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CO"'JVER 10'1 FACTORS

'
1 rt o.lO.tX m = 12 tn - mile 52XO - nautical mllc/6076
= kmf.I2X I
1
111
2X I It 19.17 tn.- km 1000 - 100 em - 1000 mm
n11cron-. = 10
6
JWl - 10
11
nm - 10
10
A
I Ibm   J... g- short tonf20!Xl long ton/2240 = 16 01 (av. )
Fon·t•:
Vulunu.•:
..
14.5X ot (troy) metnc ton (tonnc)/2204.63 = 7000 grain-.
'>lug 12.2
1 kJ,: 2 2046 lhm = I 000 g =- (metric ton or tonne or Mg)/ I 000
1 lbf 4.44X2 N 12.2 Ibm · It/'>! = 12.2 poundal = 0.4536 J... gl
IN kg   kgf/9.X I 0.224H lbf
I ft
1
· 0.02X1 1 m
1
2!Ullitcrs=7.4X U.S. gallons
6.2' Impe rial ga llons= acre ft / 43 560
I U.S. gallon 21 1 in.
1
- barrel (petrolc um) / 42 = 4 U.S. quarts
X U.S. pints- 3.7X5 lit ers - 0.003785 m
1
I m
1
1000 liter'>- 15.29 ft
1
I Blu 105'i J 1.055 J... w s - 2.93 x I 0
4
J... wh = 252 cal
fl lbf - J.93 X \ ()
4
hp · h
I .J m W ., -volt coulomb = 9 .4H x 10
4
Btu
- 0.239 cal 10- erg - 6.24 x 10
1
H e lectron volt s
·I \,tluc' mmtl) rounded rhc rc arc sC\cral dchnlli Oil \ fo r \omc of thc>c (jUant llics. e.g .. the
Btu .md the <.IInne. lhc'c dchnlltom d tf fcr from each other hy up to 0.:! percent. For the most a ccur:t ll'
'aluc• 'cc the A\/ II llt'lr1< l'ractra Ciwdr. ASTM Pub. I·  
1 hp It lbf/'> = :n lXXl It lbf/rmn 2)4 c; Btu/h 0 \\'
I W J/'> m/-. = \Oit ampac I '4 x 10
1
hp 0  
9 49 x 10 Btu/ -.
l
1
rt\\Urt:
I utm IOI.HPa == 1.013 bar 14.696lhf/in.' \\ X91t lll 11att:r
29.92 roche<, of mercury 1.0\1   10. \\ mol '''ttcr
760 mm of mercury - 760 torr
I p<,i ntm/ 14.696 - 6.H9 kPa 0.06X9 bar 27.7 111. 11 : 0 51.7 ton
I Pu = 1-.g/m · '>
2
- I 0 bar 1.450 x I 0 ·' lhl /in.'
- 0.0075 torr = 0.0040 tn. II20
I bur 10' Pa = 0.9H7 atm 14 c; P'"'
1\lu.
P"a mean' pound\ per '>quare mch. ab,olutc P"g mc,ul\ pound' J"ICI ... quarl'
nKh gauge. 1 c. above or below the local atnHl\phcru.: prc-.-.ttl c
\ i\CO,ily:
I cp 0.0 I pol\e - (}.(} I g/cm ' 0.00 I 1-. g/m .., 0.00 I l'.t '
6.72 x 10 lhm/ lt -. 2.421hm/lt h 2 09 • Ill ' lht ... ; tt -'
- 0.01 dyne · s/cm
2
Kinemntic vi'>CO!lity:
I C'> 0.01 0.0 I cm' ;, 10
11
m'/-.
I cp/( g!nn
1
l
l'emperature:
K
I OX x 10 ft
1
/ -. cp/(CJ2.4 1hm/lt
1
)
C + 27115 = R I.X
r· + 4'i9.67 = I.X K
( oncentrutlon (ppm):
I X (' •
In the arr pollutron IHcraturc and 111 th!\ ppm .tpplu.:tl to a!:!"' ,d\1-.t\..,
mean' pan' per mrllron h} 1olumc or b) mol l'hc'>C arc ttkntK.d lor .m tdcal ga ....
• tnd practit.ally tdcnl!cal for mo'>t ga'e' ol atr pollutrnn Hllcrc'>l at I atm prc ... ,urc.:
Ppm apphed to a hqutd or \oltd mean' pan' per mtllwn m,,,,
For perfect ga\e'> at I atm and 2"i C. I ppm (40 X7 molcctil.tr llctghl)
1•g/m
1
Common l nit<. und for Problem'> and bamph•., :
Sec rm.rde bad.. cover.
AIR POLLUTION
CONTROL
ENGINEERING
~ t   c o m l h inton
CoHr Photo: A catal ytic converter for a small trucJ.., sec chapter 13. Those fix
autos arc smaller. normally havi ng only one or two honeycomb catalyst in
place of the three -.h1mn here. The ()\ygen sensor is inserted in the inlet pipe
Photo courtesy of I n111ctt hn a ron mental l ech Co.
John J Mooney and Carl D. Keith the 2002 Nati onal Medal of Technol-
ogy awaad from the U.S. go' crnmcnt for tiH.: ir deve lopment of th is type of cata-
lyst \vhalc worJ..ang I(.Jr l: ngclhard. 'I he mil li ons of these devices on autos and
llucb have grcatl> 11nprovcd the air quality in the large cities of' thc United  
-. tnatmg about 19X I and many other countries si nee then. I r you li ve in such a city
your peNHllll hl.!alth • presumably imprO\ ed beca use o f these devices.
AIR POLLUTION
CONTROL
ENGINEERING
econd Edition
Noel de Nevers
Universit y of Utuh
WAVElAND
PRESS, INC.
Lon).l ( orovt·. lllnlOI'
I IH tntormation about this book, contact:
\\u\ eland Press. I nc.
41 XO II Route XJ. Sui te I 0 I
1 011
, (iroH:. 11 60047-95!<0
( X4 7) 614-00X I
tnlo111  
,, ,, w wa\l.!land.com
'cl fl)tl •Ill' :woo. 191)<; hy ocl de cvcrs
H '""u ·d 2010 hy Wa\eland Press. Inc.
Ill It 11 I...,B I '>77Ml 674 7
I dt 11 I .... B 97H I 'i77M 674-5
II/,, •ht1 lt 'II'ITI'd Vo port of till.\ hook mar he reproduced, stored in a retrieval
\1 It Ill, m• ftc/11111111/cd 111 wn·jiw111 or hy any means >l' ithour permission in writing
{t '"' the• Jlllhl11hn
I ttnt • lm the Untied ...,tales of mcrica
ABOUTTH AUTHOR
Noel de Never received a B . . from Ianford in 1954. and M.S. and
Ph.D. degrees from the University of Michigan in 1956 and 1959. all in chemical
engineeri ng.
Hew rked for the research arms of what is now called the Chevron Oil om-
pany from 1958 to 1963 in the areas of chemical proces:-. development. chemical
and refin ry pr cess design. and secondary recovery of petroleum. lit.: has been on
the faculty of the University of tah from 1963 to the present in the I cpartment of
Chemical and uel s ngineering.
He has w rked for the National Reactor Testing , ite. Idaho Idaho. on
nucl ar pr blems; for the U. . Army I larry Diamond Laboratory. DC.
on weap ns; and for the ffice of Air Programs of the ... EPA in Durham. NC. on
air polluti n.
H was a ulbright student of hemi ·al Engineering at the Technical Univer-
of Karl sruhe, West ermany. in 195 1955; a fulbrightlectureron Air Pollution
at the niver idad del Valle, in ali. Colombia, in the :-.ummer of 1974; and then
at the niver. idad de Ia Republica. Montevideo, ruguay. and at the Univer:-.idad
acional Mar del Plata, Argentina, in autumn 1996.
lie was a member of the tah Air onservation 'ommi ttcc (t he state '!'. air
poll uti n ntr I b ard) fr m 1972 to 19R4 and its chair in 19!0 19H4. lie !'oerved
on the tah overnor's itiL.en Advisory Task Force on the Protection of Vi-,ibi 1-
6, the tah Legi slature's Hat.ardous Waste Force in 19HH. the Utah
r's lean Air ommission in 19R9 1990. and the Western Governor's on-
rand anyon Visibility Transport ommission iti;en\ Advisory Board,
6.
area of re earch and publication arc in nuid mechanic!'.,
atr polluti n. techn logy and soci ty, energy and energy policy. and explosions and
hre<, . H regularly consult. on air pollution problems. explosion\, and fires .
In I 91, hi textbook, Fluid Mechanics for hemical   econd Edi -
tton. w is. u d by McGraw-Hill.
v
Vi ABOlff TilE AUTHOR
In 1993 he received the Corcoran Award from the Chemical Engineering
Divi ion of the American Society for Engineering Education for the best paper
(" ' Pr duct in the Way' Processes") that year in Chemical Engineering Education
ln addition to hi ·erious work he has three "de Nevers's Laws" in the l   t e ~ t
"Murphy' Laws" compilation, and won the title " Poet Laureate of Jell-0 Salad" at
the La t Annual Jell-0 Salad Festival in Salt Lake City in 1983.
