SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005

Social Security Administration Office of Policy Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics 500 E Street, SW, 8th Floor Washington, DC 20254 SSA Publication No. 13-11829 Released: May 2006

Preface
Since its implementation in 1974, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has included certain provisions to encourage blind and disabled recipients to work while allowing them to retain their eligibility and exclude a portion of their income from counting against their SSI payment. This report provides data on all SSI blind and disabled recipients who work, those who retain eligibility for special cash benefits when their earnings exceed the substantial gainful activity level, those who retain Medicaid eligibility when their earnings make them ineligible for any cash payments, and those who participate under work incentive provisions. Clark D. Pickett of the Division of SSI Statistics and Analysis programmed and compiled the data. Staff of the Division of Information Resources edited the report and prepared the print and electronic versions for publication. This and other reports on the SSI program are available on the Web at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy. For questions pertaining to the data, please call Clark Pickett at 410-965-9016 or e-mail ssi.workers@ssa.gov. For additional copies, please e-mail op.publications@ssa.gov or call 202-358-6274.

Linda Drazga Maxfield Associate Commissioner for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics May 2006

Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Highlights, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Blind and Disabled Recipients
Charts 1. 2. Tables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Percentage distribution of recipients and those who work aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Number and percentage of recipients, those who work, and section 1619(b) participants aged 18–64, by age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . 12 Number in December 2004, by program status and earnings in December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Number who work, December 1987–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Percentage who work, by state, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work
Charts 3. 4. 5. Tables 6. 7. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Percentage distribution, by age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Percentage distribution, by monthly earnings, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Section 1619 Participants
Charts 6. 7. 8. Percentage distribution, by state, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Percentage distribution, by age, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Tables 8. 9. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months, 1982–2005. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2004–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2004–2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Number and average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Percentage distribution of participants aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

10. 11. 12. 13.

Other Work Incentive Participants
Charts 9. 10. Percentage distribution, by age and provision, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Tables 14. 15. 16. 17. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Number, by selected characteristics and provision, December 2005 . . . . . . . . .41 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Percentage distribution of persons with income excluded, by amount excluded and provision, December 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ iv

Introduction
This report provides information about Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disabled and blind recipients who work and receive earnings. The report presents data on all SSI disabled recipients who work, section 1619 participants, and recipients who benefit from other work incentive provisions. Unless specifically excluded or listed separately, all references to SSI disabled recipients and workers include persons whose eligibility is based on blindness. Since the beginning of the SSI program, a number of SSI disabled recipients have worked and received SSI payments. Initially, the program contained basic general and earned income exclusions that recognized the additional costs associated with employment. In computing the SSI payment, the first $20 of income is not counted. In addition, the first $65 of monthly earnings and one-half of the earnings in excess of $65 are also excluded. The law also contained a number of special income exclusions that were intended as work incentives: • Blind work expenses (BWE) permit the exclusion of any earned income of a blind person that is used to meet any expenses reasonably attributable to earning the income. Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) permit a recipient with an approved PASS to set aside earned or unearned income and resources for a work goal. The income or resources set aside are used to pay for goods or services needed to reach the goal, such as education, vocational training, starting a business, or purchasing work-related equipment. The income and resources that are set aside under a PASS are excluded from SSI income and resource tests, but they do not influence the determination of ability to engage in substantial gainful activity (SGA). Student child earned income exclusions allow for the exclusion of certain earnings of child recipients under age 22 who are students regularly attending school. The 1980 amendments to the Social Security Act established section 1619 and provided additional work incentive provisions to assist SSI recipients in entering the workforce. These provisions included income exclusions for impairment-related work expenses, a change in the treatment of sheltered workshop earnings, and the continuation of SSI payments for some individuals whose disability ceased because of a medical recovery. • Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) exclude from earnings the costs of items and services needed to work because of the person’s disability and are paid for by the individual. These expenses are excluded from earned income used to compute ongoing SSI monthly payments. Beginning December 1990, the IRWE exclusions are also applied in the determination of income for purposes of initial SSI eligibility. IRWE may also be deducted from earned income when determining SGA. A change in the treatment of sheltered workshop earnings provides that remuneration for services performed in sheltered workshops or activity centers is treated as earned income. This change makes it possible to apply the earned income exclusion to earnings that previously were subject to the general income exclusion; that is, the first $20 and a dollar-for-dollar offset thereafter. The provision for continuation of payments allows for SSI (and also Social Security Disability Insurance) payments to disabled individuals to continue after the disability ceases because of a medical recovery, if they are participating in approved vocational rehabilitation plans and the Social Security Administration (SSA) determines that completion of the program will increase the chances of permanent removal from the disability rolls. The provision assists individuals whose medical improvement occurs before completion of vocational training. This provision was extended, effective April 1988, to SSI recipients whose eligibility is based on blindness.

