Bcrw Final Report | Diversity (Business) | Cross Cultural Communication

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The world today is characterized by an ever growing number of contacts resulting in communication between people with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. Communication between different cultures is a major topic for communication theorists. Today, both culture and communication have evolved considerably and have become interdependent of one another. An organization employees people from several cultures an develops a diversified workforce an in this workforce intercultural communication is more involved than international communication. When different cultures meet which creates diversity of language & communication. Every culture have its own rules and when the cultures collides the old rules become useless and the collision creates new set of rules it self. Now we know that when different cultures gathered at one place creates intercultural communication. When intercultural communication occurs in an organization it become a part of diversity at a workplace. Now when diversity at workplace penetrates in an organization it affects the organization. Now here affects means that it gives some benefits and some problems to the organization. People from different cultures encode and decode messages differently, increasing the chances of misunderstanding, so the safety-first consequence of recognising cultural differences. It is important to recognize cultural misconceptions.We must understood the difference of cultures and those key points by which the cultures can be easily differentiated(including recognition of all non-verbal messages). In writing we know that all the Business documents in different countries differ not only in form but an organization, tone, and level of detail. Diversity not only involves how people perceive themselves, but how they perceive others. The influence of people on work organizations creates misconception and miscommunication because of culture difference, affect the organizations common goals. There are number of goals which an organization plans to achieve but all goals are connected to the ultimate goal which is profit. If the diversified workforce works & communicates effectively and efficiently than obviously an individual performs well which leads to the performance of a department and organization can increase profit. If the work force doesn’t work & communicate effectively and efficiently with each other than the performance of the department effected badly and organization suffers loss. Now if the diversity at a workplace affects an organization in a positive manner its gives benefits to the organization and if it affects in a negative manner it gives challenges to the organization. It is recommended that examine your own language and cultural habits which will help in making differentiation to resolve conflict.

DIVERSITY AT WORKPLACE

INTRODUCTION
Background of the problem The advent of the global economy is changing the fundamental nature of our governments, businesses, organizations and populations. In short, we are no longer constrained by state boundaries but have all become part of an interdependent international network. One of the key changes this has triggered is the need to communicate effectively with different people in different languages and from different cultures. The world today is characterized by an ever growing number of contacts resulting in communication between people with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. This communication takes place because of contacts within the areas of business, military cooperation, science, education, mass media, entertainment, tourism but also because of immigration brought about by labor shortage or political conflicts. Communication is the most important quality for anyone to work on if they want to work or be part of an intercultural society. Communication between different cultures is a major topic for communication theorists. Today, both culture and communication have evolved considerably and have become interdependent of one another. In all these contacts, there is communication which needs to be as constructive as possible, without misunderstandings and breakdowns. It is now recognized that linguistic and cultural knowledge are two of the most vital areas of knowledge that organizations must come to acquire if they are to integrate, progress and succeed in the marketplace. Inter cultural communication is very essential. In the global economy effective intercultural communication is a "must". Business success is now built on understanding and nurturing strong relationships with international and multicultural colleagues, customers and clients. Intercultural communication, to no surprise, is not new. On a small scale, intercultural communication occurred long ago when culturally diverse people first interacted (Italians with Chinese, Persians with Africans, etc.). Within the past few centuries, however, the number of interactions between culturally diverse people has greatly increased due to the increase in world population and the advances in technology. The world population and technological advances have grown at an exponential rate. Undoubtedly all related aspects, such as personal interaction, have also grown at an exponential rate. Discussions of intercultural communication used to be intended for the few graduates who would actually visit another country on business. For the late yond, however, every business communicator needs to know how to inter with members of different cultures. As many as one-third of current business graduates may have extended foreign business experience within the first five year careers. Virtually everyone in business will have business relations with company at some time. In addition, most businesspeople, during their career employed in multicultural workforces.