2
CONTENTS
r face xvi
N tati n xv iii
lntr du ti n to Air P lluti on ontrol
1.1 me of the His tory of Air Polluti on ontrol in the nited
tales of Ameri ca
1. 2 Why the uddcn Ri se in Int erest in 1969- 1970?
I. Dirty Air Removal or mi ss ion ont rol?
1.4 ne Probl em or a amit y of Problems?
1.5 mi ssions, Transport,  
1.6 nits and tandards
1.7 The Pl an of Thi s Book
I. ummary
ir P llution Effects
2. 1 ffect of Air Polluti on on !I uman llealth
2. 1. 1 Animal Experiments
2. 1. 2 hort-Term xpos ure of !Iuman Volunteers
2. 1. Epidemi ology
2. 1.4 Regul ations to Protect !Iuman ll calth
2.2 Air Polluti on Effects on Property
2. Air P lluti on Effec ts on Vis ibi lity
2.4 ummary
3
5
5
7
9
10
II
13
13
18
2 1
2 1
26
27
31
35
vii
viii CONTENTS
3
Air Pollution Control Laws and Regulations,
Air Pollution Control Philosophies
40
3. 1
U. S. Air Pollution Laws and Regulations
40
3.2
Air Pollution Control Philosophies
42
3.3
The Four Philo ophi es
43
3.3.1
The Emi ssion Standard Philosophy
43
3.3.2
The Air Quality Standard Philosophy
49
3.3.3
Emi ssion Tax Philosophy
52
3.3.4
Cost- Be ne fit Philosophy
55
3.4
Market Control and Emi ssion Rights
58
.5 Pri ncipal U.
. Air Pollution Laws
59
3.6 ummary
60
4
Air Pollution Measurements, Emission Estimates
63
4. 1 A Representative Sample
64
4.2 Getting the Re presentative Sample to the Detector
68
4.3 oncentrati on Determination
6H
4.4 Averaging
69
4.5 tandard Analyti cal Methods
7 1
4.6 Determining Pollutant Flow Rates
72
4.7 lsokineti c Sampling
73
4.8 mission Factors
74
4.9 Vi sible Emi ss ions
77
4. 10 ummary
7X
5
Meteorol ogy for Air Pollution Control Engineers 8]
5. 1 The Atmosphere
~  
5.2 Hori zontal Atmospheri c Motion
H4
5.2.1 Equatori al Heating, Polar Cooling
H4
5.2.2 The ffec t of the Earth's Rotation
H6
5.2.3
The Influence of the Ground and the Sea
H9
5.3
Vertical Moti on in the Atmosphere
90
5.3.1 Air De nsity
hange with Temperature and Humidity 90
5.3.2 Ai r De nsity
hange with Pressure
9 1
5 . .3 Atmospheri lability
95
5.3.4 Mi xing Height
100
5.3.5 M isture
102
5.4 Winds
106
5.4.1 Velociti es
106
5.4.2
Wind Directi on
107
5.5
Temperature Inversions
Il l
5.
umigati ons,
tagnati ons
11 2
.7
Meteorological Forecasts
11 4
5.
ummary
11 4
40
40
42
43
43
49
52
55
58
59
60
63
64
68
68
69
7 1
72
73
74
77
7X
8]
83
84
84
86
89
90
90
9 1
95
100
102
106
106
107
ill
11 2
(1 4
11 4
7
ir P llut nt oncentrati n Model ·
6.1
6.
6.
6.4
au sian Plume erivation
me Modifi ation f the Baste tan Pl ume quuuon
6.5 Long-Tenn Average ses f aussiun Pl ume Mooeb
6.6 P llutnnt reati on and
.7 Multiple ell Mod I
Re ept r- ri ented and ur e- ri ented Air Pollution Model\
ther T: pi s
6 .. I Building Wakes
. . 2 Aerodynami D wnwa h
6.9.3 Transport Distances
6 . .4 Initial Dispersion
6 . . 5 EPA-Re ommended Models
. 10 ummary
r I Idea in Air P lluti n ontrol
7 . I Alternatives
7 .I. I Improve Di spersion
7. 1. 2 Redu e Emi ssions by Process hangc, Pollut iOn Preventi on
7 . I. Usc a Downstream P lluti on ontrol Device
7.2 Re urce Recovery
7. The Ultimate Fate f P llutants
7.4 Designing Air Polluti on ntrol ystcms and Equipment
7.4.1 Air Polluti on ontrol quipmcnt ' osts
7.5 uid Yelocitic in Air Polluti on ' ontrol Equi pment
7. Minimi zing Volumetri c Flow Rate und Drop
7.7 ffi iency, Penetration. Nin s
7. H m gene us and Nonhomogen Pollutant \
7. Ba ing al ul ations on lnen Flowratc\
7. 10 mbu Lion
7 . I 0. 1 What Burns?
7. 1 0.2 Heat of ombusti on
7. 10.3 xplosive or ombustibl e imits
7 . I 0.4 Equilibrium in ombusti on Reacti ons
7. 10.5 ombusti n Kinetics. Burning Rate'>
7. 10.6 Mixing in ombusti on Reacti ons
7. 10.7 Fl ame Temperature
7. 10.8 ombu ti on Time
7. 10.9 The Volume and omposition of n Products
7. 11 hanging Volumetri c I w Rates
I I I)
119
120
126
126
12
I 7
t-n
14l
144
146
148
149
149
149
150
150
15 1
152
160
160
160
16'i
166
166
167
16H
168
170
17 1
171
175
176
177
17!l
17!l
17!l
IH I
182
l!l3
184
188
19 1
194
X CONTENTS
7. 12 Acid Dew Point
7. 13 Catalysts for Air Pollution Control
7. 14 Summary
8 The Nature of Particulate Pollutants
9
10
8.1 Primary and Secondary Particulates
8.2 Sett ling Velocity and Drag Forces
8.2. 1 Stokes' Law
8.2.2 Particles Too Large for Stokes' Law
8.2.3 Particles Too Small for Stokes' Law
8.2.4 Stokes Stopping Distance
8.2.5 Aerodynamic Particle Diameter
8.2.6 Diffusion of Particles
8.3 Particle Size Distribution Functions
8.3. 1 A Very Simple Example: The Population of the United
States
8.3.2 The Gaussian, or Normal, Distribution
8.3.3 The Log-Normal Distribution
8.3.4 Distributions by Weight and by Number
8.4 Behavior of Particles in the Atmosphere
K.5 Summary
ontrol of Primary Particulates
9.1 Wall oll ecti on Devices
9. I . I Gravity Settlers
9. 1.2 e ntrifugal Separators
9. 1.3 Electrostatic Precipitators (ESP)
9.2 Dividing ollection Devices
9.2. 1 urface Filters
9.2.2 Depth Filters
9.2.3 Fi lt er Medi a
9.2.4 Scrubbers for Particulate Control
9 1 Choosing a oll ector
l) 4 Summary
ontrol of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
I 0.1 Vapor Pressure. Equilibrium Vapor Content Evapo t'
10 2 YO s • ra1on
I 0 ~
104
Control by Prevention
I 0.3. 1 Subst ituti on
I O.l .2 Process Modification
10.3.3 Leakage Control
Control by Concentrati on a nd Recovery
1
0.4. I Condensati on
209
209
216
217
219
222
22)
2'26
2'26
227
24l)
2.J<)
'2) ()
'2.'i.J
2()(,
'2XO
:!X I
2'!2
'2'!X
29X
3 11
3 14
329
.l.lO
3.\(l
317
337
33X
  u ~
y;o
_l.'i()
ll
(horpuon
b'orpuon ( \:ruhh111g J
105 1dauon
'ombu,uon (lnwJc:ratton 1
Bwloglcul Oxldiltton tHiohltr.l!ton)
10.6 The Mobtle ourc.:e Problem
10.7 h -.1ng u ontrol  
10. ummury
ntrol f ulfur
11.1 Elementury 0 1dntton Reduction Chenmtry ol Sulfur
ttrogen
II .2 cr 1ew of the Sullur Proolcrn
II. Th Rem val of Reduced Sulfur Compouml\ from Pcttokun1
and uturul Gu-. Stream'
II .. I The \es and Lnuttatton' of Ab,orher' and Stnpper'
for A1r Pollutton Control
11 .3.2 ulfur Removal from I lydnx:nroon'
11 .4 Removul of 0
2
from Rtch Wa,tc Ga'c'
11.5 R m val of 0
2
from Lean Wa,tc (J;"c'
11 .5.1 orced Oxtdatton Llntc,tonc Wet Sc.:ruhhcr'
11.5.2 thcr Approad1c'
11.6 It mauve' to "Burn and Then Scn1b"
11.6. 1 hangc to .t Lower Sultu1 Content htcl
11 .6.2 Remove Sullur from thl· h1cl
11.6.. Mod1fy the Comhu't1on I'HX:C\\
11.6.4 Don ' t Burn ut All
II .7 ummary
12 ntr I f Nitro en Oxides
12. I An vcrv1cw of the N1trogcn 0 1dc' l'rohkn1
12. 1. 1 'ompun,onwlthSulfurO 1dc'
12. 1.2 Rcactl\lll\ 111 the Atmo,phcrt·
12. 1.3 and N0
1
Fqutl1hnum
12. 1.4 Thcmlttl, Prompt. .tnd h1cl 0,
