collector, and the filter
style bags or cartridges. Temperature
can also influence the method of filter
reconditioning/cleaning and the total
required filter area. (The required filter
area is driven by the required air vol-
ume and the reasonable filtration veloc-
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B- T#! G#dbe-, Se"i#& A$$ica(i#" S$eciai'(, D#"ad'#" T#&i(
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Figure 1. Filter Media Performance Characteristics based on increasing temperature conditions.
Xinxiang Tiancheng Aviation
Purifcation Equipments Co. Ltd.
O30 !-+.a,7 1.#!'a*'8#1 ', "#1'%,',% & +a,3$a!230',% a," 13..*7',% +a,7 )',"1 -$ $'*2#01,
!-+.*#2# $'*20a2',% #/3'.+#,21 a," 2&#'0 #*#+#,21 5'2& "'$$#0#,2 +a2#0'a*1 a!!-0"',% 2- 7-30
"0a5',%1 -0 ,#5 & -*" 1a+.*#1.
Xinxiang Tiancheng Aviation Purification Equipments Co. Ltd.
N-. 1, C&3a,7# R-a", D4#*-.+#,2 A0#a, X',6'a,% C'27 453003, H#,a,
P.R. C&',a
C-,2a!2 P#01-, ', C&',a: M0. L' M',%&a-
Tel: +86-13673735086 Fax: +86-373-3520026 Website: www.tchkjh.com
E+a'*: *'+',%&a-@2!&)(&.!-+ 9 0#,!&#,%&3a@2!&)(&.!-+
C-,2a!2 P#01-, ', USA: M0 L'3 S&#,%73a,
T#*: 4015881868 9 *'31&#,%73a,@2!&)(&.!-+
For airplane
For special vehicle
For coal machinery
For fluid cleaning system
For dust
collector
of cement
industry
For ultrafilter
12 April 2013 www.filtnews.com
ity, commonly referred to as the Air-to-
Media Ratio.) Higher temperature con-
ditions usually require more
conservative filtration velocities.
There are many different filter
media available with known charac-
teristics. Figure 1 is an example of a
Filter Media Performance Character-
istics Chart showing the temperature
limitations and other attributes of var-
ious commonly available filter media.
It would seem relatively simple to se-
lect filter media by the process of
elimination, and, it can be simple IF
you know the other characteristics of
the gas stream.
However, not all media are suitable
for all types of collectors or condi-
tions. Fiberglass, as an example, is
not generally considered suitable for
envelope-shaped pulse jet collector
Baghouse | Dust Collection
Figure 2. A dust collector and ducting that is insulated to ensure condensation control.
bags just as spunbond polyester is
not generally considered suitable for
shaker style collectors. So the operat-
ing temperature and available media
for temperature can influence the
type of collector being considered.
As mentioned earlier, temperature
can also influence materials of con-
struction for the collector. This in-
cludes the type of metals, gaskets, or
paint as well as special requirements for
insulation for both moisture and acid
condensation control, or personnel
safety. See example in Figure 2.
And, finally, it is important to re-
member filtration velocity is impacted
by changes in the density of the gas
stream. Increases in temperature and
the total volume of filtered air in-
crease with temperature, so tempera-
ture influences collector size.
www.ltnews.com April 2013 13
14 April 2013 www.filtnews.com
Baghouse | Dust Collection
MOISTURE
High moisture levels can have both
negative and positive effects on the per-
formance of dust collectors. When
moisture levels are higher, precautions
must be taken to prevent condensation
on not only the filter media but also on
the interior sidewalls of the collector
body and hopper to avoid an obvious
effect of moisture interacting with the
dust mud. See example in Figure 3. It
is often difficult, if not impossible, to
remove mud from a filter media by nor-
mal pulsing or shaking. It is even more
difficult to try and get any air move-
ment through the mud, thus the value
in maintaining an interior temperature
in the collector above the moisture and
acid dew points.
Maintaining the collector wall tem-
peratures above the moisture dew point
can be equally important, especially on
the interior walls of the hopper. The in-
terior walls of the hopper are typically
the coldest temperature inside a collec-
tor, and it is not unusual to see mois-
ture condensation on the interior
hopper walls while the temperature on
the media is well above the dew point.
Consider the impact of dust from
the filters being pulse cleaned, falling
onto the wet hopper walls. The result
is dust not sliding smoothly down
the hopper walls as intended, but
sticky dust eventually bridging
across the discharge opening, effec-
tively shutting down the operation
just as if mud were formed on the
bags themselves.
Preventative action to keep these
issues from developing can take the
form of insulation of the housing or
additional heating elements on the ex-
terior of the hoppers. Some environ-
ments even require heating of the
compressed air used in pulse cleaning
to prevent the collector from passing
through a dew point because of the
Figure 3. Filter media that illustrates the negative impact of excessive moisture within a dust collector. The mud that results
is difficult if not impossible to remove from a filter by normal pulsing or shaking.
Update or list your company in our 2013 Buyers Guide.
Deadline is May 31.
Email: joan@filtnews.com
Website: www.filtnews.com/buyersguideFN.html
16 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Baghouse | Dust Collection
chilling effect from expanding com-
pressed air released during each pulse.
While condensation is an extreme
moisture condition, problems can
arise from just elevated moisture lev-
els without condensation actually oc-
curring. Hygroscopic dust such as
sugars, salts, and lime actively absorb
moisture from a gas stream and can
become very difficult to dislodge
from filter media.
As a general rule, dust collectors
perform best when the relative hu-
midity of an air stream containing
hygroscopic dust is kept at or below
40% RH. The use of hydrophobic or
fluorocarbon-treated media can en-
hance dust release characteristics of
the media filtering these dusts, re-
sulting in more stable pressure loss
across the filter media and longer in-
tervals between filter replacements.
The challenges associated with
high moisture levels are relatively
well known and predictable. How-
ever, low moisture levels with high
temperatures and dusts such as
metallic salts can become even more
challenging. At high temperatures
and low moisture levels, metallic
salts (as well as other dusts with sim-
ilar characteristics) behave as if each
dust particle has the same electrical
charge. The particles repel each other
and agglomeration of small particles
into larger particles can become neg-
ligible. Since dust particles must ag-
glomerate for collected dust on the
media to be dislodged and migrate to
the hopper, if dust never agglomer-
ates, the particle size stays the same
and the air currents just transport
disturbed dust back to the media to
be re-deposited. This means dust
would never migrate into the hopper.
With some dusts, this effect is severe
enough that it can actually be advan-
tageous to introduce moisture into
the air stream, often in the form of
steam, to promote agglomeration.
Unfortunately, many times dusts with
these characteristics are not recog-
nized until after the collector is al-
ready in operation. Yes! With
moisture, the challenge can be either
too much or too little!
CHEMISTRY
Chemistry is that broad term en-
compassing a multitude of contami-
nants, the most common being acid
gases, but also including condensable
compounds, hydrocarbons, Volatile
Organic Compounds (VOC), and
others. Acid-forming compounds
such as Sulfur Oxide (SOx) and
Update or list your company in our 2013 Buyers Guide.
Deadline is May 31.
Email: joan@filtnews.com
Website: www.filtnews.com/buyersguideFN.html
Chlorine (CL), which are common
byproducts of combustion, are in-
cluded in this grouping. These com-
pounds, when combined with
moisture, (also a byproduct of com-
bustion) have the potential to form
acids when the temperatures in the
system drop below their acid dew
points. Each of these present chal-
lenges in materials of construction,
surface coatings, insulation, and fil-
ter media selection. Gas streams with
mixtures of several of these contam-
inants represent even more challenge
and require a thorough review of the
process and performance priorities.
Many requirements will cause con-
flicts, so the final collector selection
will require tradeoffs such as higher
initial capital cost for a special coat-
ing but a longer collector life, or a
longer interval between filter re-
placements but at the expense of a
higher cost filter media.
CONCLUSIONS
Each of these gas stream charac-
teristics offers common challenges in
the selection and operation of dust
collection equipment, but gas
streams with combinations of these
factors offers great challenges. The
answer for one process may not be
the best answer for what would ap-
pear to be a similar gas stream. As an
example, Polyphenylene sulphide
(Ryton) media may be an excellent
selection for a hot SOx-laden gas
stream from a coal fired boiler. How-
ever, it may not be a good selection
for hot SOx-laden gas from a coal
fired kiln when a kiln induces signif-
icant amounts of excess air and as a
result, produces higher oxygen con-
tent than the coal fired boiler. In this
hot moist flue gas environment,
Ryton media can be subject to a loss
of physical strength due to oxidation
as oxygen levels exceed 8%. Boiler
flue gases are rarely above that level,
but the excess air from the kiln can
drive oxygen levels well above that
level. Thus, a polyimide (P84) media
may be a better selection even
though it has a lower resistance to
the acids.
The point is: to make proper
equipment selections for challenging
gas streams, the full characteristics of
the gas stream must be known. So
when an inquisitive dust collector
salesman/engineer starts grilling
about process, trust his intention.
His primary goal is to prevent sur-
prises during commissioning and op-
eration that might occur because
something was left unknown in the
planning phase. No one likes those
types of surprises, and everyone is
better served by facing the challenges
up front.
For more information contact:
Donaldson Company, Inc.
Website: www.donaldsontorit.com
FN
Chemical | Filtration
18 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
he chemical processing industry
is one of the worlds largest
users of industrial filtration
equipment. Filters are used in a wide
range of liquid process applications in
chemical plants, including filtering the
raw materials, additives/pigments/cata-
lysts, water/liquid waste generated by the
process, and the finished product itself.
The most commonly used filters in
the chemical processing industry are
bags and cartridges. These are typically
constructed of cotton, synthetic poly-
mers, fiberglass, or other non-metallic
media. While acceptable for most ap-
plications, they are generally not suit-
able for temperatures above 400-500 F
(except for fiberglass, which is capable
of higher temperature exposure), and
are incompatible with some chemicals.
Therefore, alternative materials of con-
struction must be used in many cases.
While the initial cost of the above
noted bags and cartridges are very low,
the total cost of use can be very high.
Factors such as labor to change-out fil-
ters, production loss during change-
outs, operator exposure to potentially
hazardous chemicals during change-
outs, and cost to properly dispose of
used filters should be considered.
Considering the chemical compati-
bility and temperature limits, as well as
the total cost of use of non-metallic fil-
ter bags and cartridges, reusable porous
metal filters are often the best choice
for chemical processing applications.
But, in order for porous metal filters to
be economically viable, they must be
capable of economical regeneration in
situ, or economical external chemical
cleaning must be available.
Purolator Advanced Filtration re-
cently introduced a technology that ad-
dresses these challenges. Poroplate
MaxPore extended area filter baskets
have been specifically designed for high
temperature, corrosive environments,
and can be cleaned in place for reuse,
or removed and chemically cleaned.
