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Harvard Style Guide
IN-TEXT REFERENCES, REFERENCE LISTS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES
you must still include the year of publication (and the page number too. 2 . to paraphrase and to quote The two most important details to acknowledge whenever you use someone’s information are: a) the name(s) of the author. Acknowledging sources in the body of your work. p. You should only quote when you feel that the author’s words are perfect and that trying to paraphrase them would weaken their message and power. For example. All information sources of the same type should be treated in the same way. 78). such as webpages and YouTube videos. together with all other identifying details (such as the title of an information source – known as bibliographic details). If you copy it from the book and insert it into your work. When you paraphrase or quote. and the title is italicised. Students are advised to check with their school. You must insert them each time you use their information in your own work. Using Harvard Style means acknowledging the author of an information source and the date the source was published by inserting the author’s family name/surname and year of publication in the body of your work each time you use their information and ideas. The author detail is replaced by the title of the information source. the in-text reference should look like this: “Volunteer programmes are successful when volunteers are working in positions they look forward to undertaking and want to fill” (McCurley. p. New text after that quote should commence on a new line and not be indented. p. 2). the sentence and the in-text reference could look like this: If the volunteers are employed in roles that they want to do. To paraphrase is to look at someone’s information and then write it using your own words. The details are usually placed at the end of the sentence and are called ‘in-text references’. If a source has section numbers instead of page numbers (eg. To quote is to copy exactly what someone has written and insert it into your work. simply insert the author’s name and year of publication. If a source does not have a page number (some sources. though). using it also reduces the risk of being accused of plagiarism. some ebooks. placed after the year it was published. The purpose of Harvard Style Harvard Style is an academic citation system that allows you to use and then acknowledge other people’s information and ideas in your own work. department or faculty which citation style guide is required. 226) states that the universe cannot do good or bad things to humans because it is not a sentient force. Lynch & Jackson 2012. Lynch & Jackson 2012. then do not use double quotation marks – instead. consider this sentence from a book: Volunteer programmes are successful when volunteers are working in positions they look forward to undertaking and want to fill. authors or organisation who created it. For example: Decapsulation of brine shrimp cysts is not necessary but has been carried out by dedicated aquarists for many years as they claim it improves hatching rates (Hatching and raising brine shrimp 2010. Authors’ surnames Year of publication Page number 2. You can still provide an in-text reference even if an information source doesn’t have an author (check carefully first. indent the quote and finish with the in-text reference. do not). If the author of the work is very well known in their subject field. 78). For example: Dawkins (2012. arrange the sources in a list at the end of your work alphabetically by author surname. legislation). and b) the year they created it. Using Harvard Style ensures that people who read your work can locate and read the same sources you used.Swinburne University of Technology Library – Harvard Style Guide 1. If you use more than one information source. Always be consistent when using Harvard Style. are also listed at the end of your work. as you are placing them in the text (the body) of your work. If you quote more than one sentence. Authors’ surnames Year of publication Page number If you paraphrase it by rewriting the information using your own words. use ‘s’ instead of ‘p’ and list the section number in the in-text reference. When you quote a sentence. These author and date details. as not everyone in the University uses this style guide. you may want to state their name as part of your writing. The two main ways of using an information source are to paraphrase it or quote from it. if you are quoting or paraphrasing them). Year of publication and page number remain unchanged. place the quoted material on a new line. p. enclose the text in double quotation marks: “ ”. If you do so. then the volunteer programmes will perform well (McCurley. always include the page number or page numbers in the in-text reference.