The opportunity for intercultural interaction may be right at hand in Urban areas such as Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, and New York because of their cultural diversity. They can be viewed as cultural quilts, with enclave ethnic groups set side by side. To do business in Miami, for example, you know as much as possible about Cuban-American culture, for people of make up a major Florida market and represent an influential social forceless, many service industries and food-related businesses are dominated by Cuban Americans and Hispanic Americans. In New York, a day's walking tour will take you to dozen or more distinctive cultural neighborhoods. You may find yourself working for an American company or a major corporation that employs people from several cultural groups in different world. Major business schools in the United States are already gearing to tune called a "global vision"; "Students will have to master a foreign language and culture understandings as well. Note at the outset that intercultural communication involves more than international communication. Intercultural communication involves making connections between different views of the world, whether between countries or between cultural groups within one country. By contrast, international communication may involve parties of the same culture, as when an American businesswoman in San Francisco contacts her American colleague based in Paris which creates a collision between cultures or we can say the meeting of different cultures which affects the language & communication which further creates a diversity of communication. When you and your own cultural background come into contact with persons of another culture, something new emerges-a middle ground, called a "transaction culture." In this new middle ground, sensitive and often unstated rules and understandings guide behavior. That is, if a member of Culture A interacts with a member of Culture B, neither the cultural rules of A nor those of B are the sole guide for behavior. Instead, a mixed set of rules-middle Culture C--develops for the purposes of the interaction. For example, consider the cultural rules that would guide a business conversation between you and a manager from Japan. You would not speak and act entirely as you would when conversing with American co-workers, nor would the Japanese manager hold fast to Japanese conversational rules and behaviors. Both of you would consciously and subconsciously bend your own cultural habits and assumptions to accommodate the communication needs of the other. In short, learning to be an effective intercultural communicator does not mean becoming Japanese, Russian, or African. In fact, it would be a big mistake to pretend to know more about someone else's culture than you really know. Nor should you pretend to understand or believe what you really don't understand or believe. For example, you should not pretend to understand or believe in the religion of a business associate. Instead, you should show your respect for the religion and try to understand it if it would help in your business interactions. To communicate with other cultural groups, you must be willing and able to adapt-but not discard-your own patterns of thought and behavior to meet the communication needs of your audience. That process begins with a sincere effort to understand another culture on its own terms.

Now when different cultures meet it creates certain cultural and communication misunderstandings and than a new form of communication begins called cross-cultural communication. Inter-cultural(Cross-cultural) communication tries to bring together such relatively unrelated areas as cultural anthropology and established areas of communication. Its core is to establish and understand how people from different cultures communicate with each other. Its charge is to also produce some guidelines with which people from different cultures can better communicate with each other. For example, how does a person from China communicate with a person from America? Furthermore, what underlying mental constructs appear from both parties that allows for constructive communication? Crosscultural communication, as many scholarly fields, is a combination of many other fields. These fields include anthropology, cultural studies, psychology and communication. The field has also moved both toward the treatment of interethnic relations, and toward the study of communication strategies used by co-cultural populations, i.e., communication strategies used to deal with majority or mainstream populations. The introduction of power as a cultural communication variable leads to a body of critical scholarship. Now when we observe intercultural communication in the context of an organization it shows some interesting facts of intercultural communication. Now we know that when different cultures gathered at one place creates intercultural communication. When intercultural communication occurs in an organization it further creates diversity or become of part of diversity at a workplace. Now when diversity at workplace penetrates in an organization it affects the organization. Now here affects means that it gives some benefits and some problems to the organization. Workplace diversity is basically an issue for the 21st Century. Today, workplaces are becoming more diverse, bringing together people of different races, genders, cultures, abilities, ages, sexual orientations, family structures, lifestyles, experiential backgrounds, and more. Organizations are developing specialized expertise and diversity focused initiatives to create policies, practices and procedures for making diversity work and to establish diversity as a resource for meeting organizational goals. "Diversity refers to human qualities that are different from our own and those of groups to which we belong; but that are manifested in other individuals and groups. Dimensions of diversity include but are not limited to: age, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities / qualities, race, sexual orientation, educational background, geographic location, income, marital status, military experience, parental status, religious beliefs, work experience, and job classification but also in includes communication with a verbal and non-verbal messages" Diversity as a concept focuses on a broader set of qualities than race and gender. In the context of the workplace, valuing diversity means creating a workplace that respects and includes differences, recognizing the unique contributions that individuals with many types of differences can make, and creating a work environment that maximizes the potential of all employees. Diversity is also about having the long term goal that an organization work force should generally reflect the population of the state it serves in all its dimensions.

Need for the Study The study of diversity at a workplace(w.r.t intercultural communication) will help us to get insight into ways towards deep understanding. This topic is given by our teacher as a research project. This project has helped us to understand the real meaning of diversity at a work place, intercultural communication which includes verbal and non- verbal messages alongwith understanding of cultural misconceptions and affects of diversity on the common goal of the organizations both in positive and negative manner. The need for the study of this topic emerges from the fact that a deep understanding of intercultural communication is critical for better understanding of Diversity at a Workplace. Problem Statement How can diversity at work place affect the common goal of an organization? It is important to note that diversity at a workplace is a very vast topic and includes so many concepts in it but we have only discussed with respect to communication as per our requirement. It doesn’t include diversity Procedures to collect and analyze the data Procedures to collect the desired data are used by us such that we have searched the whole internet and books are also consulted with details. Internet searching includes hours of searching and consulting online students who have already worked on these kinds of researches and it also includes the online libraries which creates a great hindrance in front of us because there are huge amount of data online and it is very much difficult to get a desired information. We have also read lots of articles regarding language and cultures.Books have been consulted to collect and analyze the data. Books like Human communication, Valuing Diversity, Managing Inter-cultural communication and some others books about cross-cultural language and intenational communication which have helped us a lot. Each of our team members gathered information and after brainstorming the most possible and appropriate points are combined and merged to form this report to make it more effective and readable.