Poroplate MaxPore baskets are con-
structed from stainless steel (or higher
alloys) sintered wire cloth laminated
media (Figure 1). This media has a 40+
P#&#$a(e Ma,P#&e E,(e"ded A&ea Fi(e&'
F#& Che!ica P&#ce''i"g A$$ica(i#"'
B- Ma&k Wii"gha!, P)&#a(#& Ad*a"ced Fi(&a(i#"
Figure 1. Sintered wire cloth media Figure 2. Poroplate MaxPore cross-section
T
year proven service record in a variety
of high temperature, high pressure and
corrosive applications, and is available
in ratings as low as 2 nominal. The
media consists of multiple layers of
woven wire cloth, which are diffusion
bonded (sintered) in a furnace to create
a highly permeable filter laminate with
a permanently fixed pore size. The
media can be configured as a surface
media, or as a progressive pore size
media, which yields up to 4x higher
dirt holding capacity. Both configura-
tions can be backwashed/back-pulsed
to regenerate the baskets.
After the media has been con-
structed in panel form, it is
cut/formed/welded into various diame-
ter cylinders, which are concentrically
arranged to maximize the effective filter
area. Each of these cylinders consists of
an inner and outer cylinder, open on
one end and joined together by a solid
ring at the other. A flow channel is cre-
ated between the inner and outer walls
of each cylinder, similar to the flow
path of a wall flow filter. This dual-
sided arrangement further increases fil-
ter surface area. In its final form
(Figures 2 and 3), the Poroplate Max-
Pore extended area basket has up to 23
ft.
2
of filter area and fits into a basket
housing that would normally hold a sin-
gle filter basket with only 4 ft.
2
. This ad-
vantage in effective filter area can be used
in several ways to reduce the number
of filter housings/valves/piping needed in
new installations, to increase filter life, to
reduce pressure drop, and to increase the
flow rate through the filter.
A typical Poroplate MaxPore basket
is capable of flow rates of up to 300
gpm (of water or fluid of an equivalent
viscosity) with a clean pressure drop as
low as 1 psi.
Poroplate MaxPore baskets can be
used in standard bag/basket housings
where they can be removed for cleaning
when dirty, or cleaned in place. The
preferred flow direction is from the bot-
tom of the basket up and through the
media, then out the top of the basket.
Cleaning in place is typically accom-
plished by reversing the flow and push-
ing clean, filtered liquid back through
the media with approximately 100 psi.
The pressure can be applied by air/gas,
or the clean liquid itself.
The chemical processing industry
today has a number of filtration prod-
ucts to chose from, and the final selec-
tion of which type to use in each appli-
cation should be determined by a
number of factors, as mentioned earlier
in this article. The initial cost, as well as
the total cost of use must be considered.
Poroplate MaxPore extended area
filter baskets have many unique per-
formance characteristics such as high
flow rates with low pressure drop, fil-
tration ratings as low as 2, ability to
be regenerated, compatibility in appli-
cations with high temperature, high
pressure, and corrosive chemicals.
These characteristics should be consid-
ered when making the final selection
for chemical processing applications.
Mark Willingham is Vice President of
Sales for Purolator Advanced Filtration.
He has 30 years of experience in the field
of porous metal filter products for appli-
cations in the oil & gas, chemical pro-
cessing, nuclear power generation,
polymer, and general industrial markets.
For more information contact:
Purolator Advanced Filtration/Martin Kurz (MKI)
Tel: 1-336-217-3822
Website: www.purolator-facet.com
Figure 2. Poroplate MaxPore cross-section Figure 3. Poroplate MaxPore cross-section and full size basket
www.ltnews.com April 2013 19
FN
20 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Backwash | Filters
ith the patented back-
wash principle, the
Lenzing Technik Opti-
Fil has the ability to filter down to
very small particle sizes, while having
lowest amounts of reject losses. This
makes it the perfect choice, whenever
valuable products are filtered.
THE LENZING OPTIFIL
Originally, the technology was de-
veloped for high-viscosity spinning so-
lutions and has recently been
redesigned for the microfiltration of
water and other low-viscosity fluids.
The Lenzing OptiFil is a fully auto-
matic, continuous system that works
according to the principle of depth,
surface or cake filtration, depending on
the selected type of filter material. A
metal or synthetic fiber fabric or fleece
is used as filter media, retaining parti-
cles of different sizes either inside or
on its surface. After the pre-determined
degree of contamination has been
reached, the filter material is cleaned
by backwashing a small quantity of fil-
tered medium, with continuous filtra-
tion during backwashing.
In detail, the filter material of the
Lenzing OptiFil is installed outside a
perforated supporting structure (per-
forated drum). In case of cake filtra-
tion, a very thin filter cake (of typically
0.5 2mm) is formed inside the holes
of the perforated drum during the fil-
tration from the inside (Room P1) to
the outside (Room P2). During the
partial backwash from Room P2 (Fil-
trate) to Room P3 (Reject), the cake
is completely discharged within a few
seconds, using a small amount of fil-
trate to force it out of the filter. New
cake formation already starts during
backwash and is typically finished re-
sulting in clear filtrate within less than
10 seconds.
Figure 1 shows the operating prin-
ciple and setup of the filter in detail.
In applications with valuable base
materials, the Lenzing OptiFil reveals
its big advantage of low reject
amounts due to the patented back-
wash principle.
THE APPLICATION
The low reject amount was the
major reason for a renowned multina-
tional pharmaceutical company, based
in the Netherlands, to install the Lenz-
ing OptiFil in the production of a drug
for treatment of high blood pressure.
In this process, a fermentation
A)(#!a(ic Back+a'h Fi(e& I!$&#*e'
Pe&f#&!a"ce i" Pha&!ace)(ica P&#ce''
B- S(efa" Sch1$f, S(efa" S(&a''e& a"d Li'a E&(, Le".i"g Tech"ik
W
Figure 1: Operating principle of the Lenzing OptiFil.
www.ltnews.com April 2013 21
broth is put into a reaction tank to-
gether with enzymes and mixed with
a kieselguhr type of filter aid. The
distribution density of this filter aid
is shown in Figure 2, which illus-
trates that it contains very fine parti-
cles, and even smaller with less than
ten microns.
After finishing the reaction, the
mixture is pumped into a centrifuge
where the enzyme solids are filtered.
However, a certain amount of filter aid,
typically the fraction of the smaller
particles, always migrates into the fil-
trate. Those filter aid residues need to
be removed prior to the downstream
ultra filtration step. Previously, dispos-
able bag filters made out of high qual-
ity 10m monofilament were used for
this pre-filtration step.
In Figure 3: Process Flow Diagram,
the process implementation of the
Lenzing OptiFil is shown. It replaces
the previously used bag filters, situated
between the centrifuge and the ultra
filtration unit.
IMPROVEMENTS
C#'( f#& 0(&a(i#":
With each batch produced, up to ten
bag changes were necessary.
The previously installed 10m
monofilament bags have already been
made out of a rather costly material.
However, much more crucial was the
fact that with each bag change about 30
Figure 2: Distribution density of the filter aid.
Backwash | Filters
22 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
liters of the very expensive base mate-
rial were lost. Extrapolated to the batch
volume, the product losses amounted
to between 5% and 10%.
Through implementation of the
Lenzing OptiFil, product losses for a
whole batch where reduced to less than
1%. This means higher yield and there-
fore more product output with each
batch. Additionally, no manual filter
material change occurred due to the au-
tomatic cleaning.
Fi(&a(e %)ai(-:
Even though premium quality filter
material was used for the bag filter, the
filtrate quality was fairly poor for two
reasons: (1) For reaching reasonable
life times and change intervals (high
dirt holding capacity), a rather large fil-
ter area per flow volume had to be in-
stalled. This required filter area led to
sedimentation effects in the bag, result-
ing in a non-uniform cake formation in
the filter bag. (2) Furthermore, even
the best monofilament material made
of polymer filaments has a rather high
variation in pore sizes, meaning that
there are many pores being larger than
10 m.
Both effects led to a poor perform-
Figure 3: Process Flow Diagram
ance of the downstream ultra filtration
unit, resulting in a low flow rate
through the membrane, so that it be-
came a bottleneck.
As the Lenzing OptiFil is operating
an automatic backwash system, it was
designed for achieving the highest
flow/time instead of focusing on the
dirt holding capacity. This led to a
much smaller filter area (only about
10% of the bag filter system) and there-
fore to a uniform cake formation as
well as high quality filtrate, shortly
after backwash. Additionally, a special
stainless steel weave was used, also
with 10m pores, but with a much
more uniform pore size distribution.
Therefore the actual filtration perform-
ance is close to 1m!
By using the Lenzing OptiFil, the
flow through the ultra filtration system
and the module lifetime could be in-
creased significantly so it does no
longer represent a bottleneck in the
process.
W02,1-#%', H'#-4* #/& C0/6'/+'/%':
The fermentation broth contains
ammoniac, which leads to high odor
nuisance along with each bag change.
The Lenzing OptiFil is a com-
pletely closed system. A double act-
ing mechanical seal with a
thermosyphone system was chosen to
seal the rotating shaft to the outside,
leading to zero emissions during op-
eration.
P20&5%4+6+49:
Since the application of the Lenz-
ing OptiFil, the company has been
able to finish a batch in much less
time, leading to a significant increase
in production.
For more information contact:
Lenzing Technik GmbH
Tel: +43 (0) 7672 701-3479
Fax: +43 (0) 7672 918-3479
Email: lter-tech@lenzing.com
Website: www.lenzing.com/technik
FN
www.ltnews.com April 2013 23
Correction:
In the February 2013 issue of International Filtration News, the article on page 20: Integrated Dual Membrane Systems
for Drikning Water Production was compiled by the following industry experts:
V. Garca-Molina (1), O. Ferrer (2), B. Salgado (1), A. Fiaz (1), I. Martn (2), J. Mesa (3), X. Bernat (2)
(1) Dow Chemical Ibrica, Autova Tarragona Salou s/n, 43006 Tarragona, Spain
(2) CETaqua, Centro Tecnolgico del Agua. Carretera dEsplugues 75, Cornell de Llobregat 08940 Barcelona, Spain
(3) SGAB, Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal 211, 08018 Barcelona, Spain
For more information on the article, email: vgarciamolina@dow.com
24 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
he phenomenon of static elec-
tricity and resultant static dis-
charge is typically associated
with a shock that occurs after walking on
carpet with rubber-soled shoes or stock-
ing feet and subsequently touching an-
other surface. In fact, in the above
scenario, it is possible for a person to
carry out an Electrostatic Discharge event
(ESD) of over 30KV. The micro-electron-
ics industry has a history of dealing with
the presence and dangers of static elec-
tricity and has taken many precautions to
prevent electrostatic discharge from oc-
curring. These precautions include wrist
straps, anti-static garments, grounded
workstations, and environmental con-
trols including humidity and air ioniza-
tion. As with the micro-electronics
industry, hydraulic and lube oil system
designers and users need to be aware of
ESD, the damage it can inflict on system
components, and where to look for it.
This paper will ultimately assist the sys-
tem designer and user on how to prevent
ESD from occurring, including the use of
static control filter elements.