12.2 Th •rmal
12.2. 1 The Zcldov1d1 Ktnt'tl l'' of lhcrm.tl 0 h1r111.1tton
12.2.2 l lcating and Cooling f'11ne'
12J 0
12.4
12.5 on ombu,tton Source' of ltroj.!Cil 0 tdc'
12. ntrol of 1trogcn Oxtdc hnl\\1011'
12 .. I 1trogcn Ox1dc Control hv Comhu't1on M<Kitfll;ttton
12 .. 2 1trogcn Oxu.Jc Control hy Po,tfl.mlc I rc.llmcnt
12.7 nit\ and . tandurd' 111 NO, Control
12. ummary
(O' tl't• '\i
154
162
170
171
lXI
1X I
1X2
IX2
ws
1'16
1
1
17
·HXl
401
.1() 1
-105
-lOX
414
.fl 1)
427
·127
·12X
·12X
410
·110
4\9
·11'1
·11
1
)
·1·11
441
·141>
4-lX
4·1X
1

.m



·II> I
41>2
41>4
Xii CONTENTS
13 The Motor Vehicle Problem
471
13. 1 An Overview of the Problem of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles 471
13.1.1 Emi sion 471
13.1.2 The Regulatory History of Motor Vehicle Air Pollution
Conrrol 472
13.2 The Internal Combustion (I C) Engine 4 73
13.2.1 The Four-Stroke IC Gasoline Engine 474
13.2.2 Pollutant Formation 476
13.3 Crankcase and Evaporative Emissions 488
13.4 Tailpipe Emissions 491
13.4. 1 Lean Operation 491
13.4.2 Exhau t Gas Recirculation (EGR) 491
13.4.3 Reduce Flame Quenching 492
13.4.4 Speed the Warmup 492
13.4.5 Catalytically Treat the Combustion Products 494
13.4.6 Change the Fuel 497
13.4.7 Computer Control 500
13.4.8 Lean Burn 500
13.5 Tampering and Emi sion Testing 50 I
13.6 torage and Transfer Emissions 501
I 3. 7 Alternative Power Plant 50 1
13.7.1 Die el Engines 502
13.7.2 Gasoline-Powered Two-Stroke Engines 503
13.7.3 Ga Turbine Engines 503
13.7.4 Electric Vehicle 504
13.7.5 Hybrid Vehicles 504
13.7.6 Other Options 505
.8 Reducing Our Dependence on Motor Vehicles 505
.9 ummary 506
14 Air P llutant and Global Climate
14. I lobal Warming
14. 1.1 arbon Di oxide
14. 1.2 Other reenhou e Gases, Aerosols
14.2 tratospheric Ozone Depletion and Chlorofluorocarbons
14 .3 Acid Rai n
14.4 The Regulatory ituation
14.5 How ure Are We?
14 . ummary
15 r ~ p i  
arbon Monoxide ( 0)
ad
Hazard us Air Pollutants, HAP, (Air Toxics)
511
51 2
518
522
524
527
530
530
531
536
536
538
540
15.4 Indoor Air Pollution
15.4. 1 Indoor and Outdoor
15.4.2 Models
15.4.3 Control of Indoor Air Quality
15.5 The Radon Problem
15.6 ummary
App ndixe
A U eful Value
A. l Value of the Uni versal Gas
A.2 Vapor Pre sure Equations
B Table of Acronyms
C Fuel
. I Where Fuels Come From, How They Burn
.2 Natural Gas
.3 Liquid Petroleum Gas, Propane, and Butane
C.4 Liquid Fuels
.5 Solid Fuels
.6 omparing Fuel Prices and  
D Elementary Chemi stry of Ozone Production
E Ad orber Breakthrough Time
F An wers to Selected Problems
Index
CO'I'TIXTS xjjj
54:2
542
544
547
550
55:2
558
558
558
558
560
562
562
563
564
565
566
569
57 1
574
580
582

1
ht' b<xlk" tntcndcd for university seniors and graduate students who would like
111
uv rvt ·w of air pollution control engineering. It may be of_ value as a reference
, t rl.. Ill ·r, who arc professionally active in air pollut10? control, but they
wtll probably find the treatment somewhat simpler and less detatled than own
1
r"mll . p ·riencc. They may. however, find use for the treatment of areas 1n whteh
th trl' not p •r,onally experienced.
bmll half of th ·book is devoted to control devices, their theory and practice.
1 h oth •r hall" d ·voted to topics that form some of the background for the selection
of 'll ·h d •vtcc,, · .g .. air pollution effects, the structure of U.S. air pollution law.
ltmo,ph ·nc model\, etc. These topi cs interact strongly with the device selection
.uHI d '" •n. whu.: h the reason for their inclusion.
I huvc tried to make the book direct and clear enough that an experienced
n •111 1 cun tcad and understand any part of it without help. I have also tried to
I '' 11 ts compl ·t ·Iy as possible on the basic chemical engineering disciplines of
h 1 ·hiom ·try. thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, mass transfer. and
,,. 1 ' IIlli kin ·ttC\ that senior student s in chemical engineering will see that
1 1 h ·Ill 111 wht ·h th ·y can usc all that they have previously learned. I have
111 I to '•Ic ' I th · I ·vel of treatment so that any interested chemical
1.1 ult m·mb·r can t·ach a seni or level course using the book (and the solution'
manual) Wtthout r ·qui ring that the faculty member have a personal background in
1r )JIUtton control •nginc ·ring. The chemistry in this book is presented at a level
m ''pondtng to a ba kground of one year of university chemistry because whcn I
t a ·h our • there arc mechanical and civil engineering students present , who
h · thut ch background.
I huv· been guid ·d by two pedagogical maxims: "The three rules of
r •. from the known to the unknown, from the simple to the com lex, one step
.It u tim'." and "If you don't understand something at least two s you don't
und :rMnnd 11." I devoted more space and effort to determining value'
f   than do most authors . I believe students need to develop a feci
I 1 how btg! how fast? how hot ? and how much?
of the b_ook the treatment in the text is simple, with a more com
I • trc,Hment outltned or dtscussed Ill one of the problems. Students are
1'1111-.t I \ '
h all the.: prohh:m,, to '>t:t: \\here more complc.:\ .mu complc.:tc
1 tm nl\ re eith •r d ·-.cnhc.:d or rekrrcd 10 In man; pi act'' 111 the t>ooJ.. there arc
1 re 'liOn not dir tl appllcahlc to atr pollutton and prohh:m' not rdatcd
1 tr polluti n. m of thc.:'c.: an: there hc.:cau ... c.: the.:} '>hll\\ lntc:re,llng
nt al• ues that do not appl dm:ctly to a1r pollutwn luH:Iude tht''>t' t>c.:cau'>c
I thtnJ.. th y help stud ·nt-. hutld mental hndgc.:-. to other part\ olthe•r (XT'>OrHtl expc.:
n o . The more the '>ludent-. an: ahh: llllnl ·grate the ne11 111lonnatron 111 tim
iot 1 th tr knowledge ha'>e hy '>Uch   the more IIJ..cl; the) .tre to
1 10 it und able to u' • 11.
I will be very grateful to reader' \\ho fXltnt out to me typo •raph11. error,,
10 rre 1 equation numh 'r'>, incorrect figure number,, or '"npl; error' ol any
U herr rswillb 'Orr Cletlt11<,Uh\equenleUIIIOil\Ofprtlll111g'> lntheWlOildt•tllllllll
lhav triedtoupdal pat1' that change wllh tune (e g .. regulation, , atnw,phenc
trend , c ntroltcchn lo y) . I have added a few more exampb und J11llhkm' l'hen.:
1 m r rganilution of in rc.:,pon'>c to r ·ad ·r 'uggc.,llon'>. I thanJ.. all the
tutl ots, fa ulty, and other\ who have po1111ed out e1 ro" ot po01 explanatlllll'> 111 the
diti n. Thos ·who cri ti citc you111 a '>Oil 111 p11va1e ate yolll lnemk
Ot'/ cit • 1' \ 't ' f\
S mbol
A
A
A
II
"
"
. II .
A/ I
A.II.C. A
"·''
"·"
,
,
II . (
(
( J
( ,.
