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Ms. Lorna Israel Seminar Paper in IS-205
Introduction Culture, in fact, are always “flowing” onto each other, creating a “dynamic” whole, that keeps on shifting. The movement of people, goods, and services lead to cultural “barrowings” (Mendoza, 2001). Specifically by looking at the language that everyone uses to communicate also shifts its form. There is no doubt about the evolution of language that happens in every nation. That evolution takes place in all levels: the sound structure (phonetics and Phonology), the lexicon, the grammar (morphology and syntax), and the pragmatics.1 There is no definite historical evolution for a reason that the research in linguistics on the 20th century is far way different from the 19th century, thus, this is an effect of the phenomenon of change brought by globalization. Since people need to work together across difference, differences have to be negotiated. People need to work across differences in work, politics, cultural activities and everyday life. But it is increasingly understood that social difference is not only difference between people but also difference within people. Indeed, recognizing the difference within is the basis for being open to a non-suppressive negotiation of differences between people and groups (Barat, 1998). Working across differences is a process in our individual lives, within the groups we belong to… Working across differences entails semiotic hybridity — the emergence of new combinations of languages, social dialects, voices, genres and discourses. Hybridity, heterogeneity, intertextuality are salient features of contemporary discourse also because the boundaries between domains and practices are in many cases fluid and open in a context of rapid and intense social change — the negotiation of social difference includes, for instance, the negotiation of differences between educators, advertisers and business managers, and
Quoted from Steels, Luc (1999) Puzzle of evolution. Kognition Swissenchaft from http://www.csl.sony.fr/downloads/papers/1999/steels-kogwis1999.pdf
between students and consumers of commodities, within educational institutions which are increasingly forced into operating in market ways (Fairclough, _____). Consequently, negotiating differences is at the same time negotiating identities, in such a way that working out how one person related to others is simultaneously working out them selves. Considering the regular day-to-day conduct of international affairs is entrusted to the members of the Foreign Service who are accredited by the sending state as its permanent envoys to represent it in the states with which it is maintaining diplomatic relations. As to the Diplomats having the functions of representing its nation, protecting the interest of its nation, negotiating with the government of the receiving state, and promoting friendly relations between the sending and the receiving states – these diplomats certainly molds them selves in a way the receiving states expect them to be. They have to be effective representative for they bring with them their whole nation. More so, by doing that their nationality is expected to be strengthened in order for them to be come efficient representatives of the sending state. The radical fluidity of the contemporary life unpredictably unsettle social identities, moreover, the search for and construction of identities becomes a process and a major preoccupation, however, it should be framed as looking it as a problem of learning to live with difference. By looking at the language spoken by each nation there is a strong sense of differentiation, this paper will delve in the reculturalization of language – how does this helps the nation to become more bigger and smaller at the same time. Furthermore, language sometimes plays crucial role for the formation of one’s identity, however, language is same time pointed as not an indispensable deciding factor for one’s cultural identity all the time. This paper will also show how language can no longer be the basis of defining one’s identity. According to Vicente Rafael2, It is through such languages causes are strengthened, identities are formed, and ideas of nationhood are conjured. He also added in his article A Freedom=Death: Conjurings, Oaths, and the Power of Secrecy, that,
Vicente L. Rafael is a professor of history at the University of Washington in Seattle. His interests include Southeast Asia, comparative colonialism, and comparative nationalism. Currently, he is a member of the Editorial Collective of the journal Public Culture. (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vicente_L._Rafael)
today there is not one language that is spoken and understood by all Filipinos, nor even a majority of them, which simply proves that while the teaching of a foreign language may be imposed upon a people, it can never replace the native tongue as a medium of national expression among the common masses. This is because, as Rizal asserted, the national thought takes root in a common language which develops and grows with the progress of the nation. We may borrow for a time the language of other people, but we cannot truly possess a national language except through adoption, development, and use of our own.