Findings
People from different cultures encode and decode messages differently, increasing the chances of misunderstanding, so the safety-first consequence of recognising cultural differences should be to assume that everyone’s thoughts and actions are not just like ours. To solve the problem of diversity at a workplace due to intercultural communication it is important to recognize cultural misconceptions.

RECOGNIZING CULTURAL "MISCONCEPTIONS
Many forces can interfere with the desire to meet other cultures in a productive, mutually satisfying way. The most influential of these are internal beliefs and assumptions about other cultures-the misconceptions that may prevent successful intercultural communication. The following seven misconceptions frequently get in the way of successful intercultural communication:

1. Everyone is essentially like me. We too easily assume that others think what we
think, feel as we feel, and therefore should act as we act. This egocentric blind us to very real differences in the way people of other cultures third have.

2. Others lack my advantages. Many people believe the reason that some people aren't
like them is that there's something wrong with the people who are different. They explain away cultural differences as deficiencies. They call other cultures "disadvantaged" or "underdeveloped" when in fact they are simply advantaged or developed in other ways. A materialistic culture may judge a d spiritual culture as backward-and vice versa.

3. All we have to do is just get together, and our differences won't matter. Different
cultures into contact will not automatically lead to mutual understanding and respect. The many examples of feuds between bordering cultures that the world shows that more is needed than shared spaces.

4. Don't worry, I speak the language. Unfortunately, the formal language provided in
typical academic settings does not guarantee successful intercultural-communication. To know how to speak and write a language does not form a guarantee that you know the culture. However, knowing the language is the way to start learning about a culture.

5. They'll see that I'm sincere. In our culture, sincerity can forgive a multi blunders;
we like to see that a person's "heart is in the right place." some cultures, however, pay more attention to what you do than to what you old Greek saying, for example, advises us to "know a good man by the lives."

6. They have to respect my knowledge. Not so. Many cultures place more importance
on mutual trust than on technical know-how. Your competence or edge may not even be considered in such cultures until a trust relation formed.

7. We're all interested in the bottom line. Americans are used to doing awkward
formalities and procedures when they threaten profits or efficiency. In cultures, however, you may never violate the established process of doing ness-including

working through a rigid hierarchy, observing customary periods, and completing elaborate paperwork. To expose these beliefs as misconceptions is not to say that American assumptions are wrong or that other cultural assumptions are right. Instead, the that cultural assumptions can differ.

EXAMPLES OF INTERCULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDINGS
In each of the following situations, observe the unfortunate interference of one of the preceding cultural myths. Notice also the sometimes devastating effect of nals based on a misunderstanding of gestures, expressions, and innocent action and set of situations is given in the following "Communication for a New Century Four additional examples may help to show the consequences of interactive understandings. First, Margaret Owens sat looking out at the Tokyo skyline from a managerial suite rented for the purpose of interviews. She wanted to find half a dozen enthusiastic Japanese representatives to market a line of pharmaceuticals in Japan. After completing ten interviews, Margaret was dumbfounded. Not one applicant spoke up in a direct, forceful manner, in spite of his or her stellar academic record and recommendations. Not one met her eye-to-eye for very long. None seemed comfortable speaking openly and frankly about accomplishments and aspirations. Margaret reported her discouraging interview results to the Vice President of Asian Markets for the drug company-only to endure the most embarrassing lecture of her life. To speak up, she learned from the vice president, can be taken as impertinence, especially if one emphasizes personal accomplishments. To meet the eyes in some business situations is, in many Asian cultures, an indication of disrespect or even hostility. Second, local mining magnates in Kajari , Pakistan, accepted Fred Revin's invitation to a business dinner at a local restaurant. Fred was pleased to begin the meal with nonbusiness small talk. But after 15 minutes of pleasantries, he wondered when the conversation would turn to business. He hesitated to broach business topics directly for fear of offending custom. The evening wore on in small talk, to Fred's immense frustration. In fact, the Pakistani miners were wondering why Fred invited them to dinner. While several minutes of chat are ordained by Pakistani custom, the host-Revin-has the obligation to shift matters to business topics thereafter. Everyone was waiting for Fred to make his move. Third, Jean Simonds was pleased to accept an invitation for dinner at the home of Klaus and Sonya Griegl, Belgian camera manufacturers. On her way to dinner, Jean spotted some lovely white chrysanthemums at a flower shop: She bought the flowers as a gift for her host.

To her dismay, the flowers brought a stiffly gracious response from her hosts, who set them aside quickly. White chrysanthemums, she learned later, are presented only to mark mourning in Belgium. Fourth, in Venezuela, oil broker Cal Farnswell could not help but compliment Venezuelan manager Maria Ortiz on her gorgeous, flowing black hair. Obviously pleased, she received the compliment with a glowing smile. Carl then inquired if her hair was difficult to care for. The smile faded. The American had trampled on an important Latin American custom: Avoid personal questions about the private lives of acquaintances.