5. 8. 4th edn. This list is either a Reference List or a Bibliography and it is placed at the end of your work. A Reference List is a list of all the information sources you refer to in your work.au/lib/studyhelp/ harvard_style. what edition number the source is (if not the first). the web address for the source (if you found it on the web). 129-136. Names are presented surname first. Edition – only if this is not the first edition of the book. If you cannot. Rosen. magazine and journal articles via Swinburne Library databases. if applicable. Information from the web: recommendation Information sources found on the web can sometimes be the most difficult information sources to acknowledge and create entries for. if there is one. if they are included. Publisher. Australian Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering. issue number a prefix of ‘no. 4. Place of publication – state or city or suburb. vol.html) – you may find an example there that matches what you are trying to acknowledge. magazine or journal web sites): bibliographic details required Many students obtain newspaper. Volume number is given a prefix of ‘vol. 5. MR & Kunjappu. Note: this is not an estimate of how many printed pages would result from printing the article. the date that you first found it (if you found it on the web). Surfactants and interfacial phenomena.’. 7. Title of article – enclose in single quotation marks. Day and month. JT 2012. but the page numbers given in the database. other bibliographic details might include the name of the company who published the source. A Bibliography is a list of all the information sources you refer to in your work as well as all other sources you have looked at while preparing your work. Title of series and volume number. Place a colon between the title and subtitle. These details all help someone locate and read the same information source you used. pp.Swinburne University of Technology Library – Harvard Style Guide 3. B 2011. Place of publication 3 . town or suburb the source was published in. Title should be italicised. and other details depending on the type of source. Edition is abbreviated in the entry as ‘edn’. see Section 8. Your Reference List or Bibliography Each time you find a useful information source. or if needed to precisely identify an article.’. when arranged in the correct order. Entries are arranged in a single alphabetical list. alphabetically by author surname/family name. For example: Authors’ surnames and initials Year of publication Title Edition Publisher Fei. Page number(s). 2. Articles from newspapers. Both are italicised. For more information about hybrid entries and an example of one. initial(s) next. 6. Year of publication. 6. The details required for those and for articles found in print sources (eg. the details you must include in the entry are as follows and must be presented in this order: 1. 2. Extra information may be provided if there is more than one place with the same name. the state.edu. Title of newspaper/magazine/journal. you can build an entry by combining the guidelines for books and for other sources. but did not actually use in it. 4. are called an entry. John Wiley & Sons. Please carefully examine the guidelines and examples at the Harvard Style webpage (www. Title – plus the subtitle. magazines and journals (except those freely available on official newspaper. As well as author and year. keep a record of all its bibliographic details. NJ. 7. Author(s) – either a person(s) or an organisation – or editor(s). Hoboken. Year of publication. W & Wu. These bibliographic details. 3. Title of newspaper/ magazine/journal Volume and/or issue number details Page numbers 6. no. 2. 5. the result is a hybrid entry. Volume and/or issue number. For example: Authors’ surnames and initials Year of publication Title of article 4. a newspaper purchased in a shop) are: 1. or season – if volume and/or issue number are not provided. ‘Equal-area theorem based direct digital sinusoidal pulse-width modulation method for multilevel voltage inverters’. Books: bibliographic details required For books.swinburne. Ask your course convenor which one they require. 3. Author(s) – if given.