(I
[l
/)
1>,, nr f) po
Brief description
coal ash content
area
urea of cit y I. W
1n Antoine eq uati on
con\lant in Arrhenius equati on
(sometimes cull ed "frequency
factor")
  1n unningham correcti on
fa ctor
accclcruti on
length parumctcr
mo" translcr urea per unit volume
chcnucnl species in reacti on rat e
equations
uJr-fucl ratJo
urbltrury constants
charactcnstJc d1 mens ions
polynonuol coefficients
background concentration
tlll1C parameter
constants m Antome equati on
carbon content of fue l
·unnmghnm correct Jon factor
drug coeffic1ent
heat cnpac1t y at constant pressure
heat capacit y at constunt volume
concentrat ion
dJffusJvlty
d1ameter or panJcle dwmeter
aerodynamic d1ameter. or aerodynamic
diameter of a drop or panicle
NOTATION
Units
English
1/s
ft/s
2
1/ft
ft
2
/ft
3
Ibm/Ibm
various
various
not used
1/ h
OR
wt %
Btu/(lbm or lbmol) . °F
Btu/(lbmol or Ibm) - °F
(Ibm or lbmol)/ft3
ft
2
/s
ft
not used
SI
1/s
rnls
2
1/m
m2/m3
kg/kg
various
various
JJ.g/m3
1/s
°Cor K
wt %
J/(kg or mol) . oc
J/(kg or mol) - oc
(kg or mol)/m
3
m
2
/s
m
JJ.(g/cm3)o.s
xvii
D. dr meter of bamer
It m
D .. ur ··cut drame1er.'' the dr nmetcr at  
fl m
the efficrency = 50'l
Do droplet drameter
ft m
Dm<an mean panrcle dmmeter (anthmeuc or
It m
loganthrrnc)
Du oul\1de diumeter of u cyclone fl m

Dp parti cle drame1er fl m
£ elec1nc fi eld w ength Vifl V/cm
£ excess a1r
lbmol/lbmol moVmol
£,.. UCIIVaiiOn energy
ll1ullbm I kcnVrnol
Eo electn fi eld mength where purt1de' V/lt Vicm
are charged
Ep el ectri c fi eld m cngth where pnrt1ch:' V/ lt V/cm
are coll ecled
F emi ssion fact r VllfiOU\ vurHlU'
F f rce I hi N
F packing fac1or 111 ll ood1n!t cquuuon.
or packing factor for ahMJrber'
Fd drag force I hi
F,
gravil y force
lbf N
I
fuga it y (for idenl pnrt1ul
I'' HI
Pa
pressure)
f, satun.led fugac11y Ul thl \ f ( vapor p\111 l'u

1bbs free energy Bl u/lbmol J/ mol
G m tar fl ow of nolllrum.l crrcd lbmov,
mol/'
rnponcm m gu> phu ' c
ga molar vel ocit y lbmuli lt
2
'
nml/ m)
'
gas muss vcl oCII y
lbi fl
2
. ' kgirn
1
'
II
accclera1ion of gravit y fl/\
1
ml' '
If effeclive slack hei ght II Ill
H he1gh11n l hc vert1cnl d1rcctr nn. or II Ill
the direction in wh1ch pnrt1clc' nrc
collCCied
If l lenry's luw conslant ulmo,phcrc' l'u
II humidity. Ibm wat er/Ibm dry arr
II hydrogen content of fuel wl 'l Wt
II mixing hei ght It m
h enthalpy or molar enthalpy lll u/( lbm or lbmol ) J/(kg or mol )
h hci ghl above fl oor 111 a gravrl y \CIII cr fl 111
h hcrgh1 of slil fl m
h physical stack he1gh1 fl 111
h pl ume ri se fl m
Jm
mas transfer fac1or
K coeffi cient in pressure drop cquat1011 '
K constant in Langmurr equati On 1/ atm 1/ Pa
K equilibrium constant vanouli VllfiOU\
K turbul ent di spcrsron coeffic ient ft
1
/, m
1
1,
K mas transfer cocffi crcnt lhmoVft
2
'
moVrn
1
'
Kp equrlibrium constant w1th acti VIllC\ rn vanouli\ vanous
atm
iii
·(11'An
B 1t1mann con\Uint - RIAvogadro's
not used
1.38 x lo-
23
kg · m
2
1K ·
s2
number
A
fit ienttn modahed Deutsch-
Ande
n equ uon
A
!;an 11 rate con\tant
various
various
A
permeabalaty
rt2
m2
k
ratao of . pe ahc heat' (
pi v)
A re
taon vclocaty cono,tant
1/s
1/s
A,.s..
furw I'll
nd b
kw rd rencta
n rate
various
various
c n t nt1
k' m
tran,fer coefficaent
lbmol!ft
2
· s
mollm
2
· s

/ , length
ft
m
I . len th
f caty an downwind direction
ft
m
(an box  
len th of collector an flow direction
ft
m
len th of P"ton .,troke
in.
m
maxm
hcaght (Fag. 6.9 only)
not used
m
mol r flow of nontrunsferrcd
lbmolls
molls
component an laquad phase
I • hquad 111011 vclocaty
lblfl
2
. s
kglm
2
· s
I "
Vi,Ulal r ngc COn\tUnt
not used
km · 1Lglm
3
I
mnlc,ulnr weaght
lbm/lbmol
glmol
na
m\\
Ibm
kg
,;,
mn" flow rute
lbm/s
kgls
nllrogcn content of fuel
wt %
wt%
number of punacles, or of people. or
of tum' an a cy lone separator
N
number. number of transfer units
II
rll of droplet flow
numberls
numberls
N,
number = chara teristi c
dim 11\1(\IIIStokcs slopping number
lit Sec. !!21
11
exponent an rutc equation and
flrcundhch cquau n
"
age
year year
"
di\Utn can darecuon of interest in ft m
ll ann plume derivation ( hapter 6)
II exponent an 1enc' expansion
II number of mols lbmol mol
"
mol r flow rotc lbmol/s molls
()
oxyacn content of fuel wt % wt %
pll ncgauvc losao of the H • activity
( on entrnlaon) expressed in
mol/later
I' pres..urc
psi a or atmospheres Pa or mb
Po power
ft · lbfls or hp kW
r
pcnctrnuon - collection
cfhcacncy
r
vapor preS\urc
psi a
Pa
p.,ater vapor prcs,urc of laquad water
psi a
Paor mb
Q
cma saon rntc
lbm/s
Q volumctnc fl w rate = V . A
gls
ft
3
1s
m
3
1s
Q(,
a volumetnc flow rate
ft
3
1s
m
3
1s
-

xix
L
llqutd volumetnc flow mte ft
1
/\
Ill,,,
q
harge on a panicle
c c
q emi ton rate per umt areu lbm/hr rnl
1
gh
m;
'R Reyn Ids number
n, Reyn Ids number for parttcle'
RH Relative humtdity
Humidity
aturation hum1d1ty
R umversal gas constant
P"
1!
1
/lbmol R m/mnl K
(see Append1x A)
radius It Ill
r reacuon rate
ulfur content of fuel wt'\ IA.t '\
c
chmidt number
standard deviation Vi\riOU\ vnnou'
T absolute temperature ' R K
quench Lone th1ckne" Ill Ill
thi kness It Ill
I time
lt jl
half-life \
u verall heat trunsfer cocfftcu:nt lltu/h
' f' . It 2
Wllu
1
K
u wind speed ftl> 11\/\
u internal energy or molur 1ntcrnul Btu/(lbm or lhmol) mol)
energy
v voltage (or potent lUI) v v
v v lume It' m'
v vel lty ft/, nt/\
v •••
average gas velocity
ftj, Ill/\
v, particle or gas ve locity on a c•rctdur ftf, 11\/\
path
Vn dr p velocity It/'
rn.''
Vn
•«<
dr p vel ity rclutive to hx ·d Ill> Ill/\
coordi nates
Vc; ga velocity It/'
11\/\
v .. t relative velocity
ftf, Ill/\
v sta k gas velocity It/'
mJ,
v superficial vcloc•t y It/'
n1f,
v, termmal velocity
ftf, Ill/\
w mru.. of solrdv(volumc of gn'
x cake density)
w wtdlh of a colic tmg dcvtcc ft m
w width of c1ty It Ill
w drift velocity (in electro,tuttc It/'
n1f,
precipitators)
weight fraction
w weight of a panicle sample
lhm klt
w· equilibnum amount ad,orbcd lh1nllhm  
I I
acuvity or concentration of compound
not U\ed atm. or mollcm
1
X
X m lar hum1d1ty of all.
m I water/mol dry ntr
amount emitted '" Lagrangmn
lb
auss1an plume cquat1 n\
'"
\. v
\. \
ATIO.
\' \1,:
y
tr
tr
tt
tr
I()
<!)
