October 2003

Training Objectives

HVAC and Building Enclosure
Overview Misc. CHPS Criteria Thermal Loads in Schools Good Envelope Design Ventilation: Natural & Mechanical HVAC System Selection & Design Displacement Ventilation

Design priorities
– – – – Building enclosure design priorities (for efficiency and comfort) Ventilation (mechanical vs. natural) HVAC system selection Displacement ventilation design

Based on understanding of:
– Thermal comfort (covered previously) – Indoor air quality (covered previously) – Thermal loads

And at the same time…
– Introduction to relevant CHPS criteria and BPM guideline contents

Overview

2

Water Credit 2: Water Use Reduction (1 to 3 points)

HVAC and Building Envelope

1 point

2.1. Reduce the use of municipally provided potable water for building sewage conveyance by a minimum of 50% through the utilization of water-efficient fixtures and/or using municipally supplied reclaimed water systems.

Misc. CHPS Criteria

2.2. Employ strategies that, in aggregate, reduce potable water use by 20% beyond the baseline calculated for the building (not including irrigation) after meeting the Energy Policy Act of 1992’s fixture performance requirements. OR 2 points 2.3. Exceed the potable water use reduction by 30% beyond the baseline.

1 point

CHPS Criteria

4

Energy Efficiency
Energy Prerequisite 1: Minimum Energy Performance. Energy Credit 1: Superior Energy Performance (prescriptive option). Energy Credit 2: Natural Ventilation.
– HVAC interconnect with windows and doors. – 90% of classrooms without AC.

Prescriptive Approach for Energy Efficiency
Energy Prerequisite 1 (10% Savings)
– Lighting power no greater than 0.95 W/ft2 (motion sensor credit allowed) – Economizer

Energy Credit 1 (20%, 4 points)
– Daylighting and dimming controls on at least 40% of lighting – Radiant barrier in attic.

Energy Credit 3: Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation. Energy Prerequisite 2: Fundamental Building Systems Testing and Training. Energy Credit 4: Commissioning. Energy Credit 5: Energy Management Systems.

CHPS Criteria

5

CHPS Criteria

6

Commissioning
Typical commissioning process.
– – – – – – – Commissioning plan development. Documentation of design intent. Design review. Submittals review. Inspections and system functional testing. Enhanced operating and maintenance documentation. Post-occupancy testing.

HVAC and Building Envelope

Energy Prerequisite 2: Testing and Training. Energy Credit 4: Commissioning.

Thermal Loads in Schools
7

CHPS Criteria

Why Talk About Thermal Loads?
An understanding of loads helps when setting envelope design priorities Minimizing loads can have many benefits
– – – – Better comfort Smaller HVAC equipment Lower operating cost CHPS energy efficiency points!

What’s a BTU?
Btu = British Thermal Unit

1 Btu = Energy required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water (about 1 pint) by 1 degree Fahrenheit.

The heat generated by the burning of one match (approximately).

Thermal Loads in School

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Thermal Loads in School

10

Heat Gains (independent of outside temperature)
People 24-30 kids (@ 200 Btu/hr) 1 watt per square foot (1 watt = 3.413 Btu/hr) Three computers (About 150 watts each) Fairly small with correct orientation and shading 5,000 Btu/h

Heat Losses/Gains
(dependent on outside air temperature)
Window conduction Walls, roofs and floors

Lights Plugs

3,300 Btu/h 1,500 Btu/h

Infiltration Outside air ventilation (a “system” load rather than a “space” load)

Solar Total

up to 3,000 Btu/h 12,800 Btu/h

Thermal Loads in School

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Thermal Loads in School

12

Balance Point Temperature
25,000 Cooling Required 20,000 15,000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10,000 5,000 0 -5,000 -10,000 Wall & Roof -15,000 -20,000 -25,000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Balance Point Temperature (cont’d)
25,000 Cooling Required 20,000 15,000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10,000 5,000 0 -5,000 -10,000 -15,000 -20,000 -25,000 Outdoor Air Temperature + Window 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Heating Required

Thermal Loads in School

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Thermal Loads in School

14

Balance Point Temperature (cont’d)
25,000 Cooling Required 20,000 + Occupants 15,000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10,000 5,000 0 -5,000 -10,000 -15,000 -20,000 -25,000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Balance Point Temperature (cont’d)
25,000 Cooling Required 20,000 15,000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10,000 5,000 0 -5,000 -10,000 -15,000 -20,000 -25,000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 + Lights