If there is no clearly identifiable author. Year the information was created or year of the most recent update. please deactivate URLs before enclosing them.swinburne. Bass Strait Oil Company Ltd.au/lib/studyhelp/harvard_style.edu. month and year. Date that you first viewed the webpage. If a range of dates is given (e. as they may not be the same organisation.html or scan this code to access them: AusIndustry 2013. Short descriptive title (italicised). use the latest date indicated. unless they clearly are the same. More examples. <http://www.gov.au • SMS: 0427 841 787 (International: +61 427 841 787) • Telephone: (03) 9214 8330 (International: +61 3 9214 8330) If you need to blend guidelines to create a hybrid entry for an unusual information source. and then some of the guidelines for web sources (Name of the group hosting the webpage. Example of an entry for a web page from an organisation: Author’s name Year the webpage was created/updated Title Name of the host of the webpage Date the webpage was first viewed Organisation’s name Date of publication Short descriptive title Year(s) covered Name of the host of the webpage Bass Strait Oil Company Limited 2012.au/assets/187/files/Final%20Annual%20Report% 20for%20website. Certain inputs to manufacture (CIM). AusIndustry.g. then use the title. in this instance an entry for an Annual Report found on a company website: The details required by the guidelines for Annual Reports (Name of organisation. viewed 21 January 2013. more guidelines and getting help with Harvard Style The Harvard Style webpage includes: • a PDF version of this guide called Harvard Quick Guide • a comprehensive guide to Harvard Style. with many more examples and also more guidelines for more information resource types. Do not confuse a group hosting or sponsoring a webpage with the author. 5. Name of the organisation hosting the webpage on their website or the name of the sponsor of the webpage. Please see www. The page title is usually shown at or near the top of the page. in this order: day.edu. <http://www. 2.pdf>. The URL (website address) should be enclosed in angle brackets: < > . Information from the web: bibliographic details required Include as many of the following details in the entry as possible: 1.bassoil. or contact us: • Email: library@swin. remember: always be consistent in the application of Harvard Style throughout your work.Swinburne University of Technology Library – Harvard Style Guide 7. Author(s) or organisation responsible for the webpage – if given. Date that you first viewed the webpage. 3. 8.au/programs/manufacturing/cim/Pages/default. Here are the steps showing how to create a hybrid entry. Hybrid entries URL Need help with Harvard Style? Visit us at a campus library. 4. and Year(s) covered) are collected. URL. Year of publication. viewed 31 December 2012.ausindustry. 6. Precede the date with the word ‘viewed’. URL Date the webpage was first viewed 9. If no author can be identified or determined at all. Title of the webpage/document. and the title should be italicised. The URLs should not be active/live links. do not use the name of the Copyright owner or website host/website sponsor. Use the Copyright date of a webpage if there is no date of creation.com. Annual Report 2012.aspx>. The two are then blended together to make the following hybrid entry: 4 Version: 6 May 2013 . © 2010 – 2012). and URL) are collected.
Prahran. Tiernan and Weller (2010. University Press. R & Jackson. 299) state that there are four Tiernan. the portfolio and lastly their circumstances (Tiernan & Weller 2010. Baldino et al. Incoterms 2010: ICC rules for the use of domestic and international trade terms. Contemporary challenges to Australian security. p. so it doesn’t do things in order to hurt or please you” (Dawkins 2012. Palgrave Macmillan. 3rd edn. 226). The complete volunteer management handbook. 299). This is an incorrect assumption: “States have substantial direct regulatory power but limited funds” (Connell 2012. p. ICC Services. Lynch & Jackson 2012. 80). “Volunteer programmes are successful when volunteers are working in positions they look forward to undertaking and want to fill” (McCurley. pp. Tilde University Press. J & Rees. Baldino. D 2012. p. p. 78). R 2012. p. In-text (direct quotation) “The universe has no mind. 74-87. Book that is not the first edition Book with more than three authors. International Chamber of Commerce 2010. A & Weller. 105). D. p. p. S. Book with two authors A government minister’s performance will be influenced and affected by four factors: their personality. Environmental policy failure: the Australian story. p. 226). D. 78). Learning to be a Minister: factors that will determine a minister’s performance: heroic expectations. Paris. p.Swinburne University of Technology Library – Harvard Style Guide Information source Book with one author In-text (paraphrase) The universe cannot do good or bad things to humans because it is not a sentient force (Dawkins 2012. The magic of reality. Also. Lundberg. Book where an organisation is the author A seller only needs a minimum level of insurance when CIF is used (International Chamber of Commerce 2010. McCurley. no feelings and no personality. state governments do not have unlimited funds are identifiable to do so (Connell 2012. (2011. London. P 2010. Directory of Social Change. practical realities. R 2012. the government’s requirements. p. p. which leaves us having to examine other reasons for why events happen. 2011. “under CIF the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover” (International Chamber of Commerce 2010. then the volunteer programmes will perform well (McCurley. The buyer cannot expect the seller to pay a premium level. Melbourne “their personality. J 2011. 5 . Pietch. South Yarra. p. Lynch. Reference List or Bibliography entry Dawkins. Connell. the requirements of the government. One way to visualise this is to see the citizens wanting wider and freer access to information on one side whilst the state wants to control it (for both its own benefit and also for those of other citizens) on the other (Baldino et al. in K Crowley & KJ Walker (eds). Lynch & Jackson 2012. Also. the expectations of their portfolio and the political circumstances in which they find themselves”. Black Swan. book is part of a series and the series is unnumbered Book with two editors and While they may enforce regulations and create new the contributing writers ones. 80). Assessing the evidence. Book with three authors. 137). ‘Flailing about in the Murray-Darling basin’. Carlton. If the volunteers are employed in roles that they want to do. London. 105). 137) see two agencies struggling: “The perpetual tension remains between the rights of citizens to advance their interests and the interests of the state to protect itself (and the citizens it is ideally designed to serve)”.