INTRODUCTION
An initial experience with ESD on a
hydraulic system was in the lab at Parkers
Hydraulic Filter Division. A flow test was
being conducted on a filter assembly and
it was a cold, dry January day. The test
fluid was a pre-filtered ISO 46 hydraulic
oil and the filter media was a micro-glass
composite with 10um rated filtration ef-
ficiency (10>200). The first indication
that something may be occurring was a
tapping sound inside the filter housing.
As the flow rate increased, the sound was
more frequent and pronounced. As the
flow rate decreased, the sound would be-
come inaudible. When the flow test con-
cluded and the filter assembly was disas-
sembled, engineers noticed some
evidence of arcing and pitting on the ele-
ment locator and the element end-cap.
An earlier customer occurrence re-
garding ESD on a hydraulic system was
on an off-line filtration skid at a North-
ern Ohio automotive plant. Here, the
customer was filtering ash-less ISO 46
hydraulic oil using a 4um rated effi-
ciency filter, again in the wintertime.
This time, the customer observed a rum-
bling, or sound similar to thunder, in the
hydraulic reservoir. After removing the
reservoir cover, arcing resembling small
lightning bolts was also observed.
Both of these two ESD experiences
had several things in common:
Clean Oil an ISO cleanliness
code of <15/13/10 was measured
via particle counting on both
systems
Efficient filters 10um efficiency
or finer (10>200)
Micro-glass filter media was
utilized in both cases
Environmental - low humidity
Relatively high flow densities or
high velocity thru the filter media
Relatively low system
temperatures (<50C)
Electrostatic | Discharge
C0/420--+/) S4#4+% D+3%*#2)'
+/ H9&2#5-+% S934'.3
B9 B25%' S*#/', E/)+/''2+/) M#/#)'2, P#2,'2 H#//+;/ H9&2#5-+% F+-4'2 D+6.
T
The use of static control filter elements can prevent ESD in hydraulic systems.
www.ltnews.com April 2013 25
These ESD issues could have been
solved in several ways, but perhaps not
by the most efficient or even acceptable
means. In the Parker Lab it was initially
considered as an anomaly that engi-
neers could solve by doping the oil
with an anti-static additive. In the au-
tomotive customer case Parker
changed the filter housings from single
length to double length in order to
lower the face velocity thru the filter
media. These two solutions are not al-
ways possible or desirable, but both
may have been preferred over ignoring
the situation. In this paper follows a re-
view of more of the issues concerning
the effects of ESD on a system and ways
to eliminate it.
WHY ESD OCCURS
ESD (Figure 1) can occur when the
charge generation interfaces of two dis-
similar non-conductive surfaces (in
this discussion we will mainly consider
the oil and filter media) slide across or
are in contact then separated. The re-
sultant charges are carried by the oil
downstream to a conductive surface
with low potential and a voltage dis-
charge occurs (see the aforementioned
customer experience). ESD also occurs
Figure 1 Arcing between filter element media and center support core, and also
between filter element end-cap and filter housing.
26 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
if the filter media is significantly
charged by the same contact and sepa-
ration from the oil and the discharge
occurs in or near the filter housing (see
the experience in the lab).
Why is ESD more prevalent today?
There are several primary reasons,
and the main ones are as follows:
F+-42#4+0/ - As the hydraulics in-
dustry changed from on-off hydraulic
control systems to more sophisticated
and compact proportional control
systems, the requirements for filtra-
tion grew. The filtration efficiency re-
quirements evolved from a 20 micron
to 10 or even <5 micron absolute
(5>200) particle removal. Cellulose
filter media, due to its large fiber size
and lack of void volume that could
not meet the requirements for effi-
ciency, capacity and low pressure
drop, was replaced by micro-glass.
Base micro-glass is non-conductive
and has tight fiber matrices that pro-
vide maximum surface contact with
hydraulic oils that are often also non-
conductive.
E/6+20/.'/4#- - Many hydraulic
systems operate in environmentally
sensitive areas where leaks or spills of
hydraulic fluid may result in contami-
nation of the soil or nearby waterways.
Conventional anti-wear hydraulic oils
are formulated with conductive metal-
containing performance additives,
which can possibly remain in the envi-
ronment in the event of leaks. How-
ever, these metal additives also provide
some level of conductivity, depending
on the specific oil. In contrast, ash-less
oil, several synthetic oils, and dielectric
oils do not have these conductive addi-
tives. Typically, oil specification sheets
do not mention conductivity values,
but these can be measured using a con-
ductivity probe. ASTM D4308
(1)
is the
standard used to measure the rest con-
ductivity of hydrocarbon fluids by a
precision meter
(2)
.
Figure 2 shows how oil conductivity
can be measured using a digital con-
ductivity meter.
S934'. E(;%+'/%9 - More compact
hydraulics allows for both lighter and
lower cost vehicles and systems, but
this typically results in higher flow ve-
locities. This includes not only the fil-
ters, but other components as well
including hose and fittings. This high
velocity condition will typically in-
crease static charge generation in the
system and limit the allowable time
that the static charge has to dissipate.
Smaller reservoirs are also the norm,
which limits the relaxation time of any
static charge that occurs and limits its
ability to slowly dissipate. Also, light
weight, but non-metallic (non-conduc-
tive), reservoirs are now commonly
used on mobile equipment.
WHAT ESD DOES TO A SYSTEM
Left uncontrolled, ESD can damage
system components where the dis-
charge takes place. The constant arcing
can eventually pit the surface, reducing
the components functionality while re-
leasing contamination into the system
to perhaps do more damage.
Figure 3 shows pitting from ESD on
anodized aluminum component.
ESD can also damage the filter ele-
ment. Micro-glass media for hydraulic
and lube systems can have a mean pore
Figure 2. Oil conductivity can be measured using a digital
conductivity meter.
Figure 3. Pitting from ESD on anodized aluminum component.
Electrostatic | Discharge
www.ltnews.com April 2013 27
size of < 2 um. Any arcing that takes
place can burn large holes in the media
matrix allowing contaminant to pass
and damage downstream system com-
ponents.
Figure 4 shows burnt polymer pleat
support mesh from arcing.
Studies have suggested that varnish
is formed due to thermal and oxidative
degradation of oil. It also has been sug-
gested that the localized heat generated
from a static charge discharge can reach
several thousand degrees hot enough
to cause localized thermal degradation
of the oil. Varnish can harm the system
in several ways, such as sticking servo-
valves, plugging filters, and build-up
on metallic surfaces (heat exchangers,
reservoir walls, bearings, etc.). Manu-
facturers of combustion turbines have
long recognized this relationship of
static discharge causing thermal degra-
dation and subsequent varnish forma-
tion in turbine lube oils.
Figure 5 shows varnish build up on
metal surfaces in a system decreasing
system efficiency and reducing compo-
nent life.
MEASURING & DETECTING ESD
The amount of static electricity in a
fluid system is an unpredictable phe-
nomenon that can come and go based
on the time of day, time of year, ambi-
ent and system environmental condi-
tions, and the amount of
contamination particulate or water. It
is sometimes difficult to determine
when and where to measure suspected
ESD. However, the best diagnostic ap-
proach would include measuring and
monitoring the same way under the
Figure 4 Burnt polymer pleat support
mesh from arcing.
Figure 5. Varnish
build up on metal
surfaces in a system
decreasing system
efficiency and reduc-
ing component life.
28 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Electrostatic | Discharge
same conditions.
Audible tapping or ticking sounds
near the filter housing as described
earlier, is perhaps the most common
means to determine if ESD is occur-
ring. If the system filter is located in a
noisy area, a stethoscope should be
employed.
A hand held static field meter
(3)
is an
easy, quick, and non-intrusive method
to determine if static charge is building
up in a system. The field meter will
measure up to 40KV, is battery pow-
ered, and can be used anywhere. If user
starts seeing voltage readings above
4kV with the static field meter they
should suspect that ESD events are oc-
curring somewhere in the system.
Figure 6. Shows an electrostatic
field-meter that can be used for locat-
ing & measuring static charges around
components in a system.
The combination of a voltmeter and
a high voltage probe adapter
(4)
is an-
other instrument that can be used to
measure static electricity. This ap-
proach can be more intrusive depend-
ing on the system, is typically less
sensitive, and is best suited for meas-
urements near the surface in a reser-
voir where the fluid is entering. This
set-up can be customized by modify-
ing or changing the end probe to a
thermocouple style adapter to meas-
ure inside the fluid stream, which can
enable a more quantitative voltage
measurement.
Figure 7 shows a digital voltmeter
coupled with a high voltage probe
that can measure up to 40kV and can
be used for locating & measuring
static charges in the oil stream and in-
side reservoirs.
Static charge is an unpredictable
phenomenon, and issues with incon-
sistent results can occur using either
measurement approach. The point to
remember is that both devices offer a
means of measurement that can detect
static charge and allow the user to
monitor the system and take con-
structive measures to control ESD.
These measures are described in the
following section.
CONTROLLING ESD
The velocity of oil flow thru the fil-
ters can be decreased by increasing the
filter media surface area, which can be
done in several ways. First, many filter
configurations have extended canister
or bowl lengths which, when retrofit-
ted, may cut the velocity in half with
an increase in filters footprint in the
major axis. Second, filter assemblies
are normally part of a family for a
broad flow rate range. By upsizing to
the larger size product in the family,
velocity thru the filter media will be re-
duced. Also, splitting flow between
two filter assemblies will decrease the
velocity thru the filter media by half.
While these solutions may eliminate
ESD, they have several drawbacks in-
cluding labor & material cost, addi-
tional size & weight, and may be
difficult to retrofit on existing systems.
As discussed earlier, the more effi-
cient a micro-glass filter element, the
more static electricity is typically gen-
erated. By switching to a more open fil-
ter media including perhaps cellulose
media on the in-line system filter, in
conjunction to installing more efficient
off-line filtration at low flow velocity,
ESD can also be eliminated. This solu-
Figure 6. An electrostatic field-meter
can be used for locating & measuring
static charges around components in a
system.
Figure 7. A digital voltmeter coupled
with a high voltage probe can measure
up to 40kV and can be used for locat-
ing & measuring static charges in the
oil stream and inside reservoirs.
Figure 8. Static control filter elements
reduce charge generation and offer a
drop in solution to existing installed fil-
ter housings.
tion, however, would also increase cost by way of the off-
line pump-motor-filter group and associated hardware. In
addition, it would also increase the risk of system compo-
nents being damaged by unfiltered particles before the off-
line filters are able to capture them.
Adding an anti-static additive to the oil may temporar-
ily eliminate ESD, but this would require monitoring and
re-doping, plus these additives typically contain carcino-
gens, which may make them unsuitable for environmental
reasons.
Switching to conductive oil could also eliminate ESD,
but some environmental fluid maintenance issues could
exist. Of course this option would not be possible in the
case of dielectric oils, as functionality and safety could be
compromised.
Increasing the fluid piping size, reservoir size, eliminating
areas of turbulence, and removing air from the system, all
can reduce the possibility of ESD occurring. However, trade-
offs in system size and cost need to be considered.
While a combination of the above solutions may help,
several significant compromises in system performance,
weight, cost, and sustainability may be required to reduce
or eliminate ESD.