Thermal Loads in School

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Thermal Loads in School

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Balance Point Temperature (cont’d)
25,000 Cooling Required 20,000 15,000 Classroom Loads (Btu/hour) 10,000 5,000 0 -5,000 -10,000 -15,000 -20,000 -25,000 Outdoor Air Temperature Heating Required 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 + Plugs

Balance Point Temperature

HVAC and Building Envelope

Good Envelope Design
17

Thermal Loads in School

Control Thermal Loads
It’s pretty easy! Priorities:
1. 2. 3. 4. Pay attention to the orientation of glazing. Provide adequate insulation. Specify window shading and/or high performance windows. Control roof heat gain through cool roofs and radiant barriers.

Fenestration Orientation
Orient windows north/south.

Pay attention to details

Good Envelope Design

19

Good Envelope Design

20

How About Passive Solar?
Heat typically needed in early morning; not a good match. Direct solar is a source of glare. Possible applications in corridors and transitional areas. Might be appropriate for mountain climates.

Guideline IN1 Wall Insulation

Recommendation:
Wall type South Coast North Coast Central Valley Desert Mountain

Wood frame

2x4 with R-13 or 2x6 with R-19 2x4 with R-13 or 2x6 with R-19 Provide wall shading

2x6 with R-19

Steel frame

Foam board sheathing + cavity insulation Interior or exterior insulation

Mass

Good Envelope Design

21

Vol. II - page 268

Good Envelope Design

22

Fenestration Performance Characteristics
Visible light transmittance (VLT). Solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).
– Used to be shading coefficient.

Transmission of Common Glazing Materials

U-factor. Diffusion and Transparency.
– a key issue for skylights.

Durability.
– breakage, scratch resistance, UV resistance, first cost v. replacement cost.

23

24

Window Construction
Choose high performance windows.
– VLT > 0.65 – SHGC < 0.40

Guideline IN2 Roof Insulation

Recommendation:
Roof type South Coast North Coast Central Valley Desert Mountain

Higher SHGC ok for completely shaded windows. Single pane glazing may be ok in warm coastal areas. See also Guideline DL1: View Windows for VLT recommendations.

Insulation above deck Wood-framed, attic and other
http://www.denison.edu/enviro/ barney/envtech.html

R-7 foam board R-30 blown in attic R-30 batt in framed

R-14 foam board R-38 blown in attic R-38 batt in framed

Good Envelope Design

25

Vol. II - page 271

Good Envelope Design

26

Guideline IN3 Cool Roofs
Recommendation: Typically white color. Single ply:
– – – – EPDM. CPE. CPSE. TPO.

Guideline IN4 Radiant Barriers
Recommendation: Reflective foil sheet. Cuts radiant heat transfer. Reduces cooling energy. Especially beneficial if ducts are in attic space

Liquid applied:
– Elastomeric. – Acrylic. – Polyurethane.

White coated metal.

Vol. II - page 273

Good Envelope Design

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Vol. II - page 277

Good Envelope Design

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Georgina Blach Middle School, Los Altos, CA

GelfandRNP Architects
29

Photo: Andrew Davis, AIA

Gym, view from north east

Photo: Andrew Davis, AIA

Photo: Ken Rackow

View from southwest

Cesar Chavez Elementary School, Oakland

Photo: Andrew Davis, AIA

VPN Architects
34

What is Ventilation?

HVAC and Building Envelope

“The process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space. Such air may or may not be conditioned.” (ASHRAE Standard 62-1999)

Ventilation: Natural and Mechanical
Ventilation
36

Why Ventilate?
Comfort Health dilute odors dilute carbon dioxide and other pollutants

How?
Naturally Mechanically Mixed mode (i.e. both)

Title 24 says we must It’s a CHPS prerequisite (P1.1 & P1.2)

Ventilation

37

Ventilation

38

Natural Ventilation
Energy efficient ventilation potential. Traditional in California. Still appropriate strategy in much of state. Design for security.

When is Natural Ventilation Feasible?
Appropriate climate Acceptable outdoor noise level Acceptable outdoor air quality (e.g. dust, odors) Design meets Title 24 ventilation requirements

Ventilation

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Ventilation

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Title 24 and Natural Ventilation
Title 24 Compliance using natural ventilation permitted if:
– All spaces within 20 ft of operable opening. – Total opening area > 5% of floor area.