ELEVEN COMMON AREAS OF INTERCULTURAL MISUNDERSTANDING
Each of these American businesspeople initially reacted with shock: "Well, supposed to know?" Avoid asking yourself the same question. Don't attempt in a new culture before becoming aware of your own assumptions and blind following 11 questions relate to areas of cultural sensitivity around the world you know about another culture, the harder you may find it to answer each of tions. That's as it should be. Simple answers to complex questions can lead to the enemy of intercultural awareness. The 11 areas of sensitivity are male-female interactions, respect, time taboos, commitments, nonverbal cues, language and translation, dress, method suasion, religious and political issues, and prejudices. 1. How do men relate to women, and women to men? Though you may no the fairness of relations between the sexes in other cultures, knowing the rules helps you avoid disastrous social and business pitfalls. 2. How does the culture indicate respect? Consider the roles of silence, directions, seating arrangements (such as the infamous seating struggles before Vietnamese peace talks), eye contact, gestures, gifts, compliments. Also, find out whether specific categories of people (e.g., older persons figures, more-senior staff) always receive some of these specific signs. 3. How does the culture view human time and space? Does an appointment mean "7 sharp" or "sevenish" or, as in some Latin countries, around 8? business day, once passed, gone forever (the American notion of linear does the same circumstance repeat itself over and over (the Eastern of time)? What of space? Should you stand a bit closer to Frenchmen are used to standing to Americans? 4. What are strict taboos in the culture? Is alcohol, for example, accepted, at, or absolutely unthinkable? Is your host's off-color joke an invitation roarious laughter or a subtle test of your own mores?

5. How are business commitments made in the culture? By oral approval? handshake? By signing of documents? Often, American businesspeople that a verbal agreement shows that the listener agrees to the proposal mitted to it. When they discover that their hosts are merely being pleas; agreeable, they feel deeply disappointed and may even feel cheated. Try English in advance the words and actions in the culture that will let you know your deal is moving forward to commitment. Try also to find out how I "no" or avoid saying "no" in the particular culture. 6. What nonverbal cues are used in the culture to pass information to you private understandings between members of the culture? How should you pret the "V" sign in England? (Sometimes an obscene gesture.) How are understand an apology delivered with a big smile in Japan? (Utter since charade.) What does the eye pull mean in Italy and Spain? (Careful, you.) Why does your host in India grimace when, in crossing your legs your soles toward him or her? (An insult.) 7. How should you handle the whole matter of language and translation? looking into before entering upon business relations in another culture words can you learn to indicate your interest in another culture? Should you supply your own translator? Will he or she be trusted? What should you conclude if your host insists on providing his or her own translator for you? 8. How should you dress for business and social occasions in the host country? Before "going native" in dress, consider the risks of losing your identity as a foreign visitor and hence your immunity to some forms of criticism. In our own country, no one expects the visitor wearing Tibetan ceremonial gowns to cope well with cabs, train schedules, and all the other hassles of urban life. We bend to help. However, the same visitor in typical American street clothes may be treated with irritation and impatience. Similarly, your clear identification as an American abroad may bring a modicum of helpfulness from the host country. 9. How do your foreign hosts handle persuasion? Do your hosts favor direct propositions supported by evidence? Do they wish to consider your reputation, your family roots, your personal success, your age, your sex, your educational attainments? Do they want to hear your arguments or merely to share your friendship? Do they base a business relation on rational analysis or on trust? 10. What aspects of the host country's religious or political life must be understood for effective business relations? Are certain times of the day set aside for worship, not work? Is work automatically canceled on some holidays, or is it optional? Must certain work groups be separated due to political differences? Are some jobs tasks disliked for religious or political reasons? 11. What prejudices against you as an American must you overcome in the culture? Do your hosts automatically assume that you throw money around in a careless and

tasteless way? Do they assume that your appetites for food, alcohol, and sex are out of control? Do they look upon you as a steamroller, who believes that might makes right? In all these matters, you may have to exert your imagination and energies to show yourself as you are, not as you are thought to be.

CATEGORIES OF CULTURAL DIFFERENCE
Not all differences create major misunderstandings or offenses between persons of different cultures. Nonetheless, these differences must be understood to enhance intercultural communication. There are several key areas for exploration for those getting to know another culture. The following list shows general ways in which cultures can differ. In reading the list, compare your own culture in each category to another culture with which you are familiar. 1. Greetings---appropriate or inappropriate gestures (such as handshake or touching), verbal greetings (what to say), how close together persons stand when greeting or conversing, conversation topics, etc. a. meeting a person the first time b. everyday acquaintances c. close friends' d. elderly people e. women f. youth g. children h. leaders in the culture i. to show special respect j. from a distance: k. use of family name or first name 1. use of titles (such as Mr. or Dr.) m. compliments with greetings (what to compliment, how to give compliments, and when) Visiting a family at home---what should and should not be done situations. a. greeting b. entering the house c. gifts and flowers (what is appropriate: when and how to give, open gifts) d. compliments on possessions, decor, or to family members e. proper conduct (in the living room, parlor, or guest welcoming f. conversation (what topics are best and when people usually talk g. table manners (seating arrangements, when a guest should beginning oneself from the table, etc.) h. utensils and how to use them i. conversation at the dinner table j. compliments on the food