"'
t/1
1/
A
A
A
A
ll
II
I'
,,,
loqu•d oment of component
dt t e
1ndependent vanabl
m 1 racu n m the ltqutd phase
m 1 number of c rbon tn
hydroc rbon fuel
m 11 qu nttty an \cries expansion
me n volu of mdependent variable
dt tan e tn x nd y dire tions
tndt e tn hydrocarbon fom1ulae.
r lengths
m tton m g ts or vapor
mol number of hydrogen m
hydroc rbon fuel
equtllbnum mol I ructton
elevnuon or vet11 ·ul dtstnnce
number ol standard devintions
from mean, ( t tmcon)/<7
In th nonnnl dt\lribution,
(ln{I>/ D,.,.,
11
)( /n tn the log
n mutl dl\tnbut ton.
d hoed hy Eq ( 12. 17)
cun,tnnttn Freundlich equation
lllter mcdtum
dummy vunoblc tn llooding equati on
dummy vonuble tn lloodtng cqumion
dt I ' In · con,tant
poro tty
pcnnttttvtty of Ire
cumulouvc dtslnhut ton fu n tion
cqutvolcnce rat to
lllttud
elflct ncy
Intent heat of vuponnllton
m n fr poth
n nn lttcd A/F rntto
V\ tt y
ktn Ill lli C VI\CO\Ily 1Lf p
tty or molar dens tty
ltqutd tty ut nonnul boi ling poi nt
(v nun c)
111
c Gnu\\tun, or n rrnnl ,
dl\tnbutmn fun t10n
tcfnn Bohlmann constant
h nz nlnl dl\peNt n coefficient
v nt al dl\pc,.,ton cocflictent
pccthC grnvlly Ill II tng CQUOltOn
angular vcloctty
lbmolll bmol
ft
various
various
ft
ft
lbmolllbmol
fl
1/ s
mixed
ft
not used
dcg
Btu/I bm
ft
(never used)
not used
cP
ft
2
/s
(Ibm or lbmol)/ft 3
lbm/ft
3
vari ous
vari ous
Btu/hr , ft
2
,
0
R
4
not used
not used
radi ans/s
mol/mol
m
various
various
m
m
mol/mol
m
I /S
mi xed
m
8.85 x 10-
12
CIV · m
or 8.85 x 10-
12
F/m
deg
J/kg
m
 
= I0-
6
m
Pa · s
m
2
/s
(kg or mol)/m
3
kg/m
3
vari ous
various
radi ans/s
HAPTER
1
INTRODUCTION TO
AIR POLLUTION
ONTROL
Air pollution i the pre ence of undesirable material in air, in quantities large enough
to produce hannful effect . This definition d cs not restri ·t air pollution to human
cau e , alth ugh we normally only talk about these. The und ·sirable     may
damag human health, vegetation, human property, or the global environment as
well a create ae thetic insults in the form of brown or huy uir or unpleasant smells.
Pollutant are known that may do all of these things. Many of these harmful materiab
enter the atrno phere from ources current ly beyond human ·ontrol. However. in the
mo tden ely inhabited parts of the globe, particularly in the industriali1ed countries,
th principal ource of the e pollutants arc human activities. These   arc
clo ely a iated with our material standard of living. To eliminall' these activitie!l
would cau e uch a dra tic decrease in the standard of living that this action is
ldom c n idered. The remedy pr po ed in most industrial countries i\ to continue
the and control the air pollutant emission. from them.
1.1 OME OF THE HISTORY OF AIR POLL Tl N ONTROL IN
THE U ITED TATES OF AMERI A
Alth ugh air pollution control action go back at least as far   the thirteenth century
[I]," mo t of the major effort in thew rid has taken place since 1945. Before then,
other matter were higher on society's priority list (and are still higher in developing
2 II< 1'01 1 l ! CO' rROI I Mil"i I RING
· ) In the 1930s and 1940s a factory smokestack issuing a thick plume of
countne'> . · ' · · 1
-,mo"-c was c nsidered a ign o f pro perity, and some government agencies me uded
11 10 their official symbol. . . .
Before 1945, industrial air pollution control effort s were at controlling
large-fact ry emissi n of pollutant s that had led to w1th neighbors of the
  Much of thi s did not involve governmenta l actiOn, but rather was a response
to damage suits or the threat of such suits.
B 'tween 1945 and 1969, as awareness of a ir pollution problems gradually
incr a., d, . me worthwhile lo al effort s to control air pollution were initiated, no-
tab! in Pittsburgh, Los ngele , and St. Louis. Between 1963 and 1967 _the federal
go ernm nt b gan to oversee and coordinate local and state air pollution control
cflorts.
In 1969 and 1970, the United States experienced a great environmental awak-
ening. Toc.lay's students may not realize how rapid or drasti c a change that was.
'om pur, major news papers from 1968 with the same papers from 1970. En-
ironm '11la l matters were scarcely mentioned in newspapers in 1968, but the same
n •w..,pap •rs had an environmental story every day in 1970. This period saw the pas-
sag· of th • National nvironmental Poli cy Act and the Clean Air Act of 1970, both
of whi ·h have had sweeping e ffects and have greatly changed our way of dealing
with a1r pollution. imil ar changes took place throughout the industrial world at
about th ' .,arne time, with similar effects.
Th' sudd n and sweeping change in air pollution law brought about by the
' I ·an ir · t of 1970 came as a great surpri se to most major American industri es.
At hr!'. t th I ·aders of the older "smokestack" industri es (steel, copper, some electri c
pow •r) fou >ht the new regulations, in the courts, in the press, and in Congress.
Tw nty five years later the ir successor mostly have decided that the air pollution
r gulution!> ar h re to stay and that their goals should be to influence the regulatory
pr · ..,.., to mak' the regulations as clear and practical as possible and then to comply
with th' r gulations in as efficient and economi cal a way as possible. The best of
th' industry I ad rs arc always looking at the next gene ration of regulations so that
h n thos r ulations appear, they will be prepared for them and will not have to
·han · what th y did for today's generation of regulations. Most major industri es
tr to b m least as well informed (and if possible better informed) on air pollution
t' ·hnical matt rs as any of the other participants in the regulatory process.
In th' lat 1980s, a n w theme entered the air pollution arena: global air pol -
luti n. ntil 1980, rn st air p llution problems were perceived as local problems.
Th' pollutants of interest had sho11 lifetimes in the atmosphere, or were emitted
in .,uch !'.mall that they were not perceived as a problem far beyond the
pia ' from wh1ch they were emitted. Thus, it seemed logical to Jet local or state
go •mmcnts deal with th m. ( If a stinky factory provides jobs, the conflict between
tho.,' who •njo_y the econ mi benefits of the factory and those offended by its sme ll
can be ".cttlcd 1n a I cal election.) In the 1980s, three problems emerged involving
lnngcr-ltvcc.l p llutants and p llutants that are transported a long way before theY
1'<1 RUDl'n Ill. H l \lk llll 110\ Cll\ rROI 3
doth ir damag : acid rain, de truction of the o1one lay r b chlorofluorocarbono.,,
and th buildup f carbon dio ide in th ' tllmosphere. 1 he legal and adminiSirative
\tru tur d I pcd in the 1970o; to deal with local air pollutmn problem' \ecms
t deal with these international or global problem'>. We o.,hall return to
pr blem in hapter 14. The history in other countrie-. hao., been o.,nnilar Ill that
in th nit d tatcs; the industrial countries at about the o.,a me time and in
about th ame way as the nited • tales . The developing countrieo., responded later
than th nited tal es, and used a mi turc of the ideao., combined from the nited
tate. and the W rid Health rganintion. which sed-.... umlar goal.., hy \omewhat
diff rent mean .
1.2 WHY THE UDDEN RISE IN I TEREST I 1969- 1970?
Why did air p llution increase in 1969 1970'! Tht s '' a -,uhJect for ht:-.
tori at d bate, but some of the reasons arc obvious. A great deal of the anti -Vietnam
war a tivi ·m wa diverted into the •nvironmcntal arena quite '>uddenl y. The com-
muni ati n media jumped on the bandwagon vigorously at about the 'ame time
that th anta Barbara oil spill provid ·d a visible exampl 'of pollution problems and
auracted wid attention. There ar · certainly other cau ... e ... .
nvir omental concern is often consid ·red a luxury only w ·althy nation.., can
aff rd, and th nited tales had becom • very wealthy. To p ·oplc who are worrieu
a ut th ir nc t meal or whether th 'Y will have a home orb· abl · to pay for meui cal
care, air p lluti n d cs not seem vcry important. To a pcro.,on whme basic phy.., tcal
need ar ati tied, air p llution can h ·a much gn:ater cause for concan. 'ertainl y
th pe pi wh participated in the environmental awakening were mostl y upp ·r
middl Ia · , including many coll ege students. There w ·rc not many poor p ·ople
involv d. r many people who had li ved through the Gr ·at D ·pr of' the 19'\(h. •
Furthenn re. when the principal of' death wa.., 1111 a'>
in0u O.la, tub r ul osis, and typhoid fcvcr. the of' air pollut tOll Oil health, wh I ·h
are ·t wand cumulative, were !.cldom observed. A.., w • have lea111ed to ptl'Vl'nt or
treat the e di cases, we have doubled our average life Mil vrvtng long enough
to di f I ng-term disea es su h as ar1 heart mallunctton ... 'trokc.