Natural Ventilation Potential, South Coast
(Long Beach)

For a typical 960 ft² (30 ft x 32 ft) classroom,
– At least 48 ft² opening area. – Openings on two sides of the room.

Ventilation

41

Ventilation

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Natural Ventilation Potential, North Coast
(San Francisco)

Natural Ventilation Potential, Central Valley
(Sacramento)

Ventilation

43

Ventilation

44

Natural Ventilation Potential, Desert
(Daggett)

Guidelines Related to Natural Ventilation
TC1: Cross ventilation TC2: Stack ventilation TC3: Ceiling fans

Ventilation

45

Vol. II - page 301

Ventilation

46

Title 24 and Mechanical Ventilation
Two options for calculating minimum ventilation rate
Actual number of occupants:
– E.g. 30 people per classroom

Mixed Mode Ventilation
Often a good choice in California Opportunities
– Avoid air conditioning in spring and fall – Save fan energy – Potential psychological benefits

Default occupant density
– Look up in Title 24 – Divide by two

OR

For 960 ft² classroom:
– 20 ft²/person for classroom – 960/20 = 48 people. – 48/2 = 24 people.

Challenges
– Avoid increase in heating or cooling loads – Providing ventilation whenever occupants are present

15 cfm per person minimum for classroom
15 cfm/person X 30 people = 450 cfm 15 cfm/person X 24 people = 360 cfm

Ventilation

47

Ventilation

48

Energy Credit 2: Natural Ventilation (1 to 4 points)
1 point

Natural Ventilation Examples
No air conditioning
– Cesar Chavez Elementary, Oakland – Ross School, Ross, Marin County

2.1. Install HVAC interlocks to turn off HVAC systems if operable windows or doors are opened.

3 points 2.2. Design 90% of permanent classrooms without air conditioning.

San Diego USD Policy
– No AC unless indoor T > 78°F for >10% of school hours

Ross School

Cesar Chavez

Ventilation

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Ventilation

50

HVAC System Selection Decision Tree
Can natural ventilation meet all cooling needs?

HVAC and Building Envelope

Yes

No

Can natural ventilation meet outdoor air ventilation requirement? No Yes

Can evaporative cooling meet cooling requirements? No Yes

See Page 298 Volume II

HVAC System Selection and Design

Heating only hydronic systems Radiant floor Baseboard or Heating only air systems Gas furnace Unit ventilator

Evaporative cooling system Indirect Direct Indirect/Direct

Heating only air systems Gas furnace Unit ventilator or Heating only hydronic + separate air ventilation system Radiant floor Baseboard

Is natural ventilation accessible and beneficial for a significant portion of the school year? No Yes Mixed mode HVAC system (allow simple occupant control of HVAC and operable openings) - Packaged rooftop - Gas/electric split - Ductless split - Ceiling panel - Unit ventilator (2-pipe or 4-pipe) - Air or water cooled chiller (if appl.) Cooling and heating system (Ensure efficient duct and fan design) - VAV reheat - Packaged rooftop - Gas/electric split - Unit ventilator (2-pipe or 4-pipe) - Air or water cooled chiller (if appl.)

HEATING ONLY

HEATING AND COOLING

HVAC System Design

52

Which is Best? (Hint: it’s not always clear)
Packaged Rooftop Packaged Rooftop Packaged Split System Packaged Split System Packaged Variable Air Volume Packaged Variable Air Volume •Air-cooled •Air-cooled •Evap.-cooled •Evap.-cooled 2-pipe fan coils 2-pipe fan coils 4-pipe fan coils 4-pipe fan coils Variable Air Volume Variable Air Volume •Single duct •Single duct •Dual duct •Dual duct Central plant options
53

Which is Best? (continued)
Packaged Rooftop Packaged Rooftop Packaged Split System Packaged Split System Packaged Variable Air Volume Packaged Variable Air Volume •Air-cooled •Air-cooled •Evap.-cooled •Evap.-cooled
Can run individual systems for afterhour activities

Water-Source Heat Pumps Water-Source Heat Pumps •Cooling tower •Cooling tower •Ground loop •Ground loop

54

Which is Best? (continued)
Packaged Rooftop Packaged Rooftop Packaged Split System Packaged Split System
Compressor failure affects only a single classroom

Which is Best? (continued)
Greater comfort potential due to more steady temperature control

Packaged Variable Air Volume Packaged Variable Air Volume •Air-cooled •Air-cooled •Evap.-cooled •Evap.-cooled