The Scapes The drastic change brought by globalization has been giving many new opportunities and consequently adversities to individual in every parts of the world. The challenges that faced by the nation during the transition led them to the modernization of many things and aspects of life, which gave new opportunities for individuals to rise up and do progress for their own. Via modernity, the world has become translucent and interdependent with each other. According to Appadurai3 (1997), modernity now seems more practical and less pedagogic, more experimental and less disciplinary than in the fifties and sixties, when it was mostly experienced (especially for those outside the national elite) through the propaganda apparatuses of the newly independent nation-states and their great leaders… the transformation of everyday subjectivities through electronic mediation and the work of the imagination is not only a cultural fact. More so, it is deeply connected to politics, through the new ways in which individual attachments, interests, and aspirations increasingly crosscut those of the nation state. (p. 10)
There are five dimensions of global cultural flows according to Appadurai, these dimensions can be associated with the reculturalization of language. These dimensions
Arjun Appadurai is a contemporary social-cultural anthropologist focusing on modernity and globalization. He also serves as Senior Advisor for Global Initiatives at The New School in New York City, where he also holds a Distinguished Professorship as the John Dewey Professor in the Social Sciences. (See http://www.appadurai.com/homebio.htm)
are: (1) ethnoscapes, (2) mediascapes, (3) technoscapes, (4) financescapes, and (5) ideoscapes. The suffix –scape allows us to point to the fluid, irregular shapes of these landscapes, shapes that characterize international capital as deeply as they do international clothing style (Ibid, p. 33). In other words, the scapes are the factor that contributes to the changes – these are fascinating and very captivating that it gives new value and significance to the ones that has no meaning; these are also new invented technologies that contribute to making life a more easy, simple and sometimes effortless; it could also mean the atom. As to Appadurai, these are the building blocks of imagined worlds – that is, the multiple worlds that are constituted by the historically situated imaginations of persons and groups spread around the globe. An important fact of the world we live in today is that many persons on the globe live in such imagined worlds (and not just imagined communities) and thus are able to contest and sometimes even subvert the imagined worlds of the official mind and of the entrepreneurial mentality that surrounds them (Ibid, p. 33). The imagination – is the means by which individuals connected with new global possibilities – this could be no longer a fantasy and escape and more likely it is no longer on elite posting, consequently, it becomes a critical to all forms of agency and is itself become a social fact. Learning new languages it is already as like becoming more fluid that keeps us moving. In this sense, the culture is mechanisms for setting up differences – the language which can be learn are the ones that connect us to the world. The ethnoscapes – people in motion, such as the migrants, tourist, refugees and so on. People should be able to deal with one another directly using the same language or a language that they can meet to understand each other. Think about this, imagine yourself going to another planet not knowing how to communicate with them, most probably, there would be a misunderstanding. On the other hand, the mediascape – refers to the capabilities of the information elite to produce and disseminate information in forms of newspaper, magazines, television stations, film production studios and so on. Via information that is being spread in all parts of the world, people get to freshen up their minds of what is up-to-the-minute. Furthermore, the technoscapes – communication
beyond borders, there are various technologies that helps individual’s to propagate and share ideas and information. People nowadays are not the only thing that is in motion but everything is all in motion, we’re all liquid. At least by all these means, it can lessen the misunderstanding of having no commonalities in language. Moreover, the ideascapes – differences between states and non-states ideologies. Each individual has their own perception on language. Thus, they use it on how they perceive it. The presence of media and technology makes the notion of language profound. Because of these modern ways, we get to easily access in learning new languages, deepening our knowledge of others culture and so on. In this sense, we tend to come up on the whim of capital. The financescape – global flows of capital. Language is very important in conglomerate, how can one do business if they could not understand each other? It is much better if two business corporations would meet at the middle; I do not mean barter process but prior to that – a language that can help each side to get to understand each other. Having a common language helps both parties to understand and appreciate each other. Modernity has brought us to a water world - everything has been liquefied that people and things keeps on moving. They would stop however they are still moving in their place – deterritorialization – according to Jan Scholte4, it entails the “reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is no longer wholly mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and territorial borders. Everything is unstoppable and keeps on evolving.
