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Edgar Allan Poe: at the crossroads of three developments -Romanticism -The Professionalization of Literature -Division between high and

low literature Precedents: Charles Broc den Brown !ashington "rving #ames $enimore Cooper 1830s Professionalization of literature Than s to: -high literac% &free public school s%stem' -international cop%right laws -()*+ Postal ,ct -cheaper production methods &wood pulp paper- c%linder press' -leisure time and e.pendable income Two inds of literature: high and low &or educated and popular' Educated Literature /ain publishers0 1ouse of Care%- in Philadelphia Tic nor and $ields- in Boston &later 1oughton-/ifflin'

1arper- !ile% and Putnam- in 2ew 3or Literary Magazines> 2orth ,merican Review 4aturda% 5vening Post 6raham7s /agazine 6ode%7s Lad%7s Boo Genres> 4hort stories 4 etches &short- unplotted- descriptive pieces8 offered sub9ective rendition of a scene- landscape- character' 5ssa%s Reviews Translations and reprints of famous 5uropean wor s 2ovels in serial form:instalments &or in cheap- newspaper format: mammoth wee lies'; Conception of high literature 0 $ull% romantic a' Literature as personal e.pression; 5mphasis on feelings and sub9ective perception; <Poetr% is the spontaneous overflow of poetic feelings;< !ordsworth- <Preface< to Lyrical Ballads <Poetr% is feeling confessing itself to itself in moments of solitude; ,ll poetr% is of the nature of solilo=u%;< 4tuart /ill- On Poetry <>n the whole- 6enius has privileges of its own8 it selects an orbit for itself8 and be this never so eccentric- if it is

indeed a celestial orbit- we mere stargazers must at last compose ourselves8 must cease to cavil at it and begin to observe it- and calculate its laws;< Th; Carl%le b' Disregard for classical norms; 5mphasis on originalit% and novelt%; $or 5; ,; Poe- the 6ree epics or /ilton7s Paradise Lost were ?artistic anomalies;@ c' Literature should have no purpose &autonom% of the aesthetic'; &"; Aant-()*Bs'; "t goes against goal-oriented rationalit%; ?;;; the simple fact is that- would we but permit ourselves to loo into our own souls- we should immediatel% there discover that under the sun there neither e.ists nor can an% wor more thoroughl% dignified--more supremel% noble than this ver% poem--this poem per se--this poem which is a poem and nothing more--this poem written for the poemCs sa e;@ 5; ,; Poe- ?The Philosoph% of Composition-@ D*E This led to an emphasis on sensation- on the odd- unusualunfamiliar- grotes=ue- e.treme- the sublime; d' 1owever- literature remains a ?cognitive mode@particularl% through its abilit% to transform one7s perception of the world; ?Beaut% is the sensual representation of truth@; #ohn Aeats

?The most essential forces of nature become for the poet s%mbols of spiritual e.istence- and thus out of the union of his ph%sics with his theolog% arises a scientific m%tholog%@; ,; !; 4chlegel The cognitive role of literature is evident through the imagination and the s%mbol; ?The poet- described in ideal perfection- brings the whole soul of man into activit%;;;; 1e diffuses a tone and spirit of unit% that blends and &as it were' fuses each into each b% that s%nthetic and magical power to which we have e.clusivel% appropriated the name of imagination; This power ;;; reveals itself in the balance or reconciliation of opposite or discordant =ualities: of sameness with difference8 of the general with the concrete8 the idea with the image8 the individual with the representative8 the sense of novelt% and freshness with old and familiar ob9ects8 a more than usual state of emotion with more than usual order8 9udgment ever awa e and stead% self-possession with enthusiasm and feeling profound or vehement8 and while it blends and harmonizes the natural and the artificialstill subordinates art to nature8 the manner to matter8 and our admiration of the poet to our s%mpath% with the poetr%;@ 4; T; Coleridge- Biographia Literaria &(D()' P>PFL,R L"T5R,TFR5

$ormat: periodicals &the penn% papers'- cheap books (paperbacks) and pamphlets &stapled boo lets';

Penn% papers: - Ben9amin 1; Da%Cs New York Sun- earliest: published from (DEE on; - 1oratio David 4heppardCs New York Morning Post - #ames 6ordon BennettCs New York erald ->thers: Boston !aily "i#es$ Philadelphia Pu%lic Ledger$ the Balti#ore Sun Bennett claimed: <G,merican readersH were more read% to see si. columns of the details of a brutal murder- or the testimon% of a divorce case- or the trial of a divine for improprieties of conduct- than the same amount of words poured forth b% the genius of the noblest author of our times;< &Pra%- "saac Clar ; Me#oirs
of &a#es Gordon Bennett and Townsend- (DII- p; JII'; is "i#es' 2ew 3or : 4tringer and

-Cheapl% produced: pulp fiction -/i.ed fact and fiction; -$or literate but not highl% educated readers; -2o intellectual pretensions; -4candalous- sensationalistic- scabrous- gor%- and sordid;

>ften contains se.ual scandals- blood% murders- tales and ?reports@ of monstrous animals &huge whales- sea monsters'; ?,s if nothing should be wanting to render this district as filth% and unhealth% as possible- water is scarce; There is in this absence of a plentiful suppl% of that wholesome article an actual apolog% for dirt; 4ome of the houses have small bac %ards- in which the inhabitants eep pigs; , short time ago- an infant belonging to a poor widow died- and was laid upon the sac ing of the bed while the mother went out to ma e arrangements for its interment; During her absence a pig entered the room from the %ard- and feasted upon the dead childCs faceK 6; !; /; Re%nolds- /%steries of London &(D+L' -Politicall% populist: anti-establishment; 5.amples: trial pamphlets about the e.cesses of a high-class h%pocrite or clerg%man and biographies of ?honest@ criminals; -Claimed to be reformistMthat is- the e.cuse for writing about crime- se.- and e.cess is their denunciation; -Reasons for its spread:

<,bove all- G,mericansH must have what is une.pected and new; ,ccustomed to the strugglethe crosses and the monoton% of practical lifethe% re=uire strong and rapid emotions- startling passages--truths or errors brilliant enough to rouse them up- and to plunge them at once- as if b% violence- into the midst of the sub9ect;< , de Toc=ueville- Democrac% in ,merica <;;; a multitude of causes ;;; are now acting with a combined force to blunt the discriminating powers of the mind- and unfitting it for all voluntar% e.ertion to reduce it to a state of savage torpor; The most effective of these causes are the great national events which are dail% ta ing placeand the increasing accumulation of men in citieswhere the uniformit% of their occupations produces a craving for e.traordinar% incident which the rapid communication of intelligence hourl% gratifies;< !; !ordsworth- <Preface< to L%ricall Ballads &(DBB' Popular no(els) 6eorge Lippard- The Nua er Cit% &(D+D' 6eorge Thompson- Cit% Crimes &(D+*'- The Lad%Cs 6arter &(DIE'- The 6a% 6irls of 2ew 3or &(DIL';