SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004

Social Security Administration Office of Policy Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics 500 E Street, SW, 8th Floor Washington, DC 20254 SSA Publication No. 13-11829 Released: July 2005

Preface
Since its implementation in 1974, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has included certain provisions to encourage blind and disabled recipients to work while allowing them to retain their eligibility and exclude a portion of their income from counting against their SSI payment. This report provides data on all SSI blind and disabled recipients who work; those who retain eligibility for special cash benefits when their earnings exceed the substantial gainful activity level; those who retain Medicaid eligibility when their earnings make them ineligible for any cash payments; and those who participate under work incentive provisions. Effective with this edition, the report is an annual publication. Previous editions of the report were issued quarterly. Clark D. Pickett of the Division of SSI Statistics and Analysis programmed and compiled the data. Staff of the Division of Information Resources edited the report and prepared the print and electronic versions for publication. This and other reports on the SSI program are available on the Web at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy. For questions pertaining to the data, please call Clark Pickett at 410-965-9016 or e-mail ssi.workers@ssa.gov. For additional copies, please e-mail op.publications@ssa.gov or call 202-358-6274.

Susan Grad Acting Associate Commissioner for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics July 2005

Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Highlights, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Blind and Disabled Recipients
Charts 1. 2. Tables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Percentage distribution of recipients and those who work aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Number and percentage of recipients, those who work, and section 1619(b) participants aged 18–64, by age, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . 12 Number in December 2003, by program status and earnings in December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Number who work, December 1987–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Percentage who work, by state, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work
Charts 3. 4. 5. Tables 6. 7. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Percentage distribution, by age, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Percentage distribution, by monthly earnings, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Section 1619 Participants
Charts 6. 7. 8. Percentage distribution, by state, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Percentage distribution, by age, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Tables 8. 9. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months, 1982–2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2003–2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Number and average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Percentage distribution of participants aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

10. 11. 12. 13.

Other Work Incentive Participants
Charts 9. 10. Percentage distribution, by age and provision, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Tables 14. 15. 16. 17. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Number, by selected characteristics and provision, December 2004 . . . . . . . . .39 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Percentage distribution of persons with income excluded, by amount excluded and provision, December 2004. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ iv

Introduction
This report provides information about Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disabled and blind recipients who work and receive earnings. The report presents data on all SSI disabled recipients who work, section 1619 participants, and recipients who benefit from other work incentive provisions. Unless specifically excluded or listed separately, all references to SSI disabled recipients and workers include persons whose eligibility is based on blindness. Since the beginning of the SSI program, a number of SSI disabled recipients have worked and received SSI payments. Initially, the program contained basic general and earned income exclusions that recognized the additional costs associated with employment. In computing the SSI payment, the first $20 of income is not counted. In addition, the first $65 of monthly earnings and one-half of the earnings in excess of $65 are also excluded. The law also contained a number of special income exclusions that were intended as work incentives: • Blind work expenses (BWE) permit the exclusion of any earned income of a blind person that is used to meet any expenses reasonably attributable to earning the income. Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) permit a recipient with an approved PASS to set aside earned or unearned income and resources for a work goal. The income or resources set aside are used to pay for goods or services needed to reach the goal, such as education, vocational training, starting a business, or purchasing work-related equipment. The income and resources that are set aside under a PASS are excluded from SSI income and resource tests, but they do not influence the determination of ability to engage in substantial gainful activity (SGA). Student child earned income exclusions allow for the exclusion of certain earnings of child recipients under age 22 who are students regularly attending school. The 1980 amendments to the Social Security Act established section 1619 and provided additional work incentive provisions to assist SSI recipients in entering the workforce. These provisions included income exclusions for impairment-related work expenses, a change in the treatment of sheltered workshop earnings, and the continuation of SSI payments for some individuals whose disability ceased because of a medical recovery. • Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) exclude from earnings the costs of items and services needed to work because of the person’s disability and are paid for by the individual. These expenses are excluded from earned income used to compute ongoing SSI monthly payments. Beginning December 1990, the IRWE exclusions are also applied in the determination of income for purposes of initial SSI eligibility. IRWE may also be deducted from earned income when determining SGA. A change in the treatment of sheltered workshop earnings provides that remuneration for services performed in sheltered workshops or activity centers is treated as earned income. This change makes it possible to apply the earned income exclusion to earnings that previously were subject to the general income exclusion; that is, the first $20 and a dollar-for-dollar offset thereafter. The provision for continuation of payments allows for SSI (and also Social Security Disability Insurance) payments to disabled individuals to continue after the disability ceases because of a medical recovery, if they are participating in approved vocational rehabilitation plans and the Social Security Administration (SSA) determines that completion of the program will increase the chances of permanent removal from the disability rolls. The provision assists individuals whose medical improvement occurs before completion of vocational training. This provision was extended to SSI recipients whose eligibility is based on blindness effective April 1988.