4-pipe fan coils 4-pipe fan coils Variable Air Volume Variable Air Volume •Single duct •Single duct •Dual duct •Dual duct

Water-Source Heat Pumps Water-Source Heat Pumps •Cooling tower •Cooling tower •Ground loop •Ground loop
55

56

Which is Best? (continued)

Which is Best? (continued)

Fewer compressors to maintain Potential for lower maintenance cost

2-pipe fan coils 2-pipe fan coils 4-pipe fan coils 4-pipe fan coils Variable Air Volume Variable Air Volume •Single duct •Single duct •Dual duct •Dual duct Central plant options…
57

2-pipe fan coils 2-pipe fan coils
Potential for lower operating cost

4-pipe fan coils 4-pipe fan coils Variable Air Volume Variable Air Volume •Single duct •Single duct •Dual duct •Dual duct Central plant options…
58

Water-Source Heat Pumps Water-Source Heat Pumps •Cooling tower •Cooling tower •Ground loop •Ground loop

System Selection Considerations
Initial cost Noise and vibration Thermal comfort performance Operating costs and energy efficiency Maintenance costs and needs

The Good News…
Any of these system types can be designed to be relatively efficient given careful attention to specifications and design details (and usually with a little extra up front investment)

Set up aascoring matrix Set up scoring matrix to compare system to compare system alternatives alternatives (It’s worth spending aafew (It’s worth spending few hours early in the design hours early in the design process) process)

Space requirements (in the classroom, on the roof or in mechanical rooms) Electrical service requirements Gas service requirements Durability and longevity Indoor air quality ventilation performance The ability to provide individual control for classrooms and other spaces The type of refrigerant used and its ozone-depleting potential

HVAC System Design

59

HVAC System Design

60

HVAC Guidelines
TC1: Cross Ventilation TC2: Stack Ventilation TC3: Ceiling Fans TC4: Gas/Electric Split System TC5: Packaged Rooftop System TC6: Displacement Ventilation System TC7: Hydronic Ceiling Panel System TC8: Unit Ventilator System TC9: Ductless Split System TC10: Evaporative Cooling System TC11: VAV Reheat System TC12: Radiant Slab System TC13: Baseboard Heating System TC14: Gas-Fired Radiant Heating System TC15: Ground Source Heat Pump System TC16: Evaporatively Precooled Condenser

HVAC Guidelines (cont’d)
TC17: Dedicated Outside Air Systems TC18: Economizers TC19: Air Distribution Design Guidelines TC20: Duct Sealing and Insulation TC21: Hydronic Distribution TC21: Chilled Water Plants TC23: Hot Water Supply TC24: Adjustable Thermostats TC25: EMS/DDC TC26: Demand Controlled Ventilation TC27: CO Sensors for Garage Exhaust Fans

HVAC System Design

61

HVAC System Design

62

Design Case: Packaged Rooftop System
Minimize cooling loads (envelope and lighting) Avoid conservative load calculations (and don’t rely on rules-of-thumb) Avoid over sizing (design conditions occur relatively few hours per year) Economizer – factory installed and run tested, direct drive preferred Thermostatic expansion valve High efficiency, SEER 12 or better Design ducts for low air velocity

Impact of Cooling Compressor Cycling

Standard Efficiency

High Efficiency

Image Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003

HVAC System Design

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003 63

HVAC System Design

64

Impact of Cycling on Efficiency

Equipment Sizing
Bigger is not always better! Avoid oversizing for:
– – – – AC/heat pump compressors. Furnaces. Boilers. Chillers.

Sometimes bigger is better!
– – – – Ducts. Fans (if they have speed control). Cooling towers. Pipes.

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003

HVAC System Design

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HVAC System Design

66

Economizer Energy Savings
100.0%

Packaged System Problems
Economizers

90.0%

Refrigerant charge

80.0%

70.0% Annual Energy Savings

Low airflow Cycling fans during occupied period Fans run during unoccupied period Simultaneous heating and cooling No outside air intake at unit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Climate Zone Non-integrated Economizer Integrated Economizer

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

0.0%

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

Problem Frequency

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003

HVAC System Design

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003 67

HVAC System Design

68

Economizer Actuator Types

Economizer Specifications
Factory-installed and run-tested economizers Direct-drive actuators Differential (dual) changeover logic Low leakage dampers

Linkage Driven

Drive Drive HVAC System Design
Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003 69