San Diego. 145) “introduced the idea that value can only be created and acknowledged by the consumer in the act of consumption”. USA. One author referring to a work by two authors.’) Bhasin. ‘Interaction space’. February 27 – March 3. pp. p. Also. California. Dreamworks Animation. Don’t hesitate. Hoboken. CK & Makhlouf. Effective communication in a workplace can end if a In other words. Business Expert Press. 19) notes this shift in law as being due to offshore exploration and drilling: “After World War II. ASEAN has given Malaysia ‘middle income country’ chapter and section details status (Bhasin 2010. 145-154. Reference List or Bibliography entry Wu. NJ. quenching medium and quenching process and this makes their determination difficult and the values obtained are approximate at best” (Wu & Makhlouf 2011. Monetary value is not the true value of a purchased item – Vargo and Lusch (cited in Graham 2011. heat transfer coefficients are very much dependent on part geometry. Tanaka (2012. Workshop proceedings of the 7th international conference on intelligent environments. “Refusing to address the issues problem is not dealt with (Don’t hesitate. EBL Ebook Library. BB 2010. who propose that it is the purchaser that gives a purchased item its value. expanded their jurisdictional reach into the high seas. “Malaysia is one of ASEAN’s more successful economies and has been declared a middle income country” (Bhasin 2010. Graham. p. as ‘ch. 836). Kung Fu panda 2008 [DVD]. p. The International Law of the Sea. 6: Malaysia: Economic only (chapter is abbreviated system). The passing down from generation to generation of a chef’s skills is humorously summed up by this statement from Po’s adopted father: “We are noodle folk – broth runs through our veins!” (Kung Fu panda 2008). EBSCOhost eBook Collection. communicate! is one way to kill communication” (Don’t hesitate. a blank scroll is used as a metaphor for non-existent knowledge (Kung Fu panda 2008). Bendigo. ch. Distributed in Australia by Paramount Home Entertainment. however. Doing business in the ASEAN countries. communicate! Effective communication in the office 2010). Wiley. 19) asserts that coastal nations. p. p. 6: Malaysia: Economic system). Video Education Australasia. coastal states increasingly extended their jurisdiction toward the high seas in order to control offshore resources”. 2011. communicate! Effective communication in the office 2010 [DVD]. Y 2012. G 2011. MM 2011. Light Metals 2011: Proceedings of the technical sessions presented by the TMS Aluminium Committee at the TMS 2011 Annual Meeting & Exhibition. published as a book In-text (paraphrase) Heat transfer coefficient values can only be approximately calculated because they are determined by the three factors of (a) quenching medium.Swinburne University of Technology Library – Harvard Style Guide Information source Conference paper. Tanaka. this is a conference paper published in ebook format DVD Another perspective is that of Vargo and Lusch (cited in Graham 2011. and (c) part geometry (Wu & Makhlouf 2011. 145). IOS Press. wanting to obtain and secure offshore deposits of natural resources for their own use. In-text (direct quotation) This cannot always be precise: “However. ch. 6 . DVD – feature film Ebooks – with page numbers (or numbered sections) Tanaka (2012. Books 24x7. USA. Effective communication in the office 2010). Ebooks – no page numbers. 836). (b) quenching process. p. Cambridge University Press. ‘Predicting the response of Aluminium casting alloys to heat treatment’. In this instance.