Congress enacted these provisions because it concluded that additional incentives were required to help SSI disabled recipients to become self-supporting. They believed that individuals who could work outside of sheltered workshops might have been discouraged from doing so by the fear of losing their benefits before they had established for themselves the capability for continued self-support. Section 1619(a) provides special SSI cash benefits to disabled individuals who lose eligibility for SSI payments because they have earnings at the level that is ordinarily considered to represent SGA. Section 1619(b) provides special SSI recipient status for Medicaid purposes to working disabled or blind individuals when their earnings make them ineligible for cash payments. Under P.L. 99–643, which made section 1619 permanent, disabled individuals on the SSI rolls retain disability status until their medical condition improves. The distinction between a disabled person eligible for regular SSI benefits and a disabled person eligible for 1619(a) benefits is that the latter has several months with gross earnings above the SGA level. Under previous law, 1619(a) status did not begin until a trial work period had been completed and a determination had been made that subsequent work was SGA. A number of cases were defined as 1619(a)

after June 1987 as a result of this change in the definition, rather than from any change in their work activity. SSA regulations set the amount of earnings used to determine SGA. This amount is periodically adjusted to reflect increases in the national average wage index. Effective with 2001, the amount is adjusted annually. When these increases occur, the status of a number of recipients changes from 1619(a) to regular eligibility status. The SGA level was increased from $300 to $500 in 1990. It was further increased to $700 in 1999, $740 in 2001, $780 in 2002, $800 in 2003, $810 in 2004, and $830 in 2005. Under section 1619(b), cash payments are not made. However, recipient status for Medicaid purposes continues until earnings reach a plateau that takes into account the person's ability to afford medical care as well as his or her normal living expenses. An individual may benefit from more than one of the work incentive provisions. For example, he or she may receive special cash payments under section 1619 and have income excluded under a PASS. Other combinations are also possible, but it is not possible to have both IRWE and BWE. The data in this report are based on the SSI caseload at the end of December 2004.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 2

Highlights, December 2004
In December 2004, there were 328,204 SSI disabled beneficiaries who were working—5.6 percent of the total SSI disabled caseload. Included in this count were 73,681 section 1619(b) participants who do not receive an SSI payment but have special SSI recipient status for Medicaid purposes. Over four-fifths (82.5 percent) of the workers had amounts of earned income below the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level of $830 per month; 23.8 percent earned $65 or less.

Section 1619
The greatest use of work incentive provisions was by participants under section 1619—27.7 percent of disabled workers. This included 5.2 percent under section 1619(a) and 22.4 percent under section 1619(b).

Other Work Incentives
Use of other work incentive provisions continued to have a smaller, but measurable, impact. In December 2004, 3.4 percent of the SSI disabled workers had some of their income excluded under one of these provisions—plans for achieving self-support (PASS), 0.5 percent; impairment-related work expenses, 2.1 percent; or blind work expenses, 0.9 percent. Plans for achieving self-support permit an SSI recipient to set aside income and resources to help obtain the training or education necessary for certain specified occupational goals. In December 2004, 418 PASS participants had earnings, which averaged $755 per month. However, exclusions under a PASS are not limited to earnings. Of the 1,598 disabled recipients with a PASS, 69.6 percent did not have any earnings reported for December 2004. For this group, the PASS excluded unearned income such as Social Security benefits. Out of all PASS participants, 401 had a PASS that excluded only resources.

Geographic Distribution
Among the states, the percentage of disabled workers varied from a low of 2.7 percent in Alabama to a high of 18.8 percent in North Dakota. In general, the percentage of disabled workers was higher in the northern states than in the southern states.

Demographic Characteristics
The majority of these disabled workers were male (53.2 percent). Almost half (49.8 percent) had unearned income; 43.6 percent were receiving Social Security benefits. Comparable figures for all disabled recipients in December 2004 were 45.2 percent male, 37.8 percent with unearned income, and 30.3 percent receiving Social Security benefits.

Diagnosis
Disabled workers are more likely to have certain impairments than other disabled recipients. Almost two-thirds (65.5 percent) of the workers had a mental disorder, including 42.0 percent who were diagnosed with mental retardation. By comparison, 57.1 percent of all disabled recipients were diagnosed with a mental disorder, including 21.9 percent with mental retardation.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 3

Blind and Disabled Recipients

Blind and Disabled Recipients Chart 1. Number who work, December 1987–2004 The number of blind and disabled recipients who work almost doubled between 1987 and 2004, from 173,000 to 328,000. Initially, the number of participants under sections 1619(a) and 1619(b) were approximately equal. However, participation under section 1619(b) gradually increased to five times the initial total, and it now exceeds participation under section 1619(a) by more than four to one. The number of working recipients not participating under either of these provisions has increased by more than 65 percent.

Thousands 300

250 Other 200

150

100 1619(b) 50 1619(a) 0

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

SOURCE: Tables 1 and 9.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 5

Blind and Disabled Recipients Chart 2. Percentage who work, by state, December 2004 In 13 states, mostly in the South and Southeast, less than 5 percent of blind and disabled recipients were working in December 2004. The highest employment rates, 15 percent or more, were in the upper Midwest: Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota.