STATIC CONTROL FILTER ELEMENTS
While several possible system and fluid modifications
have been discussed, the simplest solution would appear to
be the utilization of a modified filtration technology that re-
duces the voltage generated by micro-glass filter media and
the possibility of ESD occurring. Static control filter ele-
ments can provide all of the positive filtration characteristics
of micro-glass filter media, i.e., low pressure drop, high fil-
tration efficiency and dirt holding capacity, but at the same
time reduce the static charge generated in fluid systems.
This proprietary media technology is unique in that it
takes advantage of the media morphology, triboelectric
propensities of materials, and the use of conductive fibers.
No large stainless steel fibers are present in the media matrix
that can affect the porosity of the filter media and potentially
migrate downstream to damage system components. Also,
this approach does not require the element to be grounded
to be effective, no modifications to existing filter housings
are required, and it offers a straightforward drop-in solution
to existing installed filter housings. The result is a reduction
in static charge generation and ESD.
Figure 8 shows static control filter elements that reduce
charge generation and offer a drop in solution to existing in-
stalled filter housings.
Laboratory tests show a significant reduction in voltage
generated by static control filter elements in a test stand
filled with ash-less hydraulic oil with rest conductivity of
<60 pS/m. For this test, a standard micro-glass Beta
4um>200 efficiency rated element with 30 GPM rated flow
was tested along with a similarly rated static control element.
Voltage measurements were taken and recorded as the flow
rate was increased from 0 to the rated flow. Also, auditory
tests were carried out to determine if any sounds suggesting
Electrostatic | Discharge
static discharge were noted during the
tests.
Results from the test shown in the
Table 1, and also in Figure 10 show that
the tests conducted using the static
contol elements did not display any ev-
idence of static discharge and the peak
voltages recorded were a magnitude
lower in value than standard elements.
Figure 9 shows Static Charge Test
Circuit Voltage measurements taken
directly after the test filter and also in
the reservoir.
Further tests were carried out with
elements rated at Beta 10um>200
with similar results, although the peak
voltages were less for both the standard
and static control types of filter ele-
ments shown in Figure 10.
In Figure 10 illustrates test results
that show the difference in voltage gen-
erated in a hydraulic system using stan-
dard micro-glass and static control filter
elements.
In addition to laboratory testing and
validation, field trails were conducted
that resulted in lower static charge gen-
eration and the elimination of ESD events
when using static control filter elements.
The first was a turbine lube skid at a
power plant where a rumbling sound
was noted in a multi-element filter ves-
sel fitted with Beta 10um>200 filter
elements. The customer was using
Group II lube oil and also noted some
evidence of arcing on the filter element
end-caps and support cores during
change-out. Once the vessel was fitted
with a drop-in replacement of static
control filter elements, all of the audi-
ble sounds ceased and no more evi-
dence of arcing were seen during
further scheduled change-outs.
For a second field trial, a manufac-
turer of bulk oil storage and dispensing
systems was having difficulty dispens-
ing a filtered ash-less oil into plastic
containers. The stream exiting the dis-
pense nozzle had so much static elec-
tricity that it would not flow in a
straight predictable path into the con-
tainer. By fitting the dispensing filter
with a static control element, the flow
stream into the contanier became con-
Figure 9. Static Charge Test Circuit Voltage measurements were taken directly
after the test filter and also in the reservoir.
Figure 10. Test results show the difference in voltage generated in a hydraulic sys-
tem using standard micro-glass and static control filter elements.
Test Results for Beta 4um > 200 Filter Elements
Filter Element Max. Voltage (V) Tapping Sound
Standard > 10K Yes @ 4kV+
Static Control < 1K No
Table 1.
30 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
sistent and predictable.
In yet another field trail at a power
plant, the customer was operating a du-
plexing filter in the center position and
allowing both sides to provide filtration
due to ESD.
This cut the flow rate thru the filter
element in half. While this approach
apparently eliminated previously noted
ESD, maintenance personnel had to
monitor the pressure drop continu-
ously to make sure element change-out
was done well before it was customary.
By installing static control filter ele-
ments, the duplex was able to be oper-
ated with one side off-duty with no
special provisions for change-out of the
spent filter elements.
CONCLUSION
Electrostatic discharge in a fluid sys-
tem is a phenomena that can cause
damage to the fluid, system compo-
nents, and filter elements. Steps can
be taken when designing a new system
to minimize the posibility of static
charge generation but these often have
draw backs that may include additional
cost, size, and weight. Choosing fluids
with increased conductivity also may
not be possible as these typically are
designed & optimized for specific ap-
plications. The utilization of static con-
trol filter elements can provide a
convienent drop-in solution for both
new and exisiting systems reducing
charge generation and the resulting
static discharge.
For more information contact:
Bruce Shane
Parker Hannin Hydraulic Filter Division
Tel: 1-419-644-0222
Email: bshane@parker.com
Website: www.parker.com
REFERENCES
1. ASTM D-4308 STANDARD TEST METHOD FOR ELECTRI-
CAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS BY
PRECISION METER.
2. Emcee Electronics (www.emcee-electronics.com)
3. Simco-Ion (www.simco-ion.com)
4. Fluke Instruments (www.uke.com
FN
32 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
igher power densities and
decreased size are two major
design criteria that are driv-
ing the hydraulic industry and as a
result bringing thermal performance
to the forefront. In many systems the
reservoir is the only heat sink that
provides cooling, and the rule of
thumb volume equal to 2.5-3 times
the pump flow, which allows for this
heat exchange has become imprac-
tical. The importance of operating at
the proper temperature is difficult to
understate. For example, the sensi-
tivity of oil viscosity to temperature
influences lubrication and leakages.
A 20 C rise in temperature can re-
duce the viscosity by one half, result-
ing in the compromise of immediate
performance as well as the longevity
of the system components. As a re-
sult, manufactures are responding
with an array of products that reduce
the overall footprint and compress
the package size by combining func-
tionality and performance.
The most prominent products in-
tegrate a combination of reservoir,
filter and radiator. The location of
the reservoir in the circuit is fixed
due to its function of feeding the
pump in an open loop. The filter and
cooler, however, can swap positions,
which have implications on the over-
all performance. Further, integration
of a thermal or pressure bypass and a
radiator fan have costs and benefits
that must be considered.
The traditional approach of the
mobile industry is to install inde-
pendent components with the cooler
downstream of the filter, shown in
Figure 1. The utilization of the ther-
mal bypass is not compulsory but de-
termined by application and often a
pressure relief valve in its place.
Often the bypass valve is built into
the outlet of the filter assembly. This
installation ensures that full flow
passes through the filter and only the
needed flow across the cooler. Return
line radiator cores are typically sized
to minimize pressure drop and rarely
see spikes in excess of 100 psi. This
low-pressure location ensures the fil-
ter will see little backpressure allow-
ing a low to medium pressure return
line installation. One performance
advantage of locating the filter here is
that it will help prevent fouling as the
machine ages. Radiator fouling is the
result of debris building up or con-
taminates reacting with the core ma-
terial. In extreme cases this fouling
may cause pressure to build and ad-
verse consequences on the up-stream
components including the filter.
Figure 2 shows the filter installed
downstream of the radiator core and
H
Hydraulics | Filtration
C0.$+/+/) F+-4'2 +/ R'3'260+2 0( H9&2#5-+%3
B9 J0*/ T2044, D'3+)/ E/)+/''2, P#2,'2 H#//+;/ C02102#4+0/
Figure 1: Filter installed before cooler Figure 2: Filter installed after cooler
www.ltnews.com April 2013 33
thermal valve. This configuration al-
lows for the use of an in-tank filter,
which takes further advantage of the
reservoir volume, saving valuable
real estate while using a large filter
element. By virtue of the filter loca-
tion, a performance advantage may
be realized should the radiator core,
with intricate geometry, shed dirt.
Radiator manufactures are aware of
this and often provide cores to a
cleanliness specification of a max
contaminate weight and size, which
help alleviate some concern.
As designers integrate components,
they are faced with choices that will
have variable suitability for the end
user. On systems that combine the fil-
ter, reservoir and core, the location of
the thermal bypass must be consid-
ered. If the design requires the bypass,
either temperature or pressure, to be
plumbed into the system externally
then the filter assembly along with the
radiator may also be bypassed. If sized
properly, this is not a problem because
the bypass setting is such that opera-
tion corresponds to the element by-
pass setting. This means that if the
flow is in bypass through the thermal
valve at low temperatures it would
also be in bypass as dictated by the fil-
ter element assembly. But if the valve
is improperly sized then bypass of the
filter may occur for an extended pe-
riod of time. Another point to con-
sider is that the combination of
functionality also makes it difficult to
utilize these systems in closed loop
applications where full flow may be
required for cooling and filtration but
only cause drain and leakage flow for
the reservoir.
Furthermore, the system design
must allow for the reduced volume.
The reservoir volume serves many
functions only one of which is re-
lieved by integrating a cooler. The de-
aeration and exchange capacity need
considerations on their own merit.
For example, systems that require
moderate to large exchange volumes,
such as those with larger cylinders or
accumulators, are often not suitable
for these integrated products.
While these new products are of-
fering advantages, there are tradeoffs
that must be deliberated. The type of
filter used, the system contaminate
generators, thermal bypass location,
and reservoir function must all be de-
ciding factors that will lead to their
successful implementation.
For more information contact:
John Trott
Parker Hannifin Corp. Hydraulic Filter Div.
Tel: 1-419-644-0224
Email: jtrott@parker.com
Website: www.parker.com
FN
Read more articles online at www.filtnews.com
34 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Activated | Carbon
ctivated carbons (AC) as
commercial sorbents got
their jump-start during
World War II. When Germany was ap-
plying chlorine gas on allied troops,
U.S./ Britain/ Russian and the Japanese
cut off the supply of coconut-shell
based activated carbon for gas masks, a
life or death AC application, to protect
troops against toxic chlorine gas. The
U.S. government contracted Calgon
Carbon near Pittsburgh, Pa., and
Barneby-Sutcliff near Columbus, Ohio,
as part of the Manhattan project, to de-
velop a new and available feedstock or
parent raw material to manufacture ac-
tivated carbons for gas masks. These
two government contractors developed
a process based on bituminous coal as
raw material to make AC material for
gas masks. In this application, AC acts
as a chemical reducing agent, when
small amounts of water are present, to
convert chlorine gas to harmless chlo-
ride ions. Carbon is a reducing agent
similar to copper metal and chlorine is
an oxidizing agent.
After the Great War the first major
use of coal-based AC was municipal
drinking water plants, to remove indus-
trial and natural organic matter con-
taminations and improve chlorine taste
and odor. AC removes water-soluble or-
ganics by physical adsorption. This was
before the EPA, when major surface
waters were heavily contaminated. EPA
regulations have become a driver for
AC water and air purifications.
DEMAND TO RISE
The Freedonia Group has provided
an independent world future demand
for activated carbon
(1)
. The authors and
colleagues presented this article infor-
mation at the 30th International Acti-
vated Carbon Conference (IACC-30) in
Pittsburgh, Pa.
(2)
.