Language Indeed the globalization is progressively changing the shape of the world – transforming it into small world. This metaphor, once coined by Marchal McLuhan to
Jan Aart Scholte is Professor in PAIS and Director of the Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalisation (CSGR) at the University of Warwick. He also holds a part-time appointment as Centennial Professor at the London School of Economics. Before coming to Warwick in 1999, he worked at the University of Sussex, Brighton and the Institute of Social Studies, The Hague. Jan Aart has also held visiting positions at Cornell University, the London School of Economics, the International Monetary Fund, the Moscow State University and Gothenburg University. (See http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/pais/staff/scholte/)
describe the consequences of mass-media’s ability to bring events from the far reaches of the globe (Lustig, Koester 1999: 4), now has a wider sense and reflects an increasing social and ethnic dynamics which breaks down political and cultural borders almost everywhere. Migrations, political and economic integration processes, development of the global net of communication, intensiﬁcation of personal and institutional contacts, international tourism transform intercultural relations into everyday life reality. In this situation ethnic borders loose their traditional dimension as separation lines and become, according to Walter Minola, the space of mutual transition of what is one’s own into alien and alien into one’s own. From this point of view borderlands perceived as a space of cross-cultural encounters exist everywhere and are rather virtual than spatial phenomenon. J. Kuczynski (Center for Universalism of the University of Warsaw) points out that “the border exists everywhere, and for this reason modern ideology of borderland, modern spirit of borderland are so continuously and daily necessary that they become an indispensable condition of the very human existence” (Biasphamiatnyh, 2007: p. 55) We need the power of language, more completely to weld us into one strong nation and at the same time our relation with our nations. It will give inspiration and warmth to our popular movements and will accord to our nationality a new meaning to which we have never learned to give full and adequate expression (Rafael, _____). In the case of the Philippines being colonized by the Spaniards for over 300 years and followed by the Americans – the composition of the Philippine national language is a mixed of Spanish and the English. There are words from them that have been localized for the sake of calling it as ours and through our own understanding we have given that localized word a new meaning or interpretation. However, sometimes having too many languages would not easily give you the notion that this one person came from this nation. When identity is the subject – it is sometimes correlates with the mother tongue or the native language that is being used by a person. Nowadays, the past simple words having a single meaning as the world evolves these words becomes meaningful – having interpreted in various means. The mother
tongue before was only used to define the one language that a person has grown up with. Accordingly, SkutnabbKangas (1984 and 1988) points pout that there are several ways of defining a mother tongue as follows; 1) the language(s) one learned first (origin), 2) the language(s) one knows best (competence), 3) the language(s) one uses most, 4a) the language(s) one identifies with (internal) and 4b) the language(s) one is identifies as a native speaker of by others(external). An individual can have different mother tongues, depending on which definition is used. The Philippines as an archipelago has a variety of dialects such as Kapangpangan, Ilocanos, Bisaya, and many more, the fact of having all these dialects we still have one language that connects us to other Filipinos living on the far side of the Philippines and that is the Tagalog. Furthermore, many Filipinos now exceed the borders of the Philippines as well as those of the US and other countries where they migrate, work, settle, or create new identities, communities, and cultures. That such Filipinos now are becoming linguistic -- they can speak more than one language and can even write using another cultures writings. In this sense, the mother tongue of the Filipinos can be changed. They can choose which language they wanted to as their mother tongue. This is sometimes why Filipinos abroad tend to be recognized as not Filipinos; also some foreigners are miscalculated of their identity because of their fluency in speaking another language that they know. Despite of having too many languages that we can learn and speak this notion gives a positive sympathy on getting connected to others. Language can be used to bridge the differences. In the article Bridging the Gap: The Filipino language as spirit of national identity, the author stated that “The Philippine government itself has made pronouncements with regards to the importance of being good speakers of English in order for the Filipinos to be globally competitive. This is done by the continuous use of English as the medium of instruction in schools and by making it as the preferred language of communication”. Despite the fact that the Philippine economy is at low, the Filipinos as known to be as resourceful tend to find ways on how they will make progress by their lives. There are some who travel abroad to work or even establish business but