2.

k. 1. m. 3.

saying farewell and leaving parties and social events (What should be remembered by a with the host and other guests? What is expected of the! words to avoid

Talks, speeches, and public addresses to groups of people. a. subjects or topics that these people are especially fond of or the should not be referred to b. gestures that help or hurt communication c. the way the speaker stands or sits in front of the group d. hints on using an interpreter Meetings---punctuality, best ways to begin and end the meeting, segment, eye contact, and using an interpreter. a. large formal meetings b. small group sessions (about 3-15 people) c. private interview with an individual Gestures---those that help to carry a message and those that should a. with hands b. head c. eye and eye contact, eyebrows, face (Is it customary to look in the eyes when speaking? What would be the reaction to this culture?) d. legs (such as crossing the legs when sitting down) e. feet (moving things with them, pointing them at people, gesture putting them on one's desk, etc.) f. posture (standing and sitting down, hands on hips, etc.) g. touching (another person, male and female, etc.) h. shoulders i. arms (such as folding them or putting them around another's shoulders) j. smiling and laughing customs (When is a smile appropriate or inappropriate? In what situations does a smile mean something other than happiness and goodwill?) k. yawning 1. calling someone to you with your hands, (palm facing up or down, etc.) m. handing, passing, or giving things to another person Personal appearance. a. clothing b. eyeglasses and sunglasses c. hats d. other General attitudes of (1) adults, a. male b. female: (2) teenagers, a. male b. female, about

4.

5.

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a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. 1. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y. z. aa. bb. cc. dd. 9. 10. 11.

nature and [the human] role in it society, groups, and the individual, self wealth, clothes, possessions work, success, failure, and fate government, politics, taxes, police, welfare assistance personality traits that are considered good or bad in a person role of men and women sexual promiscuity, abortion time, punctuality youth, teenagers elderly people Physically or mentally handicapped business and economic progress war and the military Crime and violence majority groups, races, and minority groups (special likes, dislikes, or problems) other nations and their people (special likes, dislikes, or problems) longevity, retirement, and death political systems (socialism, communism, imperialism, democracy, etc.) humor promises, agreements, and trust community participation revenge, retributions, repayment of wrongs received animals, pets showing emotions gambling, drinking alcoholic beverages, drugs giving and receiving criticism making decisions in business, among peers education what possessions or achievements indicate status (for men and women, adult and youth)

Religions – general attitudes toward religion, predominant beliefs. Special holidays – specific dates and how these holidays are celebrated The family a. average size of family b. attitudes about the family and its role in society c. teenagers' role in the family d. role of the elderly in the family e. authority, obedience, roles of father, mother, and children (making in the family) f. system of family inheritance g. milestone experiences in life for a male

h. i. j. k. 12.

milestone experiences in life for a female special activities that are used to show that a person has become and otherwise changed social status) who in the family works (father, mother, children) average daily schedule and activities for fathers, mothers, children

Dating and marriage customs. a. from what age does dating begin? How important is dating? Why? b. is dating in larger groups or individual couples? c. common dating activities d. chaperones e. acceptable and unacceptable dating behavior f. engagement customs g. attitude about marriage h. age at which most men marry i. age at which most women marry j. how much influence the family has in deciding about marriages k. prerequisites to marriage (such as completion of education or financial independence) 1. Desirability of children (birth control) m. attitude about divorce n. attitude toward displaying affection in public (such as between housewife or parents and children) Social and economic levels – including size of different general class income and what it provides for the family, general housing condition sessions (such as refrigerator, range, toaster, cars, radios, telephones, etc.). Distribution of group – rural or urban, what cities or areas, group population concerned and what ratio group population is to total population. Work. a. the economy of the group (What are the main occupations of the industries, and important products?) b. individual work schedules (hours per day, days per week) c. age at which people begin working d. choosing a job Diet. a. average diet, size of meals when they are eaten b. special foods which are usually given to guests c. Is mealtime important for some other reason than just nutrition? Recreation, sports, arts, music, leisure time. a. family cultural and physical recreation and sports activities (including vacations)

13.

14. 15.

16.

17.

b. c. 18.

individual recreation, games, sports of. children, youth, adults, and elderly distinctive arts of the culture which a visitor should know about

History and government. a. history of the group, including facts and events considered most important by the people and why b. heroes, leaders of the group and why they are esteemed c. group government systems, differences from regular local government Education. a. education in the group b. any private education systems within the group Transportation and communication systems – their use and significance to the group. a. bicycles b. individual cars and road system c. buses d. taxis e. other f. mass communication (such as TV, radio, newspapers, magazines) g. individual interpersonal communication (such as telephones, postal service) h. any special or unusual methods of trade, exchange, communication or transportation Health, sanitation, medical facilities – including general attitude about disease. Land and climate – including geographical effects on the history of the group, problems posed today by the geography or climate where these people are located. ''Universal'' signals or nonverbal cues a newcomer should know that indicate approval or disapproval, acceptance or rejection in this society.