Table 1 contains the world projected
activated carbon demand in thousands
of metric tons. World demand for acti-
vated carbon is expected to increase
more than 10% per year from 2011
through 2016 to 1.9 million metric
tons, according to World Activated
Carbon, a new study from the Freedo-
nia Group.
Figure 1 contains the global net
growth by application sector for five
years
(3)
. It is obvious that most of the
growth is from North America air and
gas purification. The use of powdered
activated carbon injection to remove
mercury at coal burning electric power
plants and municipal waste to energy,
are the users of AC.
The Freedonia Group reports that
the high rate of growth will be due to
regulatory changes in the U.S., and
Chinas 12th Five-Year plan (2011-
2015) to improve water and air qual-
ity in the nation, and expanding
production of edible oils, beverages,
and sweeteners in much of the rest of
the world.
The activated carbon market in
China will be driven by more than reg-
ulation, and will advance at a slightly
lower rate than sales in the U.S. While
implementation of the newest Five-Year
Plan will bolster activated carbon use,
gains will also come from increasing
consumption by industry, as demand
for activated carbon rises faster than
the world average. The 12th Five-Year
Plan will also lead to greater use of ac-
tivated carbon in water treatment and
in air purification.
Consumption of activated carbon at
the household level, in tap point-of-use
and whole building point-of-entry
C*#/)+/) A%4+6#4'& C#2$0/
D'.#/& #/& S511-9
B9 H'/29 N07+%,+, W#9/' S%*5-+)'2, G'02)' N07+%,+ #/& B#2$#2# S*'2.#/
Figure 1. Projected net growth by application sector over the next five years.
A
www.ltnews.com April 2013 35
water filtration systems, will boost de-
mand, as individuals demand better
quality drinking water.
Several other nations will also ex-
perience rapid growth. For instance,
India is expected to surpass Germany
to become the fourth largest market
for activated carbon in 2016 (behind
Japan, China and the U.S.) with sales
rising on increased food and beverage
manufacturing and increased levels of
water treatment. India is becoming a
major supplier of coconut char and
coconut based AC
(4)
. Many other na-
tions in the Asia/Pacific region, along
with many in Central and South
America, Eastern Europe and the
Africa/Mideast Region, will exceed
historical growth levels as industrial,
water treatment and food & beverage
production markets for activated car-
bon grow.
Like all projections into the future;
they should be taken with a grain of
salt. But, from a manufacturer or users
viewpoint these projections help
guide planning, investments and pur-
chasing contracts. As demand goes
up, expect higher prices and AC de-
livery problems. It takes years to get
new manufacturing plants up and
running. AC users may want to lock-
in longer-term contracts to guarantee
supply at agreed to prices. Not all ac-
tivated carbons are the same thus it is
critical that manufacturers provide
what the individual market applica-
tion types need, to best solve their
problems.
SIX AC APPLICATION TYPES
Since all activated carbons are not
the same, it is important that manu-
facturers provide what AC users need
for their applications. Dr. Greenbank
has classified AC users into six types
of applications. The upper part of
Table 2 provides Greenbanks deci-
sion tree for classification into six
types. The starting feedstock and the
manufactured final pore structures or
adsorption spaces determine where
the AC can and cannot be best used
Table 1. World activated carbon demand (thousand metric tons)
% Annual growth
Item 2006 2011 2016 2006-2011 2011-2016
AC demand 877.6 1180.0 1930.0 6.1 10.3
North America 250.9 325.0 642.0 5.3 14.6
Western Europe 158.5 180.0 228.5 2.6 4.9
Asia/Pacific 316.0 464.5 729.5 8.0 10.0
Other 152.0 210.5 310.0 6.7 8.0
36 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
in the six activated carbon application
types. The Greenbank activated car-
bon classification into six types also
provides examples in the lower section
of Table 2 for the six applications.
The Gravimetric Adsorption Energy
Distribution or GAED test method,
initiated by Michael Polanyi some 100
years ago and modernized by Manes-
Greenbank and others, is a quick, low
cost and relevant test method to deter-
mine an AC samples adsorption en-
ergy (AE) distribution and its
associated pore volume and thus the
six AC application types, for GAED
sample runs. Also, GAED testing has
enabled many real world solutions for
refractory problems for the activated
carbon industry
(5)
.
The adsorption energy (AE) distri-
bution and their individual AE associ-
ated pore volume of different AC
materials determine the different phys-
ical adsorption applications ranging
from Type I heavy AC loading applica-
tions to Type 6 ultra trace loading ap-
plications. For example, in the
automotive application of hydrocar-
bon vapor emission control the AC has
no high AE sites, because this applica-
tion demands loading and un-loading
large volumes of hydrocarbon vapor
emission. Additionally, GAED pro-
vides Butane Activity and Butane
Working Capacity (BWC) values
equivalent to the ASTM approved test
methods. GAED can quickly, accu-
rately, and at low cost reveal this AE-
pore volume information, which
allows rapid classification into the six
application types.
GAED has helped many to make
better AC purchasing and used AC
change-out decisions. Recently we
presented a platform talk on advan-
Activated | Carbon
Table 2
tages of GAED over classical test
methods to make purchasing and
change-out decisions
(6)
.
WHAT GAED TEST REVEALS
In a recent case study, six applica-
tion types were determined for a client.
Our laboratory evaluated two activated
carbon samples noted below as CC-242
and CC-243 to provide information on
the markets that their material could
and could not be used commercially to
compete with present benchmark
known activated carbons. The three
benchmark commercial AC were wood-,
coal-, and coconut-based products. Sam-
ples were run on GAED to define their
AE and pore volume distributions and
thus where the materials had an appli-
cation type or a competitive advantage
compared to benchmark AC. These
GAED runs are summarized below in
Table 3, as cc adsorption space for
each applications type per 100 cc of
the AC tested.
This information tells us that these
client materials are most useful for
trace removal of contaminants from
water and air. Samples CC-242 and
CC-243 materials are expected to be
competitive with commercial present
wood-, coal-, and coconut-based acti-
vated carbons in type IV, V and VI ap-
plications. Since trace removals are
where the drinking water market is
today, they are apparently well posi-
tioned in this marketplace. With the
upcoming new disinfection rule, mate-
rials with more high AE sites will be-
come more valuable. High adsorption
energy sites are required to remove
trace trihalomethanes from drinking
water supplies.
TRACE CAPACITY NUMBER
A modified GAED method is avail-
able to selectively reveal the high AE
sites. In GAED the challenge gas is
1,1,1,2-Tertrafluorenethane (TFE). In
the trace capacity number (TCN) de-
termination method, the challenge gas
is Tetrafluoromethane (TFM), because
TFM is more difficult for AC to adsorb
than TFE.
In the drinking water purification
case, where water soluble at very low
concentration needs removed, the AC
with finest available pores is best, be-
cause it provides the highest adsorption
energy (AE) pore volume, which is
needed to remove it from water. Exam-
ples of these molecules are Vinyl chlo-
ride, Methyl-tertiary butyl-ether
(MTBE), Geosimin, MIB, etc. MTBE
was added to gasoline to provide better
ignition auto starting, but MTBE is
water-soluble and has a bad taste and
odor at low ppb. MTBE has contami-
nated groundwater from leaking under
ground gas storage tanks, and MTBE
was later banned by the EPA. The result
is that some ground water drinking
water supplies are now contaminated
with MTBE. About half of the U.S. pop-
ulation use groundwater as the source
for drinking water and AC is the best
available technology to purify water.
Again, the high AE sites are required to
remove MTBE from water.
To determine the best AC for trace
water soluble Geosimin, MIB, MTBE and
www.ltnews.com April 2013 37
Table 3
similar cases, Calgon Carbon Corp. de-
veloped a test method called Trace Ca-
pacity Number (TCN). AC materials that
adsorb TFM require pore structures with
smallest adsorption spaces and thus high-
est adsorption energies. A paper on TCN
has been accepted for presentations
(7)
.
The author regularly provides short
courses on how the GAED benefits acti-
vated carbon manufacturers and users
(8)
.
The course also covers specific issues of
interest to course attendees. This course
is the introductory course for the acti-
vated carbon school, which is designed
to provide the needs of the different sec-
tors of AC.
CONCLUSION
New test methods such as Gravimetric
Adsorption Energy Distribution (GAED)
and Trace Capacity Number (TCN) are
needed to select the best AC for adsorb-
ing trace and ultra trace water-soluble
contaminants from air, water, or organic
solvents. The present ASTM and AWWA
test methods are not powerful enough to
solve many of the major new media
needs, such as catch and release of
methane and carbon dioxide. This is
when the TCN test method is needed.
The activated carbon industry has de-
mand for additional projected AC the
next five years at 10%. This is expected
to result in shortage of supply and in-
creased prices. It takes a couple of years
to provide new AC manufacturing plants.
In order to supply the proper AC pore
structure for existing and new emerging
markets demanded by green chemistry
and sustainable and environmental busi-
ness, some new starting raw- or parent-
materials are needed to manufacture AC.
An example of new starting material to
make unique, new AC was presented by
Neal Megonnel
(9)
.
GAED has other applications besides
physical adsorption: It provides differ-
ences between competing AC, enables lo-
cating positions of chemical impregnants
into AC, determines the outer and inner
activities to determine if the AC particle
has a significant activity gradient, reveals
when AC is used and needs replaced and
many other applications for GAED.
GAED provides Characteristic Curves,
polynomial equations to calculate load-
ing as a function of aqueous- or vapor-
phase concentration, isotherms for
compounds of interest, trace- and mid-
adsorption capacities, BET surface area,
pore size distribution. GAED test method
has many advantages over classical AC
such as iodine, molasses and BET surface
area
(6)
. There are still many good oppor-
tunities to do R&D to develop new
needed products and services.
UPCOMING 2013-2014 CONFERENCES
Two International Activated Carbon
Conferences and Activated Carbon
Schools are planned in 2013 - 2014:
Pittsburgh, Pa., September 25-26, 2013
and Orlando, Fla., February 20-21,
2014.
For more information on papers
and Carbon Conference registration:
Tel. 1-724-457-6576
Email: Barb@pacslabs.com
Website: www.pacslabs.com
Acknowledgments
Authors acknowledge Dr. Mick Greenbank
for providing ideas for six sectors for AC ap-
plication types and Dr. Hugh McLaughlin for
use of Figure 1 presented at the 30th Inter-
national Activated Carbon Conference on Oc-
tober 4, 2012 in Pittsburgh, Pa.
References
1. www.freedoniagroup.com
2. Henry Nowicki, Demand and Supply for Activated Car-
bons Next Five Years. International Activated Carbon Con-
ference poster. Pittsburgh, PA Oct 5, 2012.
3. Hugh McLaughlin, The Changing Activated Carbon Mar-
ketplace: New Demand and Supply Change. 30th Interna-
tional Activated Carbon Conference on October 4, 2012 in
Pittsburgh, PA.
4. Srilal Weersingle. Journey from Coconut Shell to Black
Gold. International Activated Carbon Conference on Octo-
ber 5, 2012 in Pittsburgh, PA.