Under 5%

5–9.9%

10–14.9%

15% or more

SOURCE: Table 2.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 6

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 1. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2004
Recipients who work Total as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 3.4 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.8 ---5.9 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.6 5.6 6.1 6.2 6.2 6.1 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6 (Continued)

Month December 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2002 March June September December 2003 March June September December

All blind and disabled recipients a 2,088,242 2,186,771 2,249,025 2,277,859 2,334,241 2,340,785 2,314,364 2,391,262 2,499,046 2,633,552 2,795,756 2,945,244 3,046,074 3,172,270 3,386,603 3,681,050 4,126,816 4,544,777 4,870,564 5,115,014 5,252,991 5,189,724 5,293,829 5,317,861 5,395,935 5,500,481 5,618,506 5,740,683 5,850,359 5,538,532 5,573,711 5,620,838 5,618,506 5,657,353 5,705,871 5,749,384 5,740,683

Total 70,719 83,697 87,697 92,270 99,276 102,632 107,803 113,899 ---172,855 189,144 205,837 219,932 229,619 248,917 265,649 282,476 298,635 308,300 319,855 326,475 340,618 360,427 346,110 340,910 323,682 328,204 339,430 342,946 348,244 340,910 334,378 329,740 329,195 323,682

Receiving SSI b 70,719 83,697 87,697 92,270 99,276 102,632 102,288 108,734 ---157,223 173,519 187,583 196,415 202,355 217,268 230,350 241,793 251,633 256,395 262,766 266,933 271,353 276,855 269,655 258,733 252,585 254,523 266,835 265,597 265,871 258,733 259,820 257,724 255,619 252,585

Section 1619(b) participants ... ... ... ... ... ... 5,515 5,165 ---15,632 15,625 18,254 23,517 27,264 31,649 35,299 40,683 47,002 51,905 57,089 59,542 69,265 83,572 76,455 82,177 71,097 73,681 72,595 77,349 82,373 82,177 74,558 72,016 73,576 71,097

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 7

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 1. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2004—Continued
Recipients who work Total as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6

Month 2004 March June September December

All blind and disabled recipients a 5,796,837 5,834,265 5,869,004 5,850,359

Total 321,030 323,624 328,831 328,204

Receiving SSI b 251,498 250,726 253,174 254,523

Section 1619(b) participants 69,532 72,898 75,657 73,681

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTES: . . . = not applicable; -- = not available. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. b. Includes section 1619(a) participants and SSI recipients earning less than the substantial gainful activity level ($830 effective January 2005). CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 8

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 2. Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2004
Recipients who work State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah All blind and disabled recipients 5,850,359 144,687 8,789 82,175 78,316 841,885 46,569 45,825 12,405 19,047 321,530 173,247 15,944 19,740 227,977 91,519 40,343 36,013 165,707 151,409 29,714 78,638 127,912 205,330 63,030 109,624 107,842 13,768 20,589 24,362 12,465 118,456 43,619 501,231 170,726 7,237 233,052 69,345 52,222 288,759 26,055 93,201 11,200 144,217 366,570 19,970 Number 328,204 3,850 601 3,555 3,611 43,491 3,875 3,828 834 653 11,435 7,010 799 1,715 13,370 5,721 6,614 4,017 4,681 5,505 2,210 5,689 9,610 13,992 9,679 3,081 7,157 1,738 2,981 1,498 1,257 7,594 2,110 30,114 7,772 1,358 16,741 3,731 3,885 15,083 1,623 4,734 2,096 5,216 13,583 2,137 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.6 2.7 6.8 4.3 4.6 5.2 8.3 8.4 6.7 3.4 3.6 4.0 5.0 8.7 5.9 6.3 16.4 11.2 2.8 3.6 7.4 7.2 7.5 6.8 15.4 2.8 6.6 12.6 14.5 6.1 10.1 6.4 4.8 6.0 4.6 18.8 7.2 5.4 7.4 5.2 6.2 5.1 18.7 3.6 3.7 10.7 (Continued)

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 9

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 2. Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2004—Continued
Recipients who work State or area Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands All blind and disabled recipients 12,074 114,810 99,341 72,026 83,813 5,428 Number 1,183 6,451 5,721 2,069 10,167 763 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 9.8 5.6 5.8 2.9 12.1 14.1

606

16

2.6

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 10

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 3. Percentage distribution of recipients and those who work aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2004
Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs b Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown All blind and disabled recipients 4,017,108 100.0 0.6 3.7 1.7 2.6 21.9 9.9 25.3 1.1 0.4 4.5 0.9 1.0 9.9 7.8 2.1 0.2 0.2 6.2 Recipients who work
a

313,004 100.0 1.3 1.3 1.0 1.4 42.0 7.2 16.3 0.6 0.3 1.2 0.3 0.6 3.3 8.8 0.7 0.1 0.3 13.4

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Effective with the December 2002 edition, all recipients in each recipient category are included when computing percentages for each diagnostic category. Previously, only recipients with identified diagnoses were included in this computation. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. b. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 11