prior to that they try to learn first a foreign language that will suit to their needs ones they are working abroad. Language is always tied up to one's culture and, of course, his identity. However, the Filipinos cannot even speak anymore of cultural identity, with some social scientists even talking of a "damaged culture". As a people, the Filipinos have extensively adapted and substantially adopted the Western culture. Racially speaking, their features do not differ from the rest of the Southeast Asians such as the Myanmarese, Kampucheans, Vietnamese, Malaysians and Indonesians. Maybe, in todays world and in the future, it is only language that may make the Filipinos distinct from their neighboring Southeast Asians. Even if English is becoming to be the world's dominant language, it is still necessary for the Filipinos to speak their national language or their regional language. After all, it is the only language that can really, in essence, capture the feelings and sentiments of the people, and can represent their true spirit as Filipinos. Also, language can help promote unity within the country and develop a sense of belongingness. Chinese and Japanese display their strength and unity through speaking their own national language and they are more progressive compared to the Filipinos (Ibid, p. 1). Language is indeed a very important factor of surviving your day. Moreover, it has been an important tool in promulgating the existence of nations, distinguishing those who are part or those who belong from those who do not. Carter5 and Sealey6 said that it is obvious that for languages to play the role they do in ‘one-language, one-nation’
Bob Carter studied at the Universities of London, Birmingham and Leicester. He is co-convenor of the MA in Race and Ethnic Studies. His research interests cover several areas. One is the evaluation of sociological accounts of racism and the politics of immigration restriction, and this has involved the development of a distinctive theoretical approach to the interpretation of ideas about race and the politics of racism, based broadly on the sociological realism. This approach was set out in a number of journal articles and in the book Realism and Racism (2000). His another interest is in language and social theory, in particular exploring the ways in which discussion of concepts of race and ethnicity within the social sciences can be enhanced by a more thorough engagement with social linguistics. These ideas have been developed, with Alison Sealey, in Applied Linguistics as Social Science (2004).
Dr. Alison Sealey before coming to Birmingham in 2005, taught Applied Linguistics at the University of Reading. She holds a PhD from the University of Warwick. Dr. Sealey’s research interests are in various aspects of language in social context. This includes the interface between applied linguistics and sociology/ social theory, and a range of empirical approaches to language research, including discourse analysis and corpus linguistics. She is interested in language planning policy and practice, and in the potential of corpus methods for the development of language awareness, particularly with younger learners.
ideologies, there needs to be a correspondingly taken-for-granted concept of how individuals come together as collectivities. In the article Language Understanding (p116) “language is an epiphenomenon on the world as language users perceive it, and that therefore a study of language that seeks to be explanatory will need to take into account the knowledge, belief, expectations and purposes of those language users” Going back to the diplomats – they have use language as they perceived it as something that can carry not only them but the whole identity of the sending state, more likely they have put into account of attaining the expectation from them by the receiving state. Taking note that diplomats do not only speak one language but should of course know how to speak another language – especially where they are assigned, gives them a comfort of becoming part of the receiving state. Michael Janofsky encapsulate in his article what President George W. Bush (2005) said in one of the College and University’s President conference in US, he spoke about the country’s serious need for translation to share up national security… “He illustrated the importance of learning such languages with the following analogy: in order to convince people we care about them, we’ve got to understand their culture and show them we care about them. We’ve got to understand their culture and show them we care about their culture you know when somebody comes to me and speak Texan, I know they appreciate Texas culture”. Herein, Bush has link translation, entailing the learning of the foreign language and culture, with “care” and “appreciation”. If I were to learn “Texan”, for example, I should be showing my capacity to defer his idiom, suppressing my first language in favour of a second foreign tongue. My deference would be evidence of my ability to recognized and respect his difference and more generally to know the difference that makes us any speech act (Rafael, _____ p. 239). Learning of foreign language helps us protect and secure our nation. Furthermore, in this sense, the diplomats having the knowledge to speak other language, other than they know the language by heart, they then also appreciate and care about the culture of the receiving state and more or less there would less misinterpretation between the diplomat and the receiving state official. Moreover, their knowledge of foreign language makes them secure wise and also, the diplomats become effective in promoting their country in doing partners when it comes to investments.