5. Go to www.wcponline.com and type Nowicki in upper
right search box to view some prior articles on Gravimetric
Adsorption Energy Distribution or GAED full characterization.
6. Henry Nowicki. GAED Test provides Advantages over
Classical Tests: Iodine, Molasses, and BET Surface Area for
Purchasing and Used GAC Change-out Decisions. 30th In-
ternational Activated Carbon Conference. Pittsburgh, PA
Oct 4-5, 2012.
7. Henry Nowicki, TCN Test Method for Expanding Acti-
vated Carbon Industry accepted for 31st International Acti-
vated Carbon Conference, Honolulu, Hawaii February 7-8,
2013.
8. Henry Nowicki, Ph.D. PACS short course titled Activated
Carbon Adsorption: Principles, Practices, Applications and
Opportunities. Monthly public classes are offered and at
your time and place.
9. Neal Megonnel, Advanced Carbon Dioxide Capture utiliz-
ing PVDC Based Activated Carbons International Activated
Carbon Conference on October 4, 2012 in Pittsburgh, PA.
38 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Activated | Carbon
Filtration
Mergers, Acquisitions
and Divestures
GL Capital, LLC
We understand the nuances of
the domestic and international
filtration industry and bring
over 70 years of combined
business, technical and finan-
cial expertise. The current eco-
nomic climate is an ideal time
for sellers to locate buyers
seeking to diversify and for
buyers to identify growth op-
portunities through acquisition.
For a condential conversation contact:
Edward C. Gregor
704-442-1940
ecg@egregor.com
P. John Lovell
719-375-1564
glcapital@comcast.net
FN
Need a Filter Supplier?...
Locate Leading Component Parts, Filter, Coalescing & Equipment Suppliers at:
www.afssociety.org/buyersguide
40 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Precoating | Filters
E/)+/''2+/) P2+/%+1-'3 0( P2'%0#4+/)
B9 J03' M. S'/4.#/#4, C0/35-4#/4
ince the first diatomaceous
earth filter aids made their
appearance, clearer filtrates
have been obtained than was ever pos-
sible using filter cloths or screens by
themselves. The art of precoating, be-
cause of the tremendous variety of fil-
ter aids and filter designs, requires an
understanding of some fundamentals
before satisfactory filter performance
can be attained.
Precoating is an operation designed
to deposit a layer of diatomaceous earth
(or some suitable material) on the filter
media. The filter media can be a fabric
cloth, wire screen, porous stone, sin-
tered metal or almost any permeable
material. It should be noted that this
manual applies mainly to pressure leaf
filters or candle filters. Primarily, the
purpose of the precoat is to prevent
blinding or plugging of the media and
to provide clean cake discharge. Precoat
also produces clarities superior to that
provided by the media alone and helps
prolong the useful life of the media.
In addition to diatomaceous earth,
paper fibers, perlites, activated or nat-
ural clays, carbons and metallic salts
have specific uses when applied as pre-
coat material. Commercial grades of di-
atomaceous earth may be obtained to
provide particle retentions from 2 mi-
crons down to sub-micron range.
Selection of a precoat material is de-
pendent upon the nature of the solids
to be removed in a commercial scale fil-
tration. Factors to be considered are:
1. Apparent micron size of the haze,
turbidity or precipitate
2. Settling rate of the solids
3. Solids %/Wt. of the feed liquor
4. Solids density
5. Solids characteristics, i.e.,
granular, slimy, coarse, fine, etc.
Some of these factors are not as crit-
ical for the selection of the precoating
material as they are for filter design and
fluid flow. However, all are important
as design criteria for the overall filter-
ing operation.
Important physical properties of fil-
ter aids, which must be considered in
selecting a precoat material, are:
1. Relative inertness
2. Proper micron retention
3. Uniform particle size distribution
4. Adequate porosity
5. Ample void volume
6. Normal settling rate
7. Low bulk density
8. Moderate material cost
Two common filtering materials,
which cannot be used as precoat mate-
rials in leaf filters, due to their rapid
settling rates, are sand and anthracite.
In any unknown liquid-solid separa-
tion problem, where the nature of the
solids is unknown, a simple vacuum
funnel or bomb filtration test will sup-
ply most of the data required. It may be
necessary to evaluate the solids in the
laboratory to determine a firm basis for
pilot runs or full-scale operations.
Filter cloths up to 50-micron reten-
tion are not critical of slurry concentra-
tions to produce a desired precoat
thickness and rapid clarity. However,
more open weaves and wire cloths
above 50 to an absolute maximum of
250 microns are very critical of the
slurry concentrations employed to
bridge the interstices. The maximum
reliable width of an aperture, which can
be bridged by diatomite with a mini-
mum slurry concentration, is 0.005.
Commonly employed wire screen
meshes, which are recognized as stan-
dards in the filtration industry are:
24 x 110 Plain Dutch Weave
(0.016/0.11 wire diameters)
70 x 80 Mesh (0.007wire
diameter)*
60 Mesh twilled (0.011 wire
diameter)*
Various grades of PZ wire mesh
(also known as Reverse Dutch
Weave)
*It should be noted that these two grades
are not as commonly used as in the past.
Where corrosion is not a factor, the
selection of screening having the largest
wire diameter provides the longest
screen life. Enlargement of the aper-
tures by the abrasive action of the silica
S
www.ltnews.com April 2013 41
diatoms (which are constantly shifting
position from pressure stresses during
the rise of cake resistance) is the cause
of eventual wire failure. A predictable
life of 5 years or more is not uncom-
mon (in the absence of corrosion) for
stainless screening in these meshes.
Table I is useful for determining pre-
coat amounts and concentrations for fil-
ters equipped with heavy duty screening
described previously. The table provides
norms for ultimately safe values.
*Wet Density of a filter aid is the
volume produced in a centrifuge tube
from a weighed amount of slurried in
water and centrifuged to a constant
level. Specific Gravity produced time
62.4 is the wet density.
In some cases, a system engineered
to this data, may permit 10-15% dilu-
tions if experimenting proves it to be
feasible.
Media with smaller micronic reten-
tion capabilities than those described
above can economize on precoat
amounts proportional to the reduction
and concentrations. The gallons per
pound of precoat can be inversely in-
creased, provided the required protec-
tion from progressive blinding is not
impaired (see Table II). Precoats of less
than 3 lbs. per 100 square foot on fabric
cloths are not generally practical. How-
ever, reductions to 1 lb. per 100 square
feet can be made with high density
liquors and very tight media in applica-
tions requiring low rates of flow per
unit area and great filter size to produce
commercial volumes (i.e., cane sugar
liquors or beet sugar thick juice).
It may be noted here that refine-
ments of precoating amounts and con-
centrations to achieve the ultimate
economy of operation can be under-
taken. These refinements should be
based upon pilot tests, laboratory eval-
uation or prior experience.
SETTLING RATES
Only brief mention has been made
of the raw feed solids as a factor influ-
encing precoat operations. Some solids,
such as colloids, slimy organics, gyp-
sum or gelatinous materials do not
have commercial settling rates, which
lead to clarification by this means. Also,
even when assisted by flocculating
agents plus costly pH adjustments, set-
tling rates are cumbersomely slow. The
use of filter aids effectively solves this
problem by containing the solids as the
slurry passes through the media. This
is much like floc settling in a tank, clar-
ifying the liquid in the process.
The process engineer must be aware
of and recognize the importance of the
settling rates of filtering materials in the
feed liquor at process temperatures.
This vital data usually escapes notice or
is even ignored. But, it is the criteria,
which can spell success or failure with
full-scale filters.
Settling rates may be determined by
sedimentation. A 1000 ml. graduate is
a convenient means of measuring the
feet per minute rate of settling by tim-
ing the settled volume. The filter aid
material is thoroughly agitated with
precoat liquor at the proper tempera-
ture in the graduate and allowed to set-
tle. By measuring the settled depth
against elapsed time, a curve can be
drawn establishing the % settled solids
against time in minutes. Since this set-
tling or sedimentation is not typical of
the conditions encountered when fill-
ing a tank or pumping prefilt feed dur-
ing actual production, a practical
solution is required to maintain uni-
form suspension. This may be solved
using the time required to settle 10% of
the filtering materials in the following
method:
HEIGHT OF LIQUID SUSPENSION
IN FEET = FEET TIME IN MIN. TO
SETTLE 10@ x 2 MEAN MIN.
A properly designed precoat system
has two major requirements:
1. It must prevent withdrawal of any
portion of the contents of the
system until the filter tank is full.
2. It requires a filling rate or flow
velocity, which produces a rate
of rise within the filter in excess
42 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
of the settling rate of the filtering
materials (as determined
previously). This must be
calculated for the maximum cross
section of the filter tank to
produce an even precoat layer.
While it is evident that the precoat
rate may be one-half the filtering rate,
all conditions being equal, since at mid-
leaf during filtration, one half the flow
has been removed as filtrate; precoats
should be applied at maximum rates for
minimum time. However, an accurate
determination of the filtering material
settling rate, directly concerns Body
Feed or Admix operations. The propor-
tional feed of filter-aids during produc-
tion operations (Body Feed or Admix)
will be discussed in a supplement.
In almost all precoat applications, a
given precoat thickness is an unneces-
sary precaution. Filter aid precoats, due
to the fact that they are so low in ap-
plied wet density and contain billions
of particles, will provide an ample
thickness with the amounts shown in
Table I with corrections shown in Table
II for tighter media.
In many cases with tight media,
rapid clarity and good cake release (at
completion of the filter cycle) are ob-
tained with only a film layer. Greater
precoat amounts are many times un-
avoidable when:
1. Slurry volumes are excessively
large when using open media.
2. Pumping rates are not adequate to
uniformly suspend filtering
materials at all levels in the
filter tank.
3. Precoat slurry is not evenly
distributed in all parts of the
vessel, causing sparse
concentrations in portions of
long, horizontal, small diameter
tanks.
4. Flow through the media is more
rapid in some areas than others,
such as areas nearest the leaf
outlets from lack of proper
hydraulic balance.
5. Filtrate piping dropping directly
to lower level preparation tanks,
causing a siphon and premature
flow through the leaves. This may
occur during filling as soon as the
leaf outlets are covered and before
the vessel is full of slurry.
METHODS OF PRECOATING
Selection of the precoat slurry liquid
is primarily a process consideration,
but is generally the process liquor as
raw feed or clarified liquor from a prior
filtration cycle. Water is acceptable for
aqueous solutions or a solvent in non-
polar fluids when dilutions can be tol-
erated. When, due to process
Precoating | Filters
www.ltnews.com April 2013 43
considerations or if dilution is imprac-
tical or costly, the precoat fluid must be
drained before the prefilt feed is started.