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 4. Number and percentage of recipients, those who work, and section 1619(b) participants aged 18–64, by age, December 2004
Recipients who work All blind and disabled recipients Age Total 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 Number 4,088,304 272,114 504,572 696,602 1,056,428 1,074,642 483,946
a

Section 1619(b) participants Percentage of all blind and Number disabled recipients 71,195 2,867 17,801 20,246 18,175 9,431 2,675 1.7 1.1 3.5 2.9 1.7 0.9 0.6

Percent 100.0 6.7 12.3 17.0 25.8 26.3 11.8

Percentage of all blind and Number disabled recipients 313,005 30,392 75,465 77,329 72,536 44,483 12,800 7.7 11.2 15.0 11.1 6.9 4.1 2.6

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 12

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 5. Number in December 2003, by program status and earnings in December 2004
Not receiving payments in December 2004 Ineligible because of earned income Reasons no longer eligible Receiving payments in December 2004 Program status in December 2003 All blind and disabled recipients Receiving payments Section 1619(a) Have earnings No earnings Not receiving payments Section 1619(b) Total Section Have 1619(a) earnings No earnings Can Does pay for not need or use equivalent Section 1619(b) Medicaid coverage Other excess income

Both

Other non-pay

5,676,848 17,643 237,204 5,350,729 71,272

16,242 6,216 2,694 5,294 2,038

223,887 4,909,518 3,017 3,842 171,618 38,214 44,669 4,856,578 4,583 10,884

69,256 2,260 7,787 17,591 41,618

683 40 74 198 371

161 10 5 32 114

340 13 25 92 210

119,846 626 6,224 107,121 5,875

336,915 1,619 10,563 319,154 5,579

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 13

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 3. Percentage distribution, by age, December 2004 One-third of the working recipients in December 2004 were under age 30, and 24 percent were aged 30–39. Only 21 percent were aged 50 or older.

50 or older 21%

Under 22 10%

22–29 23%

40–49 22%

30–39 24%
SOURCE: Table 7. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 15

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 4. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2004 A large majority of working SSI recipients aged 18–64 in December 2004 were disabled because of a mental impairment. Forty-two percent were diagnosed with mental retardation and 24 percent with other mental disorders. Eight percent had diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, mostly blindness.

Unknown 13% Other physical disorders 8% Mental retardation 42%

Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases 1%

Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 3% Nervous system and sense organs 9%

Other mental disorders 24%
SOURCE: Table 3. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 16

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 5. Percentage distribution, by monthly earnings, December 2004 Two out of three working recipients earned less than $500 in December 2004. This amount would not affect their status as disabled, since it is less than the substantial gainful activity level of $810 for 2004. One out of seven earned $1,000 or more. This proportion includes those receiving special cash benefits, or special Medicaid status, under section 1619.

$1,000 or more 14% $65 or less 24%

$500–999 20%

$66–199 18%

$200–499 24%
SOURCE: Table 7. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 17

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 6. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2004
Section 1619(a) participants 17,115 250 32 206 152 3,788 163 144 42 60 697 338 62 91 701 253 185 152 238 335 96 310 582 606 262 194 257 49 79 78 63 321 100 1,617 292 37 677 143 125 775 85 136 60 256 643 79 Section 1619(b) participants 73,681 903 178 944 778 7,216 809 1,056 246 239 3,248 1,558 203 470 2,875 1,434 1,419 930 1,141 1,464 662 1,241 2,979 3,124 2,150 785 1,717 383 579 392 339 1,752 568 6,242 1,629 319 3,072 676 945 3,587 367 858 458 1,178 3,342 471 Other recipients who work 237,408 2,697 391 2,405 2,681 32,487 2,903 2,628 546 354 7,490 5,114 534 1,154 9,794 4,034 5,010 2,935 3,302 3,706 1,452 4,138 6,049 10,262 7,267 2,102 5,183 1,306 2,323 1,028 855 5,521 1,442 22,255 5,851 1,002 12,992 2,912 2,815 10,721 1,171 3,740 1,578 3,782 9,598 1,587 (Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah

Total 328,204 3,850 601 3,555 3,611 43,491 3,875 3,828 834 653 11,435 7,010 799 1,715 13,370 5,721 6,614 4,017 4,681 5,505 2,210 5,689 9,610 13,992 9,679 3,081 7,157 1,738 2,981 1,498 1,257 7,594 2,110 30,114 7,772 1,358 16,741 3,731 3,885 15,083 1,623 4,734 2,096 5,216 13,583 2,137

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 18

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 6. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2004—Continued
Section 1619(a) participants 62 321 421 127 341 29 Section 1619(b) participants 378 1,554 1,721 525 2,351 222 Other recipients who work 743 4,576 3,579 1,417 7,475 512

State or area Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Total 1,183 6,451 5,721 2,069 10,167 763