mphy em a, and cancer, all of which arc related to environm ·rita I factor, , ntcludtng
ir II uti n. he same observati< n can be made about ctgar ·He bel or·
'Alth ugh the environmental movement wu' mo,tly an acttvtty of the upper nuddlc d.o"e'. thl· poor
11ft m st ften 10 more atr pollutton (and other en\lronlllenr.il•nwlt,ithnn .tre the nlh
The ht he t n entrations of air pollutnnt' arc found 111 the centr.oll·otoe'. "here poor people II\ e. nor on
uburb where wealthier people hve. The pncc ol home' on Ln'   related tolox.ol .ur pollut.orll
concentrato ns, lh c ncar the bcache' or h•gh on the foothill, , "hcoc the .ur polhot.tnt u>ntentr.ttoo>n' ..rc
lowe I, n nnall y command the hi ghc\1 pncc' The ';omc ''true olmdu,tn.oil'')"("llre. onil • people
1110rk 111 J b woth .. cvcre cxpowre to potentially hannfulmatcnal' Th" " ,,),o true ol the l<x.IIUln ol
unpleru nt f co htie.: the lnughtcrhou,c. landfill . and munoc•pal tnuner.otor .ore r.orrh lo><.otrd '" m h
netgh rh
4 IR POU.liTI ( STROll Gl ll Ill G
tr at the c contagi u di ea es, smoking probably had effect on
v r 11 li pc tancy. N w that the e other causes of death are practically  
ltv 1 ng en ugh that m king ha a real effect on life expectancy. So also With
lluti n.
It
1
., u ful
1
c ntrast the air pollution situation, for which we have taken ac-
ntly with water p Jlution, for which we have had active programs for
r • ntury. ' h w r t water problems were caused by of
10 w·
1
r with human s wa c. This quickly spreads cholera, typhmd, amoebic
tl ., nt ry. h . r diseas s ar udden and dramatic in onset and often swiftly fatal.
h
1
r · nn ti n with polluted water is easily demonstrated. Thus, we responded to
th w ll r pollution problem much sooner and more vigorously than we have to the
i polluti n problem. .
!
1
nc of th effects fair pollution on health (see Chapter 2) IS much less
c.J 1m 1t1 than that for water p llution. One can seldom point to a pile of corpses and
.., 1 • " h ·y di d of air p lluti n," as one can after a cholera outbreak due to polluted
w t . h fC cts arc mor like those of smoking; we seldom say, "He died of
..,m k1n ," but we know that m king has been shown to decrease the life expectancy
nf th m k r and t increase the incidence of certain well-defined illnesses in
-.muk r'> 1nd in those wh breathe econdhand smoke. The fact that so many people-
to ·tutlan • du ·ated people- smoke demonstrates that this type of argument is not
·1-. rsutsi as the sight of the corpses aft er an epidemic spread by water pollution.
M 10 p ,pi d not tak very . eriously the loss of life and health due to air pollution,
It\.. th It du to smoking, b cau e they believe it is "only statistical."
I h If ts of air polluti n and of smoking are also analogous in that many
·opt• ho hav li v•d in badly air-polluted e nvironments all of their lives have
· •II ·nt lungs and h ·arts. imilarly, everyone knows someone who lived to be a
1 • r u., and smok d igarcttes or cigars every day. Those examples exist; the
· unt •r ampl s died younger. of diseases caused or aggravated by air pollution or
m kan •.
Publi awareness of air p llution developed at a period when the problem was
I .., .., • er in many respects than it had been previously. Before the introduction
f natural gas as the principal fuel in most U.S. cities, winter air was much dirti er
With al s >t than it is n w. Likewise, early in thi s century, the emissions of sulfur
til id • fr m copper sm lting in ci ti es such as Tacoma, Salt Lake City, El Paso, and
na ·onda w rc much greater than they are now. At those times there must have
h •n dissatisfaction ab ut these sources of pollution, but presumably not at the level
ha • had in the past few year .
Thi in rcase in awarencs is partly explained by the increased wealth of the
untry •. a m ntioned before. We once thought these pollutants were necessary
n f a pro. per us economy; we now know otherwise. Similarly, we
n hevcd that n thing c uld be done about such problems. Now that we have
learn d t re d the geneti c de and put people on the moon, it is harder to argue
w ann t air pollution. We can; thi s book explains the technical bases
and s me f the details of how to do it.
INTRODUCl iUN 10     tO'ITRUl 5
1. DIRTY AIR REMOVAL OR EMI '10 TR L?
E mpl 1.1. The area of the Los Angeles basin i · 40 3 quare mile\ _ The heavily
pollut d air layer i a umed t be 2 ft thick on average. ne soluti n to o.
ngel ' pr blem would be to pump thi s contaminated air away_ upposc that we
wi h t pump out the Los Angeles basin every day and that the air mu\t be pumped
0 mil t the de ert near Palm prings_ (We assume the residents of Palm pring ·
w n't omplain_) A ume also that the average ve locity in the pipe is 40 ft/s . stimatc
the required pipe diameter.•
Th flow rate required i
_ AH _ 4083 mi
2
· 2000 f't (5280 ft/mi)
2
_
9
ft
1
Q- D.t - 24 h . 3600 s/h - 2.63 x 10 s
rn '
= 7.47 X 10
7
"
nd th r quired pipe diameter is
D = (4Q =
y;v
4 X 2.63 X JO'I ft
1
/s
------- = 915R ft = 2791m
rr x 40 ft/s

Thi i about ix times th height of the tallest man-made structure, and far
y nd ur urrent tructural engineering capabi liti es. imilar calculati ons (Problem
1.1) h w that the power required to drive the fl ow ex eeds the amount of electrical
pow r generated in the Lo Angeles basin. We arc unlikely to solve our air pollution
p bl m by pumping away the polluted air. although this soluti on is stil l frcqu ntly
p d. In tead, we must deal with those problems by reducing emissions, the
pri ncip I ubject of the rest of thi s book.
1.4 PROBLEM OR A FAMILY OF PROBLEMS?
In T ble 1.1 we ee emi sion e timatcs for the major man-made pollutants for the
United t te in 1997. From thi s table, we sec the following:
ix individual pollutants li sted. which arc the major regulated pollutants
nited tates. There is a much longer list of other pollutants, emitted in
mu h le er quantitie and regul ated in a different way in the nited States (sec
h pt r and 15).
2. me f the p llutant come mostly from transportation (motor and
the c me mo tly from industri al sources_
. There i n entry for"General air pollution." The public think' in terms of"gcneral
ir II uti n" and wonders if the problem is mostly indu,try (them) or auto'> (us).
6 IK POLL nO'I CONTROl l. 'GI ffKING
SOz co
NO, voc Pb
0.7
1.4 67.0
11. 6
7.7 0.00052
l'r,m,p<>nuuon
17.3 4.8 10.7 0.9 000050
l'uel combu\ ll on
1.1
6. 1 0.9 9.8 0.0029
lndu,lnul pr C\\CS 1.3
1.7
0.0 9.6 0.3 0.8
MI\CCIIII1 OU\
luJ,ll
3. 1 20.4 87.5
23.5 19.2 0.0039
1970Jolal
65% 78% 116% 70% 1. 7%
I'
1111
• pan
1
cuhuc matter, 10
1
, or ,muller; '"" hnpter 8. so, =all >ulfur ox ides, mostl y S02; see Chapter I I .

,urt>un , e hapter 1 NO, all nurogen ox1de>, mostl y NO and N01 . The mass shown 1s based on a 0
ll<-mll .un•rnrd
10
N0
1
, thl\" rtlerrcd 10 "'"NO, expre"cd as NO,"; see Chapter 12. VOC = volaule orgamc
"""l'<lund,, ,ee ll.lpter 10 Ph lead, '"" ' haptcr
u \'.tluc ",hown for PMJO cm1" 100, U\ tl I ructi on of 1970   because no reliable estimate is for PM 10
t'll\h\IUO\ lfl 1970 hlrt\l hrc' ure the 1110,, nnportunt of the "Mi'iccllaneous" sources. for most pollutants. Th1_s table
nu rntry foro,, wlu.,;h 1, u muJOr pollut unt, but which almost entirel y a secondary pollut ant for which there
nu ltliJUf prim •ry tlllh\IUn , 0un.:c' VO(' urc laMed not because they are direc tl y harmful to human health. but
ht •Ut\C thC)' Oft l ffiftJnr pnmury prct:Ur\Uf of \l!COIIdUry 01 .
\oun' !tel 2
l:. n in' 'rs r cogni;.c that there is not one air pollution problem but a group of
r I at d pn bl ms, and that som of the problems are mostly caused by industry and
oth 'rs ur' mostly caused by m tor vehi cles. The public and many politicians hope
t > lind a ·imp! , nc-ste p, inexpensive solution to "the air pollution problem."
l::.n ' in rs rccogniz that we arc unlikely to find such a solution, and must continue
t > apply limited solutions to parts of the family of air pollution problems.