Please refer to illustrations 1-3 on
page 42:
1. Most clarifications use a precoat
tank, having enough volume to fill the
filter and inter-connecting piping,
with sufficient volume remaining in
the tank to continue agitation. The
precoat tank is normally sized to con-
tain a volume of liquor 1-1/4 the
amount contained in the filter and pre-
coat piping. Precoat tanks should be
designed with a bottom outlet to the
precoat pump suction with enough
depth or baffled to avoid a vortex. Ag-
itation, either with a mixer or by recir-
culation flow, must be adequate
enough to suspend the filter powder
and provide enough roll to thoroughly
wet the dry material without manual
assistance. Vent lines from the filter to
the precoat tank, should be approxi-
mately 1/3 the size of circulating flow
piping to promote air displacement
and rapid filling. The precoat pump
may be a separate unit designed and
powdered to provide adequate per-
formance. Or, the main prefilt (sys-
tem) pump can be used with a
throttling valve adjusted to the desired
flow. In this latter case, selection of the
proper characteristics for all condi-
tions is very critical. Centrifugal
pumps are commonly used because of
their universal applications, but other
types of pumps are used for precoating
in many industries.
When the wet density of solids in the
prefilt feed are above a specific gravity
of 1 and relatively low in ppm, prefilt
feeds can be utilized for precoating with
good economy and simplification rather
than filtrate or other cumbersome mul-
tipurpose procedures. When it is under-
stood that an average precoat
concentration containing 1 lb. of filter
powder in 20 gallons of water repre-
sents a slurry of 6000 ppm, the volume
of the powdercompared to 1 specific
gravity solids id 21/2 to 4 times the
contamination. But, of most signifi-
cance is the void volume available for
envelopment of the colloids. While the
useable voids for filtration varies with
each grade or class of material, the
range of voids will be from 60 to 75%.
This phenomenon provides a work-
able rule that may be stated: When
solids are 1/10 or less the precoat con-
centrations in PPMuse the feed liquor
for precoating. This, as inspection will
show, is a safe ratio, and can be refined
by preliminary tests to produce the
greatest benefit without sacrificing the
purpose of the precoat.
Following are examples of practical
methods, which use this principle:
2. GRAVIT! FILL
A precoat tank with sufficient vol-
ume to serve the filter is located over-
head. Powder is introduced to the
precoat tank, suspended to uniformity,
and then dropped to the filter tank in
conjunction with starting the prefilt
feed. Filtrate, whether cloudy or not, is
returned to the precoat tank for the
next fill.
The success of this method depends
upon the filter to develop mixing and
uniform distribution of the prepared
slurry to the diluted concentration. In
this instance, the gravity precoat tank
may be of less volume than the filter.
3. PRECOAT FUNNEL
A funnel, generally used on Vertical
Leaf Filters up to 150 square feet of
area, provides substantially the same re-
sults where filter aid quantity is less
than 50 lbs. A prerequisite to this
method is an efficient internal mixing
and baffling of the feed to achieve the
uniform distribution throughout the
tank, which is required for precoating.
The funnel may be charged with
prepared slurry or by bucketing in sev-
eral gallons of liquor to a dry powder.
The funnel valve is opened and the
slurry allowed to gravity flow to the
tank. The funnel valve is closed and the
prefilt pump started.
Cloth dressed filters are most adapt-
able to this method of precoating as
smaller quantities of filter aid, with re-
44 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Precoating | Filters
sulting economies, may be used. This
is illustrated in Tables I and II.
4. INJECTED PRECOATS
If a gravity set-up is inconvenient,
it is obvious a pump can be substi-
tuted in 2 to make the same delivery
of suitable slurry to be combined with
prefilt feed. Refer to illustrations 4-5
on this page.
The frequent charging of precoat
tanks by use of instrumentation, rather
than manual operation, implements
much of the objectives desired to re-
duce labor and provide instrument re-
liability for positive quality control.
Proportional admix injection (known
also as body feed) of concentrated slur-
ries combined with the prefilt feed
liquor may be used upon start up of the
filter to provide a suitable precoat.
Concentrations of up to 1 lb. per gal-
lon may be used as the slurry for injec-
tion. For gravity introduction, a series
of probes, each positioned for the
amount of charge, are programmed to
open and close the drain valve at the
appointed time. This drain valve should
not be located at the bottom of the tank
where settled powder will accumulate,
but should enter the tank at a low level
with a drop pipe to the interior near the
bottom. A clean, timed, fluid back flush
above the valve will purge the line of
powder slurry. A pumped slurry intro-
duction, based on this principle, pro-
vides a combination pump start with
valve opening using the same side-en-
tering outlet described for gravity pro-
portioning. But flushing the siphon line
is combined with simultaneously flush-
ing the pump and the discharge lines to
prevent resulting failures from powder
settling. Otherwise, probe levels, tank
sizes and calculated powder mixtures
remain constant.
RATE OF PRECOAT DEPOSITION
There is some value in predicting the
time required to deposit a given
amount of precoat layer. Clarity must
be produced rather promptly with a
sufficient precoat layer established to
provide good cake release at comple-
tion of the cycle. Minimal precoats will
fail if the volume turnover is not suffi-
cient to reach the desired layer. As all
precoats are applied by flow in a given
volume, the rate of deposition is a func-
tion of the rate of slurry reduction
within the system. The following table
illustrates the rate of change in which
time of the circulation volume N di-
www.ltnews.com April 2013 45
vided by the rate, and percent deposi-
tion is the fraction of amount Cf/Co to
the original.
Two circulations will deposit about
90% of the precoat charge. A gain will
be obtained when the precoat vehicle is
clean liquor, as some additional precoat
will be deposited before contamination
becomes a factor.
A filter feed rate at the mayor cross
section of the filter vessel, no less than
twice the observed settling rate, assures
building uniform cake over the entire
height of the immersed leaf. As the
cake grows, it displaces volume in the
leaf zone and rate of rise increases. It is
important to maintain distribution in
the early portion of the production pe-
riod at low-pressure drop. By sustaining
permeability, filtrate volume may be in-
creased by as much as 10%.
Clarity-Time Relation: Clarity pro-
duced from a given precoat mix, when
using a powder of proven efficiency is
a function of the rate per unit area, con-
centration of the slurry and retention of
the media.
Refer to Table II for other media.
Multiply above mean times by column
(1) for the type of media employed.
Dense media will give almost instanta-
neous clarity. Caution is suggested to
employ sufficient time to produce a full-
scale use of the precoat charged for ad-
ditional protection to the media and
satisfactory cake discharge. See Table III.
FILTRATION
While the preceding deals primarily
with Precoating, we want to add some
observations on Filtration and Proper
Filter Selection.
In an article in the June 26, 1972,
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, Dereck B.
Purchas, consultant chemical engineer,
goes into full details about FILTRA-
TION. Here is an extract of his com-
ments from that article where he states:
Achieving truly trouble free filtration in
industrial installations requires a lot of
attention to five major areas:
Definition of the filtration problem
Selection of the appropriate filter
or filters
Selection of the filter medium or
media
Selection of auxiliary equipment
Control of operating conditions
In defining the filtration problem
there are so many factors in a typical
filtration problem, it is often difficult
to think that a problem has been fully
defined before a specific type of filter-
ing equipment can be recommended or
considered. It is because of this that
many manufacturers or consultants
have their own questionnaire to be
filled out by the prospective client. The
person or persons that must fill-in
these questionnaires must be as com-
plete as possible in listing the process
conditions and answering the ques-
tions in these forms. Unfortunately, in
some cases, the required data to com-
plete these forms may not be available
or known sufficiently by the person
completing the form and sometimes it
is recommended to try to prepare a
representative sample of the process
liquor to be furnished to perform
bench scale testing so that the results
may be scaled up to the determine the
actual production units. The question-
naire resolves the possibility of not
asking the right questions when dis-
cussing the application with a client.
Such test also determines the filterabil-
ity of the process liquor and in a small
scale helps determine what pretreat-
ment if any is necessary or what filter
media and filter aid is best for the ap-
plication.
It is important to define the degree
of clarity required in the application
and not vague expectations such as
good clarity. Equally important is
providing an accurate percentage of
suspended solids and particle analy-
sis. It is important to know if all of
the suspended solids are to be re-
moved and how the removed solids
are to be disposed or if further pro-
cessing is required.
Full understanding of the filtration
duty is a prerequisite in the selection of
the filter equipment. Pretreatment of
the process liquor is very important be-
cause that will determine how it will fil-
ter. The shape, size and particle
distribution of the suspended solids is
an important factor. In the selection of
filter, the various types must be consid-
ered such as centrifuges, gravity filters,
compression filters, pressure filters and
vacuum filters.
Following filter selection it is
equality important to select the type of
filter media such as filter cloths, wire
mesh, sintered wire mesh, and mem-
branes. Consideration must be given to
the porosity, particle retention, filter
cake release and cleaning of the media.
In the case of the filter cloths, the com-
patibility with the process liquor must
be considered. Whether it should be
woven or non-woven, temperature lim-
itations and performance of the cloth
are to be given consideration.
The selection of auxiliary equipment
is to be considered also the size and
features of the precoat mixing tank,
type of mixer, type and capacity of the
precoat pump and the feed pump, body
feed mixing tank, and mixer and pump.
Last but not least is the recommen-
dation to read published articles on pro-
cessing magazines and those published
by the filter aid manufacturers and filter
cloth and wire mesh suppliers all pro-
vide a lot of helpful information in con-
sidering filters and filtration systems.
The writer has compiled this manual
from various sources that he has read
and compiled in over 49 years in the
field of filtration. The similarity of com-
ments or notes in this manual with
published information is simply the
fact that those sources have been con-
sulted in the compiling of notes and
comments in this manual. The writer
does not claim any or all in part to be
originally his.
For more information contact:
Jose M. Sentmanat
LIQUID FILTRATION SPECIALIST, LLC
Tel: 1-936-756-5362
Email: jmsentmanat@consolidated.net
Website: www.lterconsultant.com
46 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
Precoating | Filters
FN
cientific Dust Collectors
(SDC) recently announced
the next generation of nozzle
cleaning technology for reverse pulse
jet dust collectors. SDCs unique new
cleaning nozzle provides an improve-
ment in cleaning technology that
achieves superior performance even at
lower compressed air levels. These
levels can be as low as 80 psig. SDC
has a new technical paper that ex-
plains this feature.
SDC has used nozzle based clean-
ing systems for pulse jet collectors in
the manufacturing industry for over
32 years. The key to the performance
of this cleaning system is the scien-
tific design of the cleaning nozzle.
This patented technology provides
more induced cleaning air into the
filter media than any other system
available. SDCs nozzle is able to in-
crease the cleaning velocity to super-
sonic flow even at these lower
compressed air levels thus saving en-
ergy and money.
For more information visit:
www.scienticdustcollectors.com
S%+'/4+;% D534 C0--'%4023 A//05/%'3 N'7 N0::-' D'3+)/ F'#452'
S
SDC develops new nozzle.
FN
www.ltnews.com April 2013 47
Product | News
he dry pumps A 100 L with
their compact dimensions
were specially developed for
flexible integration in semiconductor
production facilities. These dry multi-
stage Roots pumps are ideal for clean
applications such as load-lock cham-
bers and transfer chambers as well as
for all other noncorrosive applications.
Despite their compact dimensions
the pumps provide high pumping
speeds and short pump down times.
Today, the A 100 L pumps are installed
worldwide in all leading semiconduc-
tor fabs. These pumps are suitable for
operation in clean rooms.