19.

20.

21. 22.

23.

This list is a partial summary of some aspects of culture which can unite people who share the same basic attitudes, backgrounds, and' lifestyles. Since these characteristics can vary widely between cultures, they can be a source of misunderstanding and miscommunication.

WRITING FOR INTERCULTURAL BUSINESS
Business documents in different countries differ not only in form but a organization, tone, and level of detail. German documents, for example, detailed, whereas Latin American documents emphasize polite style concepts. Reports for Japanese associates must be prepared with formal. Casual analogies and other non-business-related information get and proposals sent to British colleagues.

Even when you try to follow the style and tone of the documents businesspeople in Latin America, Asia, and Europe, your American-ness will still show. Some of that is fine. Intercultural readers, whether located inside the U.S. or abroad, except American communications to show the features of American document conventions. Nonetheless, shrewd intercultural communicators still try hard to bend their writing habits and assumptions toward the communication needs and expectations of their readers. As a case in point, many European cultures expect significant business correspondence to end with two signatures-the signatures of both the letter writer and his or her superior. Therefore, to get a more positive reaction from a European reader, the American letter writer may decide to use two signatures. An American writer may even have to learn when not to write at all. As reported in separate studies by Michael Yoshino and William Ouchi, Japanese companies don't use written communication for routine business matters as much as American companies do. If an American writer communicates solely by memo, a Japanese reader may tend to treat the message as being inappropriately serious or important-calling a meeting, for example, to discuss the implications of the memo. Instead, alternate channels of communication should be chosen: a conference telephone call, perhaps, or a face-to-face meeting with selected decision-makers. Affects of Diversity at a Work Place of an Organization Workplace diversity refers to the variety of differences between people in an organization. This sounds simple, but diversity encompasses race, gender, ethnic group, age, personality, cognitive style, tenure, organizational function, education, background and more. Diversity not only involves how people perceive themselves, but how they perceive others. Those perceptions affect their interactions. For a wide assortment of employees to function effectively as an organization, human resource professionals need to deal effectively with issues such as communication, adaptability and change. Diversity will increase significantly in the coming years. Successful organizations recognize the need for immediate action and are ready and willing to spend resources on managing diversity in the workplace now. The organizations in which people work affect their communication, thoughts, feelings, and actions in the workplace and away from it. Likewise, people's communication, thoughts, feelings, and actions affect the organizations in which they work. But we are mainly concerned with influence of people on work organizations that how the misconception and miscommunication because of culture difference affect the organizations. Common Goals of an Organization There are number of goals which an organization plans to achieve but all goals are connected to the ultimate goal which is profit. All goals and objectives supports the the main goal of an organization and affects the profit directly. If we study the framework of diversity, the intercultural communication among the work force affects directly to profit. If the diversified work force works & communicate effectively and efficiently than

obviously an individual performs well which leads to the performance of a department and than the whole organization, so ultimately with the help of better communication we can increase an organizations profit. If the work force doesn’t work & communicate effectively and efficiently with each other than the performance of the department effected badly and organization suffers loss. So it depends entirely on the performance of the individual of the workforce to lead an organization to achieve its common goals. Affects of Diversity on Organization Now if the diversity at a workplace affects an organization in a positive manner its gives benefits to the organization and if it affects in a negative manner it gives challenges to the organization as we mentioned above. Benefits of Workplace Diversity An organization’s success and competitiveness depends upon its ability to embrace diversity and realize the benefits. When organizations actively assess their handling of workplace diversity issues, develop and implement diversity plans, multiple benefits are reported such as: Increased adaptability Organizations employing a diverse workforce can supply a greater variety of solutions to problems in service, sourcing, and allocation of resources. Employees from diverse backgrounds bring individual talents and experiences in suggesting ideas that are flexible in adapting to fluctuating markets and customer demands. Broader service range A diverse collection of skills and experiences (e.g. languages, cultural understanding) allows a company to provide service to customers on a global basis. Variety of viewpoints A diverse workforce that feels comfortable communicating varying points of view provides a larger pool of ideas and experiences. The organization can draw from that pool to meet business strategy needs and the needs of customers more effectively. More effective execution Companies that encourage diversity in the workplace inspire all of their employees to perform to their highest ability. Company-wide strategies can then be executed; resulting in higher productivity, profit, and return on investment. Challenges of Workplace Diversity Taking full advantage of the benefits of diversity in the workplace is not without its challenges. Some of those challenges are:

Communication - Perceptual, cultural and language barriers need to be overcome for diversity programs to succeed. Ineffective communication of key objectives results in confusion, lack of teamwork, and low morale. Resistance to change - There are always employees who will refuse to accept the fact that the social and cultural makeup of their workplace is changing. The “we’ve always done it this way” mentality silences new ideas and inhibits progress. Implementation of diversity in the workplace policies - This can be the overriding challenge to all diversity advocates. Armed with the results of employee assessments and research data, they must build and implement a customized strategy to maximize the effects of diversity in the workplace for their particular organization. Successful Management of Diversity in the Workplace - Diversity training alone is not sufficient for your organization’s diversity management plan. A strategy must be created and implemented to create a culture of diversity that permeates every department and function of the organization.