namely simplicity of management (static routing and automatic recovery. p. 23) is: “An affixing an adhesive label to the gas bottle (Standards adhesive label is an acceptable means of identifying Australia 2009. p.net/cancer-types/ neuroendocrine-tumor>. 5). Haigh’s Chocolates.Net. LP Gas fuel vessels for automotive use. (AS/NZS 3509:2009). a bicycle” (Tipping 2010). Rowley. P. the model of multivalve”. C & Fernandez-Veiga. Even going near a plantation can get you into trouble now. Reference List or Bibliography entry Argibay-losada. 1. Differences of behaviour between various species of frog may affect the possibility of some species becoming extinct (Rowley 2013). p. magazine and journal articles with an author (in print. Australia. or not laws tighten 2013. 5). Standards Australia 2009. Tipping. In-text (direct quotation) Argibay-losada et al. A simple explanation of the endocrine system is that “The endocrine system consists of cells that make hormones” (Neuroendocrine Tumor 2012). or not from official web site) In-text (paraphrase) It is much simpler to manage an optical network that has been arranged in a ring (Argibay-losada et al. M 2012. <http://www. Newspaper. 10 August. Williams. B1314. Webpage of a company or Haigh’s see their company as being involved in organisation consumer experiences (Haigh’s Chocolates 2013). magazine and A charge of Trespass can be made once the defendant journal articles without is 150m or closer to a timber harvesting site (Trespass an author (in print. A. because “Anyone caught going within 150m of a harvesting site will be charged with trespassing. R 2010. Herald Sun. ‘Trespass laws tighten’ 2013. <http://jodirowley.Swinburne University of Technology Library – Harvard Style Guide Information source Newspaper. 257-269.html>. for example)”. “Systems can be natural or artificial. 58. Haigh’s Chocolates 2013. Suarez-Gonzalez. ‘Flow splitting for end-to-end proportional QoS in OBS networks’. It is permissible to simply identify multivalve model by The rule from Standards Australia (2009.com/index. habitat modification and over-harvesting”. <http://www. SAI Global Limited. but the opposite. eg. Rowley (2013) is one Australian biologist researching “how interspecific differences in behaviour relate to vulnerability to extinction due to threats such as disease. Home. Webpage without an author Neuroendocrine Tumor 2012. p. p.cancer. Gold ore mining in Australia. 18 January. viewed 18 January 2013.com. M 2010. Jodi Rowley. no.au/about-us/vision-values/>. p. “The industry has also faced higher government charges” (Williams 2012. Swinburne University of Technology. (2010. 7 . There are usually two types of systems: natural systems and artificial systems (Tipping 2010). ‘Lecture 1’. from official web site) Industry and market reports from Library databases Australian Standards Online Learning material in Blackboard – in this example. HIT3423/8423 Enterprise system management. viewed 16 August 2010. haighschocolates. 263) identify that “The main reason to use ring topologies is not a high degree of connectivity or route diversity. Cancer. vol. p. p. after the State Government brought in new “public safety zones”” (Trespass laws tighten 2013. pp. Lopez-Garcia. Swinburne University of Technology. viewed 21 January 2013. Powerpoint slides of a lecture Webpage with an author This commodity has been affected by government fees Australian governments took advantage of this – (Williams 2012. 15. Vision and values. IEEE Transactions on Communications. 263). J 2013. viewed 18 January 2013. Learning materials on Blackboard. 23). Cells that produce hormones comprise the endocrine system (Neuroendocrine Tumor 2012). p. 15). Haigh’s mission is to be “Delivering a world class chocolate experience every time” to their consumers (Haigh’s Chocolates 2013). IBISWorld. 15). The solar system. 2010.