16

3

4

9

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 19

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 7. Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2004
Average earnings (dollars) 474 375 439 523 504 484 431 380 293 475 473 487 306 51 82 137 234 333 432 528 630 732 828 932 1,607 553 372 309 716 428 578 1,076 1,070 755 512 919

Characteristic Total Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income a Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) 65 or less 66–99 100–199 200–299 300–399 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–799 800–899 900–999 1,000 or more Unearned income a None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other Work incentives a Section 1619(a) Section 1619(b) Plans for achieving self-support b Impairment-related work expenses Blind work expenses

Number 328,204 3,176 30,392 75,465 77,329 72,536 44,483 12,800 12,023 174,596 153,608 309,175 20,376 78,193 15,741 42,201 32,417 25,667 22,149 20,372 16,363 11,585 10,367 6,815 46,334 164,765 143,214 2,554 100 20,495 12,904 17,115 73,681 418 6,874 2,827

Percent 100.0 1.0 9.3 23.0 23.6 22.1 13.6 3.9 3.7 53.2 46.8 94.2 6.2 23.8 4.8 12.9 9.9 7.8 6.7 6.2 5.0 3.5 3.2 2.1 14.1 50.2 43.6 0.8 0 6.2 3.9 5.2 22.4 0.1 2.1 0.9

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Includes section 1619(b) participants. a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income, or both earned and unearned income, or benefit from more than one work incentive provision. b. Number of working recipients with a plan for achieving self-support (PASS). See Tables 14–17 for data on all recipients with a PASS. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 20

Section 1619 Participants

Section 1619 Participants Chart 6. Percentage distribution, by state, December 2004 The state distribution of section 1619 cases mirrors that for all working recipients in Chart 2. Proportions of section 1619 cases were higher in the Midwest and lower in the South.

Under 2%

2–2.9%

3–3.9%

4% or more

SOURCE: Table 9.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 22

Section 1619 Participants Chart 7. Percentage distribution, by age, December 2004 Recipients who benefit from section 1619(a) are younger than those who benefit from 1619(b).

Percent 30 1619(a) 25 1619(b)

20

15

10

5

0 Under 22 22–29 30–39 Age
SOURCE: Table 12.

40–49

50 or older

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 23

Section 1619 Participants Chart 8. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2004 As with all working recipients, the majority of the section 1619 participants were diagnosed with a mental disorder. Two-thirds of participants under section 1619(a) and three-fifths of participants under section 1619(b) had either mental retardation or other mental disorders.

Percent 35 1619(a) 30 1619(b)

25

20

15

10

5

0 Mental retardation Other mental disorders Nervous system and sense organs Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Other physical disorders Unknown

SOURCE: Table 13.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 24

Section 1619 Participants Table 8. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months 1982–2004
Section 1619(a) participants Month December 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2002 March June September December 2003 March June September December 2004 March June September December Number 287 392 ---14,559 19,920 25,655 13,994 15,531 17,603 20,028 24,315 28,060 31,085 34,673 37,271 25,528 27,542 22,100 17,271 17,130 17,115 21,417 20,922 20,275 17,271 16,771 16,539 16,562 17,130 16,879 16,587 16,891 17,115 Percentage change from prior period ... 36.6 ---... 36.8 28.8 -45.5 11.0 13.3 13.8 21.4 15.4 10.8 11.5 7.5 -31.5 7.9 -19.8 -21.9 -0.8 -0.1 -3.1 -2.3 -3.1 -14.8 -2.9 -1.4 0.1 3.4 -1.5 -1.7 1.8 1.3 Section 1619(b) participants Number 5,515 5,165 ---15,632 15,625 18,254 23,517 27,264 31,649 35,299 40,683 47,002 51,905 57,089 59,542 69,265 83,572 76,455 82,177 71,097 73,681 72,595 77,349 82,373 82,177 74,558 72,016 73,576 71,097 69,532 72,898 75,657 73,681
a

Percentage change from prior period ... -6.3 ---... 0 16.8 28.8 15.9 16.1 11.5 15.3 15.5 10.4 10.0 4.3 16.3 20.7 -8.5 7.5 -13.5 3.6 -5.0 6.5 6.5 -0.2 -9.3 -3.4 2.2 -3.4 -2.2 4.8 3.8 -2.6

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTES: When the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level is periodically raised, SSI recipients with earnings below the increased SGA level become eligible for regular SSI benefits rather than the special cash payments under section 1619(a). This can lead to decreases in the number of 1619(a) participants. . . . = not applicable; -- = not available. a. Includes blind participants. Of the 73,681 participants in December 2004, 1,178 were blind. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 25