Conclusion
It is concluded that when the different cultures meet in the workplace of an organization it creates inter-cultural communication between the workforces of an organization. The cultural misconceptions lead the workforce of an organization towards diversity. Diversity at workforce affects the common goals of an organization both negatively and positively. When it affects the organization in a positive manner then it creates some benefits for the organization. When it affects the organization in a negative manner then it creates challenges or problems.

Recommendations
EXAMINE YOUR OWN LANGUAGE AND CULTURAL HABITS While you investigate your host country's customs and language, remember to examine your own ways of speaking and writing. You can aid your losts in understanding your business communications in three key ways: 1. Avoid slang and idioms 2. Slow down your speech 3. Check your listener's understanding of what you're saying or writing. Avoid Slang and Idioms Learn to cut out slang and idioms (including local or regional colloquial the words you use for international business. Robert Bell, a magnetic, comments: When I travel to business meetings abroad, I have to remember that my ordinary friendly conversation contains many idioms (such as "right on the money") that leagues will find strange and uninterpretable. I remind myself to speak "plain around those who don't know the language well.

An American manager wrote the following sentence to a foreign business limited English skills. "By the way, I've shipped the computer order we week." The American manager was shocked to receive a telex from his "What is 'the way' you refer to? Urgent to know." The English language is rich in such innocent idioms and American sake of clear business dealings abroad, try to become aware of words and might be misunderstood. Slow Down Your Speech Adjust the pace of your speaking to match the rate of comprehension of your. You will often do business with men and women abroad who have, through acquired quite a bit of English. If you rush ahead at the same speaking use with a native speaker, you unintentionally dash these people's efforts to with you. Before leaving for an international trip, practice slowing down your out sounding patronizing. Look directly at the person to whom you are speak he or she can see the words as they form on your lips and notice your gestures. Check for Comprehension Some Americans, in speaking to foreign persons, frown quizzically as asking, "Are you following me?" Try not to use the frown in this way. Puzzled frown will often be misinterpreted as anger, criticism, or impatient Instead, when you want to check for comprehension, raise your eye an inquiring smile. That visual gesture will produce either a nod of comprehension your foreign friend or an indication that he or she has not understood. Learn ten (in polite ways) to see whether your listener is comprehending. In conversation, for example, pause to ask "Am I being clear?" or "Do you understand reply "O.K.?" In face-to-face conversations, do not mistake a courteous smile on face or a nod as a sign of complete comprehension. Particularly in Asian an American cultures, your listener will give you a smile simply as a polite gesture. Asian listeners may even nod and say "yes" (hai) repeatedly, all in an effort to show respect to you. All the while, they may almost entirely misunderstand what you are saying. Good barometers of such misunderstanding are the eyes. Watch to see whether your listener's eyes respond to your words. If you notice a glazed, lost look, back up and begin again in a simpler fashion. Another helpful technique is to politely ask the other party to say back (or write back) what he or she understood you to say. In working with a translator, this process is called "back translation."

WHERE TO LEARN ABOUT OTHER CULTURES
From the preceding discussion, it's clear that no businessperson can afford to learn about other cultures through personal blunders and insults. There are many ways to learn about other cultures before you step into your first intercultural business meeting or send off an