the CEO of Tropical Telecom. viewed 21 January 2013.com. Adult Paralysis tick engorged with blood: (Queensland Museum 2013) Reference List or Bibliography entry INSEADofficial 2010.Swinburne University of Technology Library – Harvard Style Guide Information source YouTube video In-text (paraphrase) Tropical Telecom opted to immediately make use of their network free to anyone (INSEADofficial 2010). viewed 9 December 2010. 61. katzsj 2009. <http:// www. A 2012.6). so prevention via firewalls and detection and removal using antivirus programs are first lines of defence. It is evident that ancient mythologies of sea monsters may have been inspired by truisms: “The creature is thought to be the genesis of the Nordic legend of Kraken. viewed 13 November 2012. ‘Water bottles as a design tool’.html>. 61. they are likely to be unaware that their computer has been compromised” (Maurushat 2012.gov.com/watch?v=0qwDQN-b72Y>. 4. marketing is required to overcome this fact. Sara’s blog. <http://www.6).qm.html>.php/tja/article/view/318/703>. Telecommunications Journal of Australia.theage.org. The Age.wordpress. In-text (direct quotation) Chris Taylor. vol.au/opinion/blogs/sceptic-science/ immune-to-science-20110309-1bn9m.au/ Find+out+about/Animals+of+Queensland/Parasites/ Human+parasites/~/media/Images/Find%20out%20 about/Animals/Parasites/Human%20parasites/ixodesholocyclus-2.18. One way of including sustainability in architecture is “to use recycled products and objects in creative and innovative ways” (katzsj 2009). “Once a user’s machine is infected and part of a botnet. Sceptic Science. ‘‘Shining and so beautiful’: giant squid captured on film for the first time’. ‘Adult Paralysis tick engorged with blood’ [image]. a sea monster believed to have attacked ships in waters off Scandinavia over the past millennium” (AFP 2013). 8 January.qld. ‘The role of Internet Service Providers in combating botnets: an examination of recent Australian initiatives and legislative reform’.theage. 14 June. viewed 21 January 2013. viewed 21 January 2013. Article from an open access online journal. AFP 2013. 61. B 2011. page number format is not standard Blog entry A user may not know that their computer has become part of a botnet (Maurushat 2012. p. Social responsibility in business today. pp. Maurushat. modern lifestyle can compromise the immune system is greatly overblown” (Newsome 2011) – so.1-61. and the notion that having a busy. p. 62. in Queensland Museum 2013. <http://tja. “The vast majority of us have perfectly robust immune systems. making it free for everyone” (INSEADofficial 2010). au/index. Note: in this example.com/2009/02/11/waterbottles-as-a-design-tool/>. available on the Harvard Style webpage) SP0065-13-0513 8 . <http://katzsj. no. Paralysis tick.au/ environment/animals/shining-and-so-beautiful-giantsquid-captured-on-film-for-the-first-time-201301082cdk3. graphs and images from a webpage (Queensland Museum 2013) Article from a newspaper website It's possible the legendary Kraken was derived from sightings of these giant squids (AFP 2013). <http://www. 4) – it uses the guidelines for Blogs. 10 March. The issue of sustainability in architecture can be addressed by using recycled materials (katzsj 2009). <http://www.com. Blog entry on a newspaper Even having a busy life does not automatically entail website (Note: this is not taking an additive to boost one’s immune system a hybrid entry (see page (Newsome 2011). Tables. decided immediately to be altruistic: “We reacted by opening up our network. viewed 21 January 2013. 11 February.jpg?w=300&h=196&as=1>. Queensland Museum. Newsome. ‘Immune to science’.youtube.