Section 1619 Participants Table 9. Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2004
All blind and disabled recipients a 4,088,303 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 5,450 7,938 4,158 30,377 46,892 9,196 60,431 15,433 26,024 9,833 10,595 14,653 14,456 33,782 8,189 107,148 23,537 6,860 74,331 54,993 34,773 39,370 65,266 80,358 18,289 78,643 149,621 18,906 79,226 340,928 12,523 157,798 170,915 30,000 203,092 12,487 56,199 200,953 385 585,721 101,941 52,408 112,521 49,330 241,756 Section 1619 participants Number 88,077 352 503 241 1,582 2,358 426 2,639 648 1,043 393 420 552 536 1,177 284 3,424 748 209 2,084 1,517 953 1,048 1,655 2,010 455 1,925 3,619 440 1,832 7,655 277 3,466 3,650 638 4,258 254 1,107 3,826 7 10,495 1,752 883 1,872 797 3,849 Percent 2.15 6.46 6.34 5.80 5.21 5.03 4.63 4.37 4.20 4.01 4.00 3.96 3.77 3.71 3.48 3.47 3.20 3.18 3.05 2.80 2.76 2.74 2.66 2.54 2.50 2.49 2.45 2.42 2.33 2.31 2.25 2.21 2.20 2.14 2.13 2.10 2.03 1.97 1.90 1.82 1.79 1.72 1.68 1.66 1.62 1.59 (Continued)

State or area All areas North Dakota South Dakota Wyoming Iowa Minnesota Vermont Wisconsin Nebraska Kansas New Hampshire Montana Idaho Utah Connecticut Delaware Massachusetts Maine Alaska Washington Maryland Colorado Oregon Indiana New Jersey Nevada Missouri Michigan Rhode Island Virginia New York District of Columbia Illinois Ohio New Mexico Pennsylvania Hawaii Arizona Florida Northern Mariana Islands California Louisiana Arkansas North Carolina Oklahoma Texas

Ranking

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 26

Section 1619 Participants Table 9. Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2004—Continued
All blind and disabled recipients a 117,699 62,345 102,986 72,009 55,821 99,709 120,049 Section 1619 participants Number 1,831 960 1,374 949 644 1,120 1,340 Percent 1.56 1.54 1.33 1.32 1.15 1.12 1.12

State or area Georgia South Carolina Tennessee Mississippi West Virginia Alabama Kentucky

Ranking 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 27

Section 1619 Participants Table 10. Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2003–2004
December 2003 Average earnings (dollars) 1,059 1,000 1,076 1,018 1,008 1,169 1,000 1,001 991 1,053 1,024 1,005 1,017 1,024 1,017 1,006 1,027 1,046 1,018 1,008 1,060 1,018 1,054 1,024 1,042 1,017 1,005 986 1,027 1,029 1,016 1,035 1,004 1,070 1,024 1,014 1,028 1,025 1,040 1,033 1,064 1,016 1,052 1,024 1,023 1,023 September 2004 Average earnings Number (dollars) 16,891 248 29 205 133 3,686 161 159 39 56 720 314 54 89 657 212 183 135 249 323 99 279 569 600 236 197 263 49 71 66 51 332 105 1,536 337 35 676 121 144 852 72 148 55 247 740 83 1,060 1,018 1,013 1,028 1,008 1,166 1,015 1,041 1,013 1,014 1,016 1,005 1,012 1,052 1,020 1,031 1,024 1,043 1,023 1,014 1,078 1,028 1,055 1,032 1,027 1,020 1,029 1,013 1,055 1,028 1,036 1,026 1,021 1,065 1,009 1,018 1,018 1,009 1,028 1,040 1,052 1,026 1,012 1,025 1,008 1,004 December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 1,076 1,037 1,133 1,044 1,013 1,181 1,044 1,042 1,032 1,040 1,030 1,014 1,033 1,062 1,024 1,040 1,051 1,068 1,031 1,032 1,080 1,041 1,082 1,033 1,059 1,017 1,043 1,034 1,045 1,065 1,057 1,037 1,024 1,086 1,019 1,032 1,041 1,022 1,038 1,041 1,099 1,030 1,063 1,047 1,024 1,023 (Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah

Number 17,130 219 29 209 149 3,568 143 166 36 57 690 319 41 69 738 244 197 142 210 375 100 274 618 598 278 203 263 50 98 66 50 327 105 1,665 284 26 722 139 123 914 85 162 54 255 713 81

Number 17,115 250 32 206 152 3,788 163 144 42 60 697 338 62 91 701 253 185 152 238 335 96 310 582 606 262 194 257 49 79 78 63 321 100 1,617 292 37 677 143 125 775 85 136 60 256 643 79

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 28

Section 1619 Participants Table 10. Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2003–2004—Continued
December 2003 Average earnings (dollars) 1,062 1,029 1,039 1,033 1,026 1,021 September 2004 Average earnings Number (dollars) 58 307 425 134 327 25 1,064 1,013 1,035 1,034 1,035 997 December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 1,097 1,043 1,056 1,039 1,050 1,034

State or area Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Number 52 315 407 124 349 29