4. h ·om 1970 to 1997, th ' United States has made s ignificant progress in reducing
of lead (mostl y by taking lead out of gasoline) and modest progress
111 t 'du ·ing emissions of the other major pollutants. The air pollutant emission
''tuation can he roughly approximated by
I
. (economic activity)
pu all on ·
per person
(
pollutant emission.s )
per umt of economiC
activity
(I. I )
in the environmental awakening of 1969- 1970, the population of the United
• has increased by about 30%, our economic activity per person by about 80%.
and ur m tor vehi cle usag' by about a factor of 4 . But the pollutant emissions
per unit of ccon mic activity have declined steadily becau e of stringent programs
< f ·mi.,si 11 c ntrol. Thus, in most of the United States, the emi ssions and hence
th • m 'a-. ur d concentrati ns of m st pollutants in the atmosphere declined steadily
b •t • · n 1970 and 1997. he decline has not been as rapid as many have wished, or
a., rapid a.-. predicted. and there arc exception to thi s decline (e.g., increases
1n a ' ld rUin 111 the northeastern nited State ). In general, however, the install ation
I'IH.lltJl( 110 tO \IN. l'Olll IIO''dD,IW.Ol 7
of ev r-m r -effe tive pollution control eqtupmcnt ha-. allowed u' to lll<.:n:a'c our
populati n and inc rea e our level of economic a<.:ti\ 1ty per pcr,on '' h!lc
m t m a ured air pollutant concentration... nfortunatcl . the law ol umllnl\hmg
ret um appli 1 air pollution control : the pollution <.:ontrol '>lep' taken to date have
be n i rand cheaper than the ones we will have w take in the fulllrc.
1.5
N , TRANSPORT, RE ' EPTORS
Figur 1.1 i a hematic of the air pollution proce'' ·. ome '>Ourc..: ..: n11l\ pollutant\
to th atm ph re. The pollutant s arc tran-.portcd. diluted. and modified cht'llll call y
or phy ·i lly in the atmosphere; and finally they rcat:h \01111.! rcc..:ptor. \\hen: they
d mag health, property, or some other part of the ..: nvironment. Some ol th..: poilu
tants ar removed from the atmosphere by natural proce,-,e.., , -,o that the} lll'll'l find
arc pt r.
In thi b k, in any dist:ussion of air pollution. or any '> tudy of the regulatory
\tru tur fair pollution control. one myriad detai ls. One aJ..,o hnd-. that what
11 d n f r nc kind f source or one parti cular pollutant i ... diffcr..:nt from what i..,
don f r n thcr . ourcc or pollutant. • orne of diller · rK..:.., r..:..,ult frofll h1..,ton ·
nccid'nt. and me result from the very difkr..:nt -,ourc..:.., and controltc<.: hnolog1 • .,
lor th vari u major pollutant s. Faced with thi-, di vcr..,ity of tkt;ul..,, lllll' would do
well t I k asionally at Fi g. 1. 1 to -.ee how that part1cul;u dctad fit, rnto th..:
ov rail air p lluti n schemati c shown here.
In ig. 1. 1 we also sec a major why air pollution"' dllklt"llt !rom water
poll uti n r industrial hygiene. If the fi gure were drawn lur wat<.:r pollution.
th atm ph ric transport box would be replaced hy a box tor gmundwat<.:r or \ II <.:am
trans rt . hose mechanisms arc indeed complex. hut not nea1l y a-. compkx a.., at
mosph ric tran p rt. We would ·e that the t: hcrni ca l 01 hiologicalloi flllfl wh1ch
most water pollutants arc emitted is the one that cau'e" h;umf ul effect'>. The ..,a me
not tru fair p llution: many of the major pollutant\ arc fo1111<.:d 111 th<.: atmo
pher and are called secondary pollutont.1 to   them f mill then pr <.:c lll"lll\ ,
thcprima pol/wants. The industrial hygie ni..,t. who i' re..,pon\lhlc for protecting
Em! 1 n Almo, phcrc.
-}
Tr:111 'por1
Dolutoon
Mo<.lrfouoto on
Pollulanl removal hi
nalurat mcchan"m'
I lk< 1' ""
Jt um.lnlw.oilh
...
M;olcrr.ol'
< iloh.ol <iom.ll<'
hemaiiC, howmg 1hc mlcrrclatoon' ;omon): cn"""'n'. lran,pon . dliutum.
IR POLLUTIO COI'(fROL ENGINtERI G
rkcr in fa toric and other workpl aces, is often concerned with the same emis-
n a i the air p llut ion control engineer, but the industrial hygienist normally
a m r ea ily defined tran port path between emission and those affected, and
rar ly d al wi th econdary pollutants.
ev rat ft hc e idea are illustrated in Fi g. 1.2, where we see smoothed average
one ntration of four air pollutants for one day in Los Angeles. CO and NO are
prim ry p llutants, emiued most ly by automobil es (Chapter 13), as is hydrocarbon
(H ), n t . hown on thi s figure. The peak concentrations of CO and NO occur during
th m min mmute period. N02 and 0 3 are secondary pollutants formed in the
sph rc by a c mplcx set of reactions, summari zed (see Appendix D) as
N + H + 0 2 + unli ght -+ N02 + 0 3 (1.2)
(} ~   } ,--r---,---r----r----r-----,---...,----, 50
NO
()40
40
l
6'
1
() \0
E
0.
30
0.
c:S·
/.
ci
u
._
0
/.
0
c:
0
- ~
J
() ()
b
c:
.,
20
(.)
c:
0
u
CliO
10
0100
0600
0900 1200 I 500
1800
2100
2400
Time of day
. mooth d vern c dail y concentrati On\ f . elected ll utant s in .
4 I r\'C th progr •on N NO po . . Los Angeles. Californi a. Jul y 19 1965 [3
d
2 l and the d1fferent beh · f . ' '
P1 eh m1cal rca lion m the atm sphere. · av tor ° CO. whtch does not undergo
I"'TRODV<TIOI' TO AIR POll.LrrlOS CONTROL 9
The peak on entration of 0 2 occurs before the peak for
1
because the reaction
n e, whi h i much more complex than the in q. ( 1.2), form
0
2
fi l , then 3· The CO con entration peak, which is ·hown on the right-hand
scale a b ing :::::: 70 times the peak concentration of NO, doe not decline as rapidly as
the peak becau e the 0 con ·entration is reduced only by atmospheric mixing
and diluti n ( hapter 6) whereas the NO concentration is reduced by dilution and
mixing and by the chemical reaction in q. ( 1.2). The afternoon commute also
produce increa es in NO and 0, but the measured arc not large
a them ming peaks because the average wind speed is higher and the atmospheric
mtxmg i tronger in the aftern on than in the morning ( haptcr 5). causing
m re rapid dilution. It has al o been bserved that the highest peak 0
1
conccntrati n
n rmally cur about 30 to 60 miles downwind of the place that had the maximum
m rning emi i n of NO and H because the polluted air mass can ride the wind
that far in a day. Thus. any regulatory scheme for these pollutanb   3. I 0.
and 12) must a c unt for the fact that the worst pollutant may occur in a
different city, state, or country from the major emission source.
The two pollutants of greatest current (lat e 1990s) health concern arc both
secondary: oz ne, as described above, and fine particles. The very small particle!->
that enter mo t deeply into our lungs and that arc believed to be most harmful arc
largely rmed in the atmosphere by reactions that can be summarit.cd (in very
si mplified rm) a.
Hydrocarb ns +sulfur oxides+ nitrogen oxidel.
ce hapter .
1.6 UNIT AND STANDARDS
line particles ( 1.3)
k, both ngli sh and I units arc U),Cd . As much as we the
mm nly u ed in the United tales in that particular part of the air pollution
contr I field. Hi ·tori cally, cicnti sts have used metric or . I (often the of
metric) whereas engineers have used the ' nglish engineering l.ystem. The regulators
have u d mixed y terns. The permitted from ( ' hapter 13)
arc . tat d in g/mil e, a mixed metric Engli sh unit! This like an tllogical unit .
but it i n t. The emi sion data arc used in mathematical modcb ( ' hapter 6) that
expr emi s i n in g/s. The available data on automobile arc all in vehicle
mile driven/h ur, and the federal automobile fuel efficiency which arc
te ted by the air p llution branch of the . . PA, are in mile1./gallon. The prudent
engine r will accept the unit in use. clearly state the unit'> on any quantity. and
alway check the unit in every cal ulation.