important report to an international office. These techniques include visiting a country's embassy or consulate, participating in cultural training, asking people who have lived in or visited the country of interest, and studying the language. Visit the Country's Embassy or Consulate Most trade-seeking nations maintain experienced ambassadors and consuls with extended staffs in major U.S. cities, particularly New York, Washington, DC, and Los Angeles. You can make an appointment with the commerce secretary at the embassy to learn how to approach businesses-and often whom to approach-when you visit the foreign country. If you cannot visit the person, write a letter describing your business interests. Solicit the help of the embassy in making your venture mutually profitable. A benefit of such organizations is that they can acquaint you with such universal business conventions abroad as name cards. Similar in size and format to business cards used in this country, name cards contain not only your name, title, and company in English, but also on the reverse side the same information translated into the language of your host country. For example, in English does not signify the same thing in a "president" is an honored, retired, and. relatively powerless former lead. Probably your title as "president" would be rendered "senior director" to your status clearly in your host country. Such name cards are given and taken freely in your business dealings dispense a hundred such cards in your first week in a foreign country an that number. Many countries publish name card collection books, completion interior divisions so you can store your collected name cards in a sorts. Without such cards of your own, you may have difficulty establishing in business contacts that come your way through the day. Ask People Who Have Been There Except for your own personal experience, the most valuable information the helpful hints from someone whose background is similar to your own. Anyone in your company or another company has visited the country in time to listen to stories of his or her experiences. The ultimate authorities culture are, of course, the people of that culture. Seek out their advice handle written and oral communications. Also, ask questions and seek guidance from secondary resources, country's national airline serving your city (Swiss Air, British Airways, and places, you probably will meet someone here who knows someone over someone can prove invaluable to you as an initial cultural contact. American banks that do business abroad and foreign banks in this ten prove helpful to you. Also, draw on the considerable resources of the Chamber of Commerce. It publishes a number of booklets on trade relation foreign country seeking trade will probably also have a chamber of commerce serve you. In most cases, you can reach this office by writing to the Office International Trade in the capital city of the country that interests you.

Study the Language Above all, begin language training in the tongue of the culture you don't at least try to learn the language; you'll be totally dependent on a actually isolated from the friendly conversations. Don't be concerned that entered the language. Your hosts will take it as a compliment that you are learn their language at all and will help you at every turn. Recommended steps that have been proven successful in world-class organizations are: Assessment of diversity in the workplace - Top companies make assessing and evaluating their diversity process an integral part of their management system. A customizable employee satisfaction survey can accomplish this assessment for your company efficiently and conveniently. It can help your management team determine which challenges and obstacles to diversity are present in your workplace and which policies need to be added or eliminated. Reassessment can then determine the success of you diversity in the workplace plan implementation. Development of diversity in the workplace plan - Choosing a survey provider that provides comprehensive reporting is a key decision. That report will be the beginning structure of your diversity in the workplace plan. The plan must be comprehensive, attainable and measurable. An organization must decide what changes need to be made and a timeline for that change to be attained. Implementation of diversity in the workplace plan - The personal commitment of executive and managerial teams is a must. Leaders and managers within organizations must incorporate diversity policies into every aspect of the organization’s function and purpose. Attitudes toward diversity originate at the top and filter downward. Management cooperation and participation is required to create a culture conducive to the success of your organization’s plan. Ward off change resistance with inclusion. - Involve every employee possible in formulating and executing diversity initiatives in your workplace. Foster an attitude of openness in your organization. - Encourage employees to express their ideas and opinions and attribute a sense of equal value to all. Promote diversity in leadership positions. - This practice provides visibility and realizes the benefits of diversity in the workplace. Utilize diversity training. - Use it as a tool to shape your diversity policy. Launch a customizable employee satisfaction survey that provides comprehensive reporting. - Use the results to build and implement successful diversity in the workplace policies.

As the economy becomes increasingly global, our workforce becomes increasingly diverse. Organizational success and competitiveness will depend on the ability to manage diversity in the workplace effectively. Evaluate your organization’s diversity policies and plan for the future, starting today.

Real Life Case Study of the Ford Company
It’s a case of a renowned Ford Company. It’s a motor vehicle company and known as the most diversified company in the sense of workplace. Ford Company in which employees from 57 countries work together. For this reason it’s a great challenge for Ford Company to manage diversity, so certain events happens in the diversified workplace which directly affects the performance and then profit of the organization. This is a case of year 1997; Carl Travis is a Marketing Executive of a Ford company from St. Paul, Minnesota Branch, he is an American and presenting a marketing plan to an other executive of a same branch who Rajeev Sharma. He an Indian. Carl wanted to propose a present the whole marketing proposal for Ford involving Sharma's knowledge and Indian marketing contacts for research. Carl's proposal presented extraordinary opportunities for success by means of Indian marketing contacts in the United States. As Carl presented his proposal, the taciturn Sharma shook his head from side-to-side. I'm not doing well, Carl told himself, and redoubled his persuasive efforts. Sharma shook his head back and forth more earnestly. After almost 45 minutes, Carl snapped his briefcase shut in consternation and stood up to leave. He apparently hadn't gotten to first base with his proposal. Because of this the whole project is dumped and by this the performance of the department suffers a lot and the company suffers a loss which is directly connected to the performance of the workforce. Later, after some weeks Carl learned an expensive lesson from an Indian: Indians in many regions of the country express approval by shaking the head back and forth, the same gesture that Americans use for disapproval.

References

Stewart L, Tubbs & Sylvia Moss (1994). Human Communication. In seventh international edition. Non-verbal & Verbal Messages (page 230-236). Mcgraw Hill International.

Diane Gayeski (1993). Corporate Communications Management. In first edition. Diversity (129-130). Focus Press Boston, London. Arthur. H. Bell & Dayle.M.Smith (1999). Management Communication. Managing intercultural communication (page 437-445). John Wiley & Sons, inc.

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