Number 62 321 421 127 341 29

a

a

a

a

3

945

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 29

Section 1619 Participants Table 11. Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2003–2004
December 2003 Average earnings (dollars) 1,081 1,204 1,175 1,165 1,027 1,390 1,074 954 1,159 1,432 1,099 1,070 1,065 987 1,051 957 794 927 1,106 1,040 988 1,164 1,171 1,028 914 1,138 914 846 885 1,172 911 1,230 1,084 1,270 1,010 797 960 853 855 1,044 1,064 994 827 1,108 1,024 946 September 2004 Average earnings Number (dollars) 75,657 956 193 960 764 7,225 857 1,057 266 241 3,403 1,629 190 480 2,852 1,495 1,541 940 1,128 1,512 677 1,318 3,026 3,233 2,203 838 1,754 406 595 398 352 1,795 578 6,336 1,677 322 3,217 687 971 3,940 388 877 466 1,217 3,354 489 1,097 1,180 1,163 1,165 1,058 1,420 1,080 992 1,189 1,444 1,134 1,089 1,134 951 1,075 985 834 928 1,104 1,031 990 1,176 1,206 1,027 885 1,184 902 865 942 1,212 967 1,189 1,080 1,250 1,021 805 970 855 909 1,071 1,127 991 839 1,143 1,036 1,019 December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 1,070 1,110 1,183 1,104 1,004 1,399 1,021 979 1,123 1,441 1,094 1,055 1,148 957 1,078 944 819 867 1,069 1,001 988 1,131 1,200 989 863 1,123 879 876 933 1,211 985 1,166 1,080 1,221 1,009 815 950 840 900 1,025 1,105 945 776 1,085 1,008 889 (Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska a Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut a Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii a Idaho a Illinois a Indiana a Iowa Kansas a Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota a Mississippi Missouri a Montana Nebraska a Nevada a New Hampshire a New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota a Ohio a Oklahoma a Oregon a Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah a

Number 71,097 902 154 879 739 6,497 807 1,058 242 219 3,174 1,454 150 423 2,711 1,427 1,487 935 1,125 1,424 643 1,219 2,876 3,143 2,044 783 1,709 373 587 302 330 1,694 586 5,979 1,576 286 3,058 566 919 3,623 368 831 472 1,177 3,302 422

Number 73,681 903 178 944 778 7,216 809 1,056 246 239 3,248 1,558 203 470 2,875 1,434 1,419 930 1,141 1,464 662 1,241 2,979 3,124 2,150 785 1,717 383 579 392 339 1,752 568 6,242 1,629 319 3,072 676 945 3,587 367 858 458 1,178 3,342 471

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 30

Section 1619 Participants Table 11. Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2003–2004—Continued
December 2003 Average earnings (dollars) 919 1,021 1,117 1,112 899 812 September 2004 Average earnings Number (dollars) 380 1,560 1,785 509 2,393 220 973 1,066 1,119 1,156 916 900 December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 946 1,043 1,116 1,140 884 827

State or area Vermont Virginia a Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Number 351 1,441 1,627 454 2,360 181

Number 378 1,554 1,721 525 2,351 222

8

1,220

7

1,194

4

1,080

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. The Social Security Administration identifies persons as potential participants; final Medicaid determinations are made by the state. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 31

Section 1619 Participants Table 12. Number and average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2004
Section 1619(a) participants Average earnings (dollars) 1,076 1,008 1,048 1,067 1,081 1,089 1,085 1,102 1,062 1,088 1,061 1,078 1,017 ... ... ... ... 860 1,017 1,328 1,077 1,031 1,077 1,124 1,101 1,045 1,339 1,126 1,752 Section 1619(b) participants Average earnings (dollars) 1,070 -1,193 1,120 1,058 1,050 1,062 972 905 1,089 1,050 1,077 953 268 435 529 630 775 1,012 1,862 1,709 728 940 1,712 989 1,230 0 969 1,409

Characteristic All participants Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income a Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) Less than 400 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–899 900–1,199 1,200 or more Unearned income a None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other Work incentives a Plans for achieving self-support b Impairment-related work expenses Blind work expenses

Number 17,115 112 1,875 4,537 4,516 3,760 1,832 362 121 9,374 7,741 16,589 629 ... ... ... ... 2,391 10,290 4,434 15,196 573 33 2 893 507 163 511 4

Number 73,681 148 2,867 17,801 20,246 18,175 9,431 2,675 2,338 38,415 35,266 71,570 2,694 10,030 6,012 7,162 6,591 9,211 7,177 27,498 22,714 47,722 470 22 4,336 3,335 0 1,583 581

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: -- = not available; . . . = not applicable. a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income, or both earned and unearned income, or benefit from more than one work incentive provision. b. Includes 16 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 32

Section 1619 Participants Table 13. Percentage distribution of participants aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2004
All blind and disabled recipients 4,017,108 100.0 0.6 3.7 1.7 2.6 21.9 9.9 25.3 1.1 0.4 4.5 0.9 1.0 9.9 7.8 2.1 0.2 0.2 6.2 Section 1619(a) participants 16,882 100.0 0.8 1.8 1.5 1.8 34.0 8.6 23.4 1.0 0.8 1.4 0.4 1.0 3.8 10.5 1.1 0.1 0.4 7.6 Section 1619(b) participants 71,195 100.0 0.8 2.0 1.8 2.2 31.4 8.8 21.5 1.1 0.6 1.7 0.6 1.2 5.2 10.1 1.0 0.1 0.2 9.8

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs a Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Effective with the December 2002 edition, all recipients in each recipient category are included when computing percentages for each diagnostic category. Previously, only recipients with identified diagnoses were included in this computation. a. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 33

Other Work Incentive Participants

Other Work Incentive Participants Chart 9. Percentage distribution, by age and provision, December 2004 Recipients with income excluded under plans for achieving self-support (PASS), impairment-related work expenses (IRWE), or blind work expenses (BWE) were similar in age to all working recipients (Chart 3). PASS participants were somewhat older—49 percent were aged 40 or older, compared with 29 percent of those with IRWE and 36 percent of those with BWE.