M t "practical" air pollution books present formulae that arc untl-\pectlic.
wherea m t" ientifi c" or "theoretical" books present equation<, that arc indepen-
dent f unit . F r exampl e, the power requirement of a low-prc.,.,ure fan or blower
( hapter 7) i
l Q IR POU.UTION I "GI EfRI G
Po= Q6.P (1.4)
TJ
· t Q the volumetric flow rate, 6. P the pressure
wh ·r p i. the power requtremen , bl
inc.:r a acr the blower, and TJ the efficiency of the blower or of the
combinati n. Thi equation i. correct in any set of units. One regularly sees It wntten
Q6.P l
p ---·---
33,000
( 1.5)
TJ
htch i'> nly rr ct if the power is expressed in horsepo:-ver, the flow rate in
r. t r minut (cfm). and the pressure in lbflft
2
. That ts an uncommon umt for
pr .,.,ur , s ne is quite likely to mi su e this equation. If we use the more common
lbf/in• (psi). then thi s become
= QD.P . = 0.00436 QD.P (1.6)
Po TJ 33,000 TJ
whi · hi-. nly correct for horsepower, cfm, and psi . . .
In this book all equati o ns arc of the type of Eq. ( 1.4), correct many consistent
, •t ,r units, except if th · rc is an explicit statement to the contrary. Some of the
pmbl •ms ask the reader to convert from the universal form to "practical" forms like
  ( 1.5) and ( 1.6).
In th • nited tatcs, a concentration expressed in parts per million (ppm) is
always ppm by volume or by mol if it is concentration in a gas, and ppm
h muss or weight if it is concentration in a liquid or solid. (For a liquid or a solid
with u sp •ciflc gravi ty of 1.0, such as water or dilute solutions in water, ppm is the
., 1m· a-. mg/kg, which is also widely used.) This mixed meaning for ppm continues
to b ·a sour" of confusion when both liquid or solid and gas concentrations appear
in th • sam • problem. One ofte n sees thi s concentration written as ppmv, to remind
th • t •ad r that f r gases it is most often ppm by volume. (The same is true of parts
•r billi n; ppb = 1.1.g/kg for as lid or liquid material with specific gravity of 1.0.)
Wh •n standard conditi n. for a gas are referred to, there seems to be only one
ch i • f r pr ssur . the standard atmosphere, whose values in a variety of systems
of units ar . hown inside the ba k cover. Unfortunately, there is no comparable
a •r m nt a. to which t mp rat urc should be used . Values of 0°C, I8°C, 20°C, and
25° ar us d. Thr ughoutthis book, unless stated otherwise, air and process gases
nr· as.,um d t b at I standard atmo phere and 20° C (= 68°F). The properties of
air and wnt rat thi s temp raturc and several others are shown inside the back cover
a-. w II. ( rtunatcly, many PA regulations are based on a standard temperature
of 25° = 77°F.)
1.7 TH PLA
FTHI BOOK
h ·r • ar many p ssiblc ways to arrange an Air Pollution book, no one of which
\C • .,., to please all readers. Th plan of thi s book is first to discuss topics that
ar · comm n to all pollutants, and then to di scus individual pollutants. For each
INTRODUCTION TO AIR CONTROL 11
pollutant, the c ntrol te hnol gy i · adapted to the sour es and the phy ical and
chemi In ture f that pollutant. hapter 1- 7 cover general t pies in air pollution.
hapter - 12 cover the four major air p llutants that have been and continue t be
the f u f m t f ociety's air p lluti n control efforts. hapter 13 covers m tor
vehicle , which play a unique role in air pollution and contribute significantly to
urban air p llution problems. hapter 14 discusses larger-scale problems. including
global nes. hapter 15 treats five additional specific air pollution topics briefly.
1.8 MMARY
I. Air p llution i. the pre ence of man-made harmful materials in the air, in 4uan-
titie large en ugh to produ e harmful effects.
2. Publi interest in air pollution was low before 1969. About that time, it im:reascd
dramatically, and has remained high.
3. We are unlikely to olve our air p llution problems by blowing the polluted air
away; we will have to solve them by reducing pollutant emissions.
4. There i not one "air p llution problem" but rather a family of related problems.
We are unlikely to find a cheap, easy way to solve these problems. we
will have to make many small steps to reach our air quality goab. and thc-.c will
pr bably be more expensive than the steps we have taken so far.
S. The verall air pollution problem takes the following form: emissions • tran.., -
port, dilution, and modification in the atmosphere effects on people, property.
and the environment. Although the details may differ from pollutant to pollutant.
all fit thi pauern.
6. me fthe most important air pollutants arc secondary pollutants, formed in the
atm phere from primary pollutant pre ·ursors.
7. Ppm m an ppm by volume or mol when applied to and ppm hy rna....., or
weight when applied to liquids and solids.
8. r all pr blems and examples in thi s text, unless stated otherwi-.e. the  
I atm and the temperature is 20° = 68oF (sec inside the back wver).
PR BLEM
ee mmon Unit · and Values for Problems and Examples. inside the hack cover.
1.1. In xamplc 1. 1:
(a) timate the pres. ure drop r ·quircd.
(b) timate the pumping power requ1red.
ee any fluid mechanics textbook for of makmg  
1.2. (a) In Table 1. 1 we see that 57 wt% of the li>tcd pollutant\ arc 0 Doco, 1t follow from that
table that 57 percent of the air pollution problem tn the n1tcd State'" a CO problem?
(b) The arne table shows that 57 wt % of a lithe 11 \ ted pollutant' come from tran\portation
(m tly aut m biles). Doc' it follow that 57 percent of our nauonal a1r pollut1on problem
i an automotive problem?
(c) If the answer to these questions "no. explain your answer.
12
IR U.lrrl
GINELRING
1.4.
1997
(b) h 11 re on ble to make thi s compari son? Why or why not?
I. . n o ember 4, 199 . Jos Angel onchell o, the secretary of the second-largest political
party in Me i o (PAN), wrote to the mayor of Mexico City, proposing that four helicopters
be t1 rth ity todi\perse the air pollutants. He said, "Extraordinary situations require
lutions .... 1 refer 1 the use of the helicopters of the Federal Di strict , as if
th y w re huge 1 cause turbulence and vertical columns of contaminated air
to dtmtnt\h the poi\oning in the streets." [61 omment on the practicality of thi s proposal.
k I •h th ir now gcncrutcd by hovering heli copters.
1.1\. 1 "law f returns" is widely di cussed in economonics texts. The author's
I vuril ample is thut the first h ur of cleaning a messy house produces a very visible
tmp uv m nt in its appearance, but that the next hour of cleaning effort produces less visible
II 't, nd nt on less. uggest other exampl es from daily life of the law of
duntnishtng r tum'> . ugg st how it applies to air pollution control.
II lhd , E · "A lllMoncal Revi ·w of Atmospheric Pollution," in World Health Organization Mono-
/lrrlfllt Strit .\, No 46. cncvn. 1961 .
2 Na11mwl Air Q11al11y01td £m1<sion Trends Report, 1997, EPA-454/R-98-0 16, and National Air Pollution
/million\ 1-'.\tlmattl, 1940 1990, ·PA 450/4-9 1-026.
" ompr h n"ve Tcchni cul Report on All Atmospheric Contami na nts Associated with Photochemical Air
I ullutaon." TM (L)-4411/<Xl2/0 I, System Development Corporatio n. Santa Monica. Calif. , June 1970.
4 " ar u hty ntcran for Natrogcn Oxides," AP-84, U.S. EPA. 197 1.
I a liang, R 1 .. £rupucm.\ ofMt. St . llt.'/ens: Past, Presem and Future, U.S. Department of the Interior/USGS
( u d te). p. 17.
rta •I • La O/IIIUI. Mardrll'lata,   Nov. 5, 1996. p. 6.
CHAPTER
2
AIR POLLUTION
CT
Thi i a b k about air pollution control. But any competent engineer any
engineering task by asking, among other things, "Why arc we doing at all'!"
We control air pollution because it causes harmful effects on human health. prop-
erty, ae thetic , and the global climate. This brief chapter r what we know
about the e effects on human health and property and on visibi lit y. ' hapttr 14 con
sider global effect . Because the air pollution laws in the nited   and other
indu trialized countries arc mostly concerned with protecting human heulth. we will
con ider the effects on human health first.
2.1 EFFE T OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH
In Bh pal, India, in December 1984, a release of methyl isocyanate from a pe\tl<.:lde
plant killed ab ut 2500 people. Similar leakages of hydrogen from natural
gas pr e sing plants have killed hundreds of people. tragi<.: event\ attract
wide attention. Normally. they arc not con. idercd air pollution event\. hut rather
indu trial accident . The damages to human health caused by air pollut1on are of u
very different type. The materials involved arc rarely as toxic as methylJ\ocyanatc
rhydr gen ulfide. They are generally not released in con cntration\ nearly a\ high
a tho that cau e uch disa. ter, . Their effect. normally do not rc,ult from a single
expo ure (m thyl i ocyanatc and hydrogen sulfide can kill in a minute or two). but
from repeated expo ure to low concentrations for long periods.
Tabl 2.1 li t the air pollutants that arc regulated in the n1ted . tate\ in
199 cau e expo ure to them is harmful to human health. Th' majority of the air
poll uti neff rt in the United tate. (and mo. t of this book) is devoted to the control
13