The world is full of language. Then learning of a foreign language gives the individual a new opportunity and advantages – it is like the doors of the world is giving them chances to be reach out for the others. For a reason that it improves the skill of the individual, thus this individual becomes competitive in the international community. Every year there are lots of nursing students who graduates and tries to find their luck by going abroad. In between their studies, they need to take a foreign language course – most of the nursing students that I know have taken French as their Foreign Language. It is a compulsory for them to learn a new language especially those who really wants to go abroad and give their service. Not only the nursing students, but there are colleges and universities that offer foreign language course, in fact, back in college I took foreign language class and it become very useful for me. Moreover, the diplomats earlier are not ask compulsory to learn a foreign language but it is their initiative to do so for them to be at their best in doing their mission. Professionals who know other languages are called on to travel and exchange information with people not only on their own nation and also in other countries throughout their careers. Knowing more than one language enhances opportunities in government, business, law, medicine and health care, teaching technology, the military, communications, industry, social service, and marketing. Having the knowledge of a foreign language other people will tend to see you as a bridge – example is the translator. More likely an individual who knows a foreign language can win the trust and friendship of people whose language an individual is speaking, even if you know them just a little. In addition, learning a foreign language gives an individual a view of another culture and consequently a new of your own. Studying a new language, reading other people’s stories and articles and so as the books of authors from different parts of the world, and by connecting with people in their own language can be a source of pleasure and surprises – these may help an individual expand their personal horizons and become a responsible citizen. The ability to tête-à-tête or have a dialogue with others and gain knowledge beyond the world of your own language can contribute to the community and as well as the whole nation.
Conclusion Language undeniably is important in our daily life. The world is getting bigger – for a reason of the new technologies that is being discovered now and then, truly the modernity leads us to a variety of progression it is just a matter of knowing how to deal with it, on the other hand the world as it becomes bigger, same time it becomes smaller because of the reculturalization of language. Through modernity, we’ve come to access many ways of learning new things, through print media we can gain new knowledge and other forms of media helped individual to explore more and find their capacity to interact with one another – interdependence – in a sense that the hybridity of language makes the world a small place, as everyone learns a common language, people tend to share commonalities. The language unifies and strengthens the relationship of people who have differences, like what I said, it bridges the gap of two differences.
Reference: Appadura, Arjun. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis/London: University of Minnesota Press, 1997 Barat,  in Fairclough, Norman, [_____] Global Capitalism and Critical Awareness of Language. Retrieved 09 October 2008 from http://d.scribd.com/docs/qp8wb4v5poqmwrk4ry2.pdf
Carter, B. et al, [_____]. Language, Nations, and Identities: Methodological Innovation Online. ___________, Language Understanding in Carter, B. et al, Language, Nations, and Identities: Methodological Innovation Online. ______ Fairclough, Norman, [_____]. Global Capitalism and Critical Awareness of Language. Retrieved 09 October 2008 from http://d.scribd.com/docs/qp8wb4v5poqmwrk4ry2.pdf Funtecha, Henry, [_____]. Bridging the Gap: The Filipino language as spirit of national identity. Retrieved last 17 October 2008 from http://www.thenewstoday.info/2008/08/22/the.filipino.language.as.spirit.of.national.identity. html Janofsky, Michael. . Bush Proposes Broader Language Training. Retrieved last 18 October 2008 from http://www.auburn.edu/academic/international/oie/strategic/languageinit/language_initiative06_n yt.pdf Biaspamiatnykh, Mikalai. . Language and Identity in Transforming Borderlands (Case of North and South Belarus). Retrieved last 18 October 2008 from http://www.coactivity.vgtu.lt/upload/filosof_zurn/m_biaspamiatnykh_filosofija_nr_1_t15.pdf Mendoza M.L, . The Crisis of Management in the Philippines: Neither East Asian nor Western. Retrieved last 27 August 2008 from http://www.dap.edu.ph/downloads/The_Crisis_of_Management_in_the_Philippines_Neither_East _Asian_nor_Western.pdf Rafael, Vicente, [_____]. A Freedom=Death: Conjurings, Oaths, and the Power of Secrecy. Retrieved last 09 October 2008 from http://www.livinginthephilippines.com/philculture/culture&arts/power_of_secrecy.html Rafael, Vicente, . Translation in Wartimes. Duke University Press Scholte, Jan. . Globalization: A Critical Introduction. London: Macmillan SkutnabbKangas. [1984 & 1988]. in Kobari, Yoshihiro. [_____]. Notes on Cebuano Bisayan Ethnic Identity in the Philippine Multilingualim. Japan Information Cultural Center.
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