Percent 35 PASS 30 IRWE BWE 25

20

15

10

5

0 Under 22 22–29 30–39 Age
SOURCE: Table 15.

40–49

50 or older

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 35

Other Work Incentive Participants Chart 10. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2004 The most frequently identified diagnosis varied among recipients who had income excluded under plans for achieving self-support (PASS), impairment-related work expenses (IRWE), or blind work expenses (BWE). Over half of the recipients who had some income excluded under IRWE were mentally retarded, and 39 percent of those with a PASS had other mental disorders. Four-fifths of those with BWE had a nervous system disorder.

Percent 90 PASS 80 IRWE 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 BWE

Mental retardation

Other mental disorders

Nervous system and sense organs

Other physical disorders

Unknown

SOURCE: Table 16.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 36

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 14. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2004
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 1,598 31 6 12 25 463 12 5 0 b 45 30 9 18 33 15 20 12 57 8 27 9 87 51 33 10 18 24 13 4 9 13 0 117 74 5 41 6 20 17 9 19 11 15 25 3 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 6,874 164 4 87 75 590 21 128 36 b 350 213 9 10 229 119 58 286 99 140 33 202 184 132 140 37 148 11 28 25 28 196 69 521 337 8 116 81 42 329 10 75 18 142 330 58 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,827 38 b 24 24 409 35 23 12 3 107 55 12 3 69 42 69 35 45 47 13 42 244 103 51 43 41 11 14 13 11 48 14 203 125 4 101 24 33 121 13 33 4 47 182 15 (Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 37

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 14. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2004—Continued
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 21 16 31 10 57 0 b Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 5 522 93 34 296 4 b Blind work expenses (BWE) 3 73 46 19 76 3 b

State or area Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 401 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 38

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 15. Number, by selected characteristics and provision, December 2004
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 1,598 7 62 306 388 483 302 38 12 687 911 412 82 1,112 27 7 28 46 48 38 35 45 22 42 19 129 297 1,242 17 0 97 70 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 6,874 0 363 2,186 2,071 1,366 627 150 111 3,739 3,135 6,801 85 0 564 276 1,035 926 775 681 614 443 310 252 167 831 2,958 3,517 47 0 543 213 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,827 4 121 720 819 620 398 83 62 1,519 1,308 2,742 110 0 202 92 288 211 174 173 156 134 108 134 89 1,066 1,445 1,192 5 0 230 105

Characteristic Total Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income b Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) None 65 or less 66–99 100–199 200–299 300–399 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–799 800–899 900–999 1,000 or more Unearned income b None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 401 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income or both earned and unearned income. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 39

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 16. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2004
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 1,598 100.0 1.0 2.3 2.1 7.1 4.8 10.1 28.7 0.6 0.3 1.8 0.6 0.9 7.7 13.2 0.9 0.1 0.1 17.8 Impairmentrelated work expenses (IRWE) 6,874 100.0 2.1 0.3 0.5 2.2 54.3 3.6 9.0 0.4 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.3 1.2 11.8 0.3 0 0.2 12.8

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs b Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

All blind and disabled recipients 4,017,108 100.0 0.6 3.7 1.7 2.6 21.9 9.9 25.3 1.1 0.4 4.5 0.9 1.0 9.9 7.8 2.1 0.2 0.2 6.2

Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,827 100.0 1.1 0.4 0.1 0.1 2.1 0 0.3 0.1 0 1.5 0 0.1 0.1 80.5 0 0 0.1 13.4

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Effective with the December 2002 edition, all recipients in each recipient category are included when computing percentages for each diagnostic category. Previously, only recipients with identified diagnoses were included in this computation. a. Includes 401 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 40

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 17. Percent distribution of persons with income excluded, by amount excluded and provision, December 2004
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 1,197 100.0 0.8 1.6 1.8 6.3 8.5 24.6 47.5 8.9 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 6,874 100.0 19.1 24.6 32.4 15.2 4.4 2.9 1.3 0.3 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,827 100.0 18.4 10.0 15.0 17.7 11.7 13.8 10.1 3.4

Amount excluded (dollars) Total Number Percent Under 25 25–49 50–99 100–199 200–299 300–499 500–999 1,000 or more

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Data do not include plans for achieving self-support that exclude only resources. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2004 ♦ 41