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003

HVAC System Design

70

Thermostatic Expansion Valve Impact
1.2

Design Case: Packaged Rooftop System Costs
1000 ft2 classroom, 4 ton AC, SEER 10
100%

TXV
1

Increase SEER 10 to 12 ($100 per ton) Economizer Thermostatic expansion valve

$400 $300 $75 $775 ($0.78 per ft2) - $500 $275 ($0.28 per ft2) $190 per year 1.4 years 4.1 years

Normalized Efficiency Normalized Efficiency

0.8

Fixed Expansion Device
0.6 TXV Short orifice

Total Reduce from 4 tons to 3 tons ($500 per ton) Net Cost Savings (~1,600 kWh/yr, @ $0.12/kWh)

0.4

0.2

Simple payback period
60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 110% 120% 130% 140%

0 50%

With downsizing credit Without downsizing credit

% Factory Charge
Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003

% Factory Charge

HVAC System Design

71

72

Additional Packaged Rooftop Measures
Higher efficiency, SEER >12 (add $350 per ton for SEER 16) Multiple compressors or variable speed compressor Variable speed or multiple speed fan CO2 ventilation control Specify commissioning Integration with lighting motion sensor control Interlocks on windows and doors Increase the air flow to extract extra sensible cooling capacity out of the unit, allowing the selection of a smaller “nominal” unit.

HVAC and Building Envelope

Special HVAC Systems: Displacement Ventilation
73

HVAC System Design

Displacement Ventilation
Fresh cool air is slowly supplied near the floor. Air rises as it warms. Air is exhausted near the ceiling.

Benefits of Displacement Ventilation
Healthier environment; germs are not spread as easily. 100% fresh air vs. recirculation of return air. Improved acoustics. Energy efficient system. Compatible with operable windows and natural ventilation.

Courtesy H. L. Turner Group

Displacement Ventilation

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Displacement Ventilation

76

Displacement Ventilation Details
Conventional System Displacement System

Displacement Ventilation Details (cont’d)
Conventional System Displacement System

Ceiling Height Supply air flow Diffuser air velocity Cooling supply air temperature Outside air flow

8’+ 1,000 – 1,500 cfm 600 – 800 fpm 52° - 55° 400 – 500 cfm (~30%)

10’+ 400 - 600 cfm <100 fpm 63° – 68° 400 – 600 cfm (100%)

Cooling load (lights) Cooling load (people) Cooling load (equip) Cooling load (shell) Total space cooling load Ventilation air load (varies by climate) Total cooling load

3,300 Btu/h 5,000 Btu/h 1,500 Btu/h 0 – 3,000 Btu/h
9,800 – 12,800 Btu/h

x 0.13 = 430 Btu/h x 0.30 = 1,500 Btu/h x 0.30 = 450 Btu/h x 0.19 = 0 – 570 Btu/h
2,380 – 2,960 Btu/h

14,000 Btu/h
23,800 – 26,800 Btu/h (2.0 – 2.2 tons)

14,000 Btu/h
16,380 – 16,960 Btu/h (1.4 tons)

Displacement Ventilation

77

Displacement Ventilation

78

Displacement Ventilation Details (cont’d)
Conventional System Displacement System

Providing the Neutral Air

AC size Cooling demand Fan demand Total demand

3 tons 3.3 kW 0.3 kW 3.6 kW

2 tons 2.2 kW 0.2 kW 2.4 kW

Displacement Ventilation

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Displacement Ventilation

80

Providing the Neutral Air (cont’d)

Providing the Neutral Air (cont’d)

Displacement Ventilation

81

Displacement Ventilation

82

Providing the Neutral Air (cont’d)

Integrated Thermal Energy Storage

Displacement Ventilation

83

Displacement Ventilation

84

More Information on Displacement Ventilation
Guideline TC6: Displacement Ventilation Systems. Yuan, Xiaoxiong. Performance Evaluation and Design Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation. ASHRAE Transactions. 1999. V. 105. Pt. 1. www.ashrae.org. Current research project:
– CEC PIER Indoor Environmental Quality Study, Thermal Displacement Ventilation in Classrooms. – Demonstration classrooms to be installed summer 2004

What You Should Remember
Minimize cooling loads through orientation and shading design. Take advantage of natural ventilation where it’s feasible to expand comfort range and save energy. Perform load calculations and avoid over sizing AC equipment Consider displacement ventilation for better air quality and energy efficiency.

Displacement Ventilation

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