GLOBALIZATION Author Jan Scholte 2000 Globalization: A Critical Introduction Definition Globalization as internationalization.

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describe cross-border relations between countries describes the growth in interaction and interdependence between people in different countries With growing flows of trade and capital investment there is the possibility of moving beyond an inter-national economy, (where 'the principle entities are national economies') to a 'stronger' version - the globalized economy in which, 'distinct national economies are subsumed and rearticulated into the system by international processes and transactions'

Globalization as liberalization. • refers to 'a process of removing government-imposed restrictions on movements between countries in order to create an "open", "borderless" world economy'

Globalization as universalization.

Global is used in the sense of being 'worldwide' and 'globalization' is 'the process of spreading various objects and experiences to people at all corners of the earth'. A classic example of this would be the spread of computing, television etc.

Globalization as westernization or modernization • in an 'Americanized' form globalization' is understood as a dynamic whereby the social structures of modernity (capitalism, rationalism, industrialism, bureaucratism, etc.) are spread the world over, normally destroying pre-existent cultures and local selfdetermination in the process

Globalization as deterritorialization • • the spread of supraterritoriality entails a 'reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer wholly mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and territorial borders global supraterritorial

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GLOBALIZATION Author • • Manfred Steger (2003, Globalization: A Very Short Introduction) transworld transborder Definition

Globalization • refers to the set of social processes that are thought to transform our present social condition into one globality • shifting forms of human contact • modernity > post-modernity > we have not yet reach it Globalization • defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa Globalization • reflects the sense of an immense enlargement of world communication, as well as of the horizon of a world market, both of which seem far more tangible and immediate than in earlier stages of modernity Globalization • process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions – assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and impacting generating transcontinental or interregional flows and networks of activity, interaction, and the exercise of power Globalization • refers both to the compression of world and intensification of consciousness of the world as whole Globalization • compresses the time and space aspects of social relations • referred to by the third world countries as colonization

Anthony Giddens Director London School of Economics

Fredric Jameson Professor of Literature Duke University

David Held Professor of Political Science London School of Economics

Roland Robertson Professor of Sociology University of Pittsburgh James Mittelman Professor of International Relations American University Martin Khor 1995

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Effects of Globalization Camilleri, Falk, Wriston, Sassen Cable Schmidt Strange Horsman and Marshall Dunn 1. anarchy (Kaplan) and global disorder (Harvey) Globalization has deprived the state sovereignty Globalization has diminished the nation-state Globalization promotes decline of nation-state Globalization promotes retreat of nation-state Globalization promotes crisis in nation-state Globalization promotes extinction of nation-state globalization has bred intolerance and violence thru: • ultranationalism • racism • religious fundamentalism • terrorism • global sex tourism • human trafficking • mail-order brides • prostitution Threatens human security thru: • exhaustion of natural resources • excessive world population growth • nuclear holocaust • acid rain • ozone depletion • climate change • species extinction • HIV/AIDS • Mad cow disease • Genetically modified food crops • do people have equal opportunities to participate in global relations? • Does globalization bypass, marginalize, silence much of the global population? • Growth in income gaps • Globalization has increased the advantages of the upper class

2. barbarism of techno-war and voyeurism of media war 3. increased violence against women 4. environmental catastrophe

5. social inequity

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