The further development, the A 100
L ES, cuts energy consumption by up
to 50% (ES = Energy Saving). Its pump-
ing speed is significantly higher in the
low-pressure range. Additional benefits
include a lower final pressure and re-
duced noise level.
The innovative and fully inte-
grated ES module reduces energy use
to a minimum in the low-pressure
range. This significantly reduces op-
erating costs. To illustrate the point:
annual savings per pump total up to
7,900 kWh. This corresponds to 3.9
tons of CO
2
.
At a typical 300 mm semiconductor
fab level equipped with 1,300 loadlock
pumps, the energy saving adds up to 10
GWh, or about 360 k or 5,100 tons
of CO
2
per year.
In addition to energy savings, the
final pressure of the A 100 L ES is re-
duced to 7x10-4 mbar (hPa). This
opens up new potential applications re-
quiring an enhanced pumping capacity
combined with low pressure. The noise
level is also reduced from 58 dB (A) to
55 dB (A). The A 100 L ES rounds off
the energy-saving product family of
medium duty process pumps in the
A3P series and the harsh duty process
pumps in the A3H series.
P('+(('2 V#%55. I/420&5%'3
E/'2)9-S#6+/) D29 P5.13 A 100 L ES
T
Pfeiffer Vacuum
Energy-Saving
Dry Pumps A
100 L ES
FN
he Sartorius technology group
recently extended its success-
ful arium lab water family by
three new product lines: the arium pro
ultrapure water system, the arium ad-
vance pure water system and the arium
comfort combination system. These new
product lines generate Type 1 to Type 3
ultrapure and pure water, delivering the
right water quality for any laboratory ap-
plication. The highlight of these new
lines is the arium comfort series. In ad-
dition to providing ASTM Type 1 ultra-
pure water, this space-saving
combination unit also produces Type 2
and Type 3 pure water.
CONSISTENTLY HIGH WATER QUALITY
Low quantities of organic contami-
nants in water are all it takes to have a
negative impact on laboratory tests.
The new arium ultrapure water systems
deliver water quality that meets, and
even exceeds, the ASTM Type 1 Stan-
dard. Its integrated UV lamp prevents
microbiological growth, thus reducing
the TOC content (Total Organic Car-
bon = degree of organic contamination)
to a minimum. If a Sartopore 2 steril-
izing grade filter is used on arium, ul-
trapure water is practically free of
microorganisms when dispensed. As a
result, arium ensures consistently high
water quality and results that are al-
ways reproducible in mission-critical
laboratory applications, such as cell
cultivation and chromatography.
FAST, SAFE SUPPLY OF LAB WATER
Pure water is stored in the new
arium bag tank system, which consists
of a closed housing with an integrated
single-use bag. Inside this bag tank, pu-
rified water is protected from secondary
contamination. This ensures consis-
tently high water quality over a rela-
tively long storage period and thus
reproducible results. The bags can be
quickly and easily exchanged as needed
and do not have to be chemically
cleaned, as is the case with conventional
water storage containers. This mini-
mizes downtime and reduces mainte-
nance costs, while simultaneously in-
creasing safety for users, who do not
have to handle any dangerous chemi-
cals. The arium bag tanks are available
in a choice of 20, 50 and 100 liters.
ECONOMICAL WATER PURIFICATION
The arium iJust software controls a
valve on the concentrate drain based on
the data measured for CaCO3 and CO2.
As a result, iJust optimizes the quality and
usage of pure water, extending the life of
the downstream ultrapure water systems.
All functions of the arium laboratory
water systems can be controlled by touch-
activated functions on the display even
while the user is wearing gloves. The new
arium laboratory water systems are avail-
able as bench top, wall-mounted or built-
in units that provide various dispensing
options and offer flexibility for integration
into any laboratory environment.
For more information visit:
www.sartorius.com
Product | News
48 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
S#2402+53 E84'/&3 #2+5. L#$ W#4'2
F#.+-9 $9 T*2'' N'7 P20&5%4 L+/'3
Sartorius arium product line
T
FN
www.ltnews.com April 2013 49
pecialty chemicals company
LANXESS is now offering three
new types of Lewabrane mem-
brane separation elements for reverse os-
mosis. The new products are available
now for waters with strong fouling po-
tential. The new membranes have a sur-
face area of 37.2, 34.4, and 8.4 square
meters (equivalent to 400, 370, and 90
square feet). Lewabrane RO B400 FR and
Lewabrane RO B370 FR have a diameter
of 201 millimeters (8 inches), while
Lewabrane RO B090 FR 4040 has a di-
ameter of 101 millimeters (4 inches).
All Lewabrane products comprise a
polyamide composite membrane,
wound in several layers to form a spiral
wound element. Our membrane sepa-
ration elements are characterized by a
high degree of polymerization and a low
surface charge, which in itself reduces
the accumulation of dissolved solids at
the membrane surface, said Alan
Sharpe, head of the RO Membrane
Strategic Project at LANXESS Ion Ex-
change Resins business unit. Further-
more, a special feed spacer has been
incorporated in the newly developed FR
types. The new membrane elements
were designed to generate greater turbu-
lence in the feedwater channel, meaning
that less solids accumulate on the mem-
brane surface, Mr. Sharpe explained.
In membrane separation, fouling de-
scribes the process by which dissolved
solids (colloids) form deposits on the
membrane surface, leading to a reduction
in separation capacity. The new FR ele-
ments from LANXESS reduce this kind of
fouling, thereby extending maintenance
intervals and increasing output capacity.
The separation elements, manufac-
tured at LANXESS' Bitterfeld site in
Germany, were engineered specifically
for industrial water treatment. The
fields of application include the desali-
nation of brackish and low-salinity
water with a high potential for organic
or biological fouling.
LANXESS EXPANDS SOFTWARE TOOL
The Ion Exchange Resins business
unit has expanded its design tool for in-
dustrial water treatment. Using
LewaPlus, complete systems can now be
designed, for example, employing differ-
ent separation processes. Explained Dr.
Jens Lipnizki, Membrane Applications
Manager at ION: Until now, LewaPlus
was only capable of engineering reverse
osmosis and ion exchange systems sepa-
rately. With the expanded version, a re-
verse osmosis process can now be
engineered with a downstream ion ex-
changer and, if necessary, even with an
intermediate degasification system. This
is a typical application for water treat-
ment in power plants.
LewaPlus consequently is the only
software application that can design an
entire reverse osmosis process with down-
stream ion exchange, and the only one
that can integrate in its calculations post-
treatment involving a degasification sys-
tem or chemical addition. Some industrial
applications require the addition of salts
to reduce the corrosive properties of the
water or to adjust the pH. Ultrapure
water, for example, literally extracts ions
from the metal surfaces in a water
pipeline, which leads to oxidation and vis-
ible damage in the form of corrosion, ex-
plained Dr. Lipnizki.
SEAMLESS DESIGN
The LewaPlus design software is a
comprehensive tool for engineering sys-
tems that use Lewatit ion exchange resins
(IX) and Lewabrane membrane elements
for reverse osmosis (RO). The application
calculates RO system configurations and
their output, including feed pressure and
permeate quality. The combination of
membrane separation and ion exchange
ensures that efficiency and economy go
hand in hand. The membrane elements
deliver a stable, lower-salinity permeate to
minimize the salt load in downstream
processes, thus helping to achieve an effi-
cient price-performance ratio, Mr.
Sharpe explained.
For more information visit:
www.lewabrane.com
M'.$2#/' T'%*/0-0)9 (02
W#4'2 7+4* F05-+/) P04'/4+#-
L'7#P-53 &'3+)/ 30(47#2' /07 #-30 (02 2'6'23'
03.03+3 7+4* &07/342'#. +0/ '8%*#/)'2
The membrane
separation elements
in LANXESS
Lewabrane range
comprise a polyamide
composite membrane
wound in several
layers to form a
spiral wound element.
Photo: LANXESS AG
FN
S
50 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
M
i
n
i

M
a
r
t

A
d
s
To place a Mini Mart Ad
Email: joan@filtnews.com
www.ltnews.com April 2013 51
M
i
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i

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Mergers & Acquisitions
GL Capital, LLC
Specialists in Mergers, Divestitures
and Acquisitions of filtration
industry companies with sales of
between $10 and $300 million.
For a confidential discussion contact:
Edward C. Gregor
704-442-1940
ecg@egregor.com
Advertiser Index
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52 April 2013 www.ltnews.com
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TAIWAN
Buildwell Intl. Enterprise Co. Ltd.
No. 120, Huludun 2nd St., Fongyuan City
Taichung County 42086, Taiwan
Tel: 886 4 2512 3015
Fax: 886 4 2512 2372
Email: buildwel@ms23.hinet.net
UNITED KINGDOM
Judy Holland
Textile Media Services Ltd.
Homerton House, 74 Cawston Road
Reepham, Norfolk NR10 4LT, UK
Tel: +44 1603 308158
Fax: +44 8700 940868
Email: jholland@textilemedia.com
USA, CANADA
Bob Moore
RAMCO
P.O. Box 4032
Cave Creek, AZ 85327
Tel: 1 480 595 0349
Fax: 1 480 595 1749
Email: ramco4032@gmail.com
ALL OTHER COUNTRIES
Ken Norberg
Editor, International Filtration News
PO Box 265
Winchester, TN 37398 USA
Tel: 1 202 681 2022
Email: ken@filtnews.com
A2Z Filtration Specialities 15 www.a2zfiltration.com
AFS Conference Ins. Back Cover www.afssociety.org
Air Filters, Inc. 9 www.airfilterusa.com
Ashby Cross Co. 41 www.ashbycross.com
Contract Pleating Services 22 www.solentech.com
Dexmet Corporation 45 www.dexmetfilter.com
Dopag (US) Ltd. 37 www.dopag.us
Durr Ecoclean, Inc. 29 www.durr-ecolan.com
Flow Ezy 36 www.flowezyfilters.com
Gusmer Enterprises 31 www.gusmerenterprises.com
Industrial Netting 35 www.industrialnetting.com
Intl Filtration News - Buyers Guide 16 www.filtnews.com
JCEM-USA 5 www.jcem.ch
Lenzing Technik GmbH 23 www.lenzing.com
Magnetool Inc. 47 www.magnetoolinc.com
Metalex 43 www.metlx.com
Metcom Inc. 35 www.metcomusa.com
Monadnock 25 www.mpm.com/nonwoven
Myron L. Company 1 www.myronl.com
Orange Reseach 21 www.orangeresearch.com
PerCor Mfg. 23 www.percormfg.com
Perforated Tubes 17 www.perftubes.com
Phifer, Inc. 3 www.phifer.com
Rosedale Prod. Back Cover www.rosedaleproducts.com
Sealant Equipment 27 www.sealantequipment.com
Solent Technology Inc. 39 www.solentech.com
Sonobond Utrasonics 33 www.sonobondultrasonics.com
SpinTek Filtration Inside Front Cover www.spintek.com
Xinxiang Tiancheng Aviation 11 www.tchkjh.com