Congress enacted these provisions because it concluded that additional incentives were required to help SSI disabled recipients to become self-supporting. Congress believed that individuals who could work outside of sheltered workshops might have been discouraged from doing so by the fear of losing their benefits before they had established for themselves the capability for continued self-support. Section 1619(a) provides special SSI cash benefits to disabled individuals who lose eligibility for SSI payments because they have earnings at the level that is ordinarily considered to represent SGA. Section 1619(b) provides special SSI recipient status for Medicaid purposes to working disabled or blind individuals when their earnings make them ineligible for cash payments. Under P.L. 99–643, which made section 1619 permanent, disabled individuals on the SSI rolls retain disability status until their medical condition improves. The distinction between a disabled person eligible for regular SSI benefits and a disabled person eligible for 1619(a) benefits is that the latter has several months with gross earnings above the SGA level. Under previous law, 1619(a) status did not begin until a trial work period had been completed and a determination had been made that subsequent work was SGA. A number of cases were defined as 1619(a)

after June 1987 as a result of this change in the definition, rather than from any change in their work activity. SSA regulations set the amount of earnings used to determine SGA. This amount is periodically adjusted to reflect increases in the national average wage index. Effective with 2001, the amount is adjusted annually. When these increases occur, the status of a number of recipients changes from 1619(a) to regular eligibility status. The SGA level was increased from $300 to $500 in 1990. It was further increased to $700 in 1999, $740 in 2001, $780 in 2002, $800 in 2003, $810 in 2004, $830 in 2005, and $860 in 2006. Under section 1619(b), cash payments are not made. However, recipient status for Medicaid purposes continues until earnings reach a plateau that takes into account the person's ability to afford medical care as well as normal living expenses. An individual may benefit from more than one of the work incentive provisions. For example, he or she may receive special cash payments under section 1619 and have income excluded under a PASS. Other combinations are also possible, but it is not possible to have both IRWE and BWE. The data in this report are based on the SSI caseload at the end of December 2005.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 2

Highlights, December 2005
In December 2005, there were 336,570 SSI disabled beneficiaries who were working—5.6 percent of the total SSI disabled caseload. Included in this count were 78,205 section 1619(b) participants who do not receive an SSI payment but have special SSI recipient status for Medicaid purposes. Over four-fifths (81.9 percent) of the workers had amounts of earned income below the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level of $860 per month; 22.8 percent earned $65 or less.

Section 1619
The greatest use of work incentive provisions was by participants under section 1619—roughly 28.5 percent of disabled workers. This included 5.2 percent under section 1619(a) and 23.2 percent under section 1619(b).

Other Work Incentives
Use of other work incentive provisions continued to have a smaller, but measurable, impact. In December 2005, about 3.1 percent of the SSI disabled workers had some of their income excluded under one of these provisions—plans for achieving self-support (PASS), 0.5 percent; impairment-related work expenses, 1.9 percent; or blind work expenses, 0.8 percent. Plans for achieving self-support permit an SSI recipient to set aside income and resources to help obtain the training or education necessary for certain specified occupational goals. In December 2005, 419 PASS participants had earnings, which averaged $840 per month. However, exclusions under a PASS are not limited to earnings. Of the 1,582 disabled recipients with a PASS, 68.8 percent did not have any earnings reported for December 2005. For this group, the PASS excluded unearned income such as Social Security benefits. Out of all PASS participants, 400 had a PASS that excluded only resources.

Geographic Distribution
Among the states, the percentage of disabled workers varied from a low of 2.8 percent in Mississippi to a high of 18.5 percent in North Dakota. In general, the percentage of disabled workers was higher in the northern states than in the southern states.

Demographic Characteristics
The majority of these disabled workers were male (53.4 percent). Almost half (49.3 percent) had unearned income; 43.5 percent were receiving Social Security benefits. Comparable figures for all disabled recipients in December 2005 were 45.5 percent male, 38.2 percent with unearned income, and 30.6 percent receiving Social Security benefits.

Diagnosis
Disabled workers are more likely to have certain impairments than other disabled recipients. Almost two-thirds (66.2 percent) of the workers had a mental disorder, including 41.5 percent who were diagnosed with mental retardation. By comparison, 57.7 percent of all disabled recipients were diagnosed with a mental disorder, including 21.7 percent with mental retardation.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 3

Blind and Disabled Recipients

Blind and Disabled Recipients Chart 1. Number who work, December 1987–2005 The number of blind and disabled recipients who work almost doubled between 1987 and 2005, from 173,000 to 337,000. Initially, the number of participants under sections 1619(a) and 1619(b) were approximately equal. However, participation under section 1619(b) gradually increased to five times the initial total, and it now exceeds participation under section 1619(a) by more than four to one. The number of working recipients not participating under either of these provisions has increased by more than 69 percent.

Thousands 300

250 Other 200

150

100 1619(b) 50 1619(a) 0

1987

1989

1991

1993

1995

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

SOURCE: Tables 1 and 9.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 5

Blind and Disabled Recipients Chart 2. Percentage who work, by state, December 2005 In 13 of the 50 states, mostly in the South and Southeast, less than 5 percent of blind and disabled recipients were working in December 2005. The highest employment rates, 15 percent or more, were in the upper Midwest: Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

Under 5%

5–9.9%

10–14.9%

15% or more

SOURCE: Table 2.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 1. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2005
Recipients who work Total as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 3.4 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.8 ---5.9 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.9 5.8 5.7 5.6
(Continued)

All blind and disabled Month December 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2003 March June September December recipients a 2,088,242 2,186,771 2,249,025 2,277,859 2,334,241 2,340,785 2,314,364 2,391,262 2,499,046 2,633,552 2,795,756 2,945,244 3,046,074 3,172,270 3,386,603 3,681,050 4,126,816 4,544,777 4,870,564 5,115,014 5,252,991 5,189,724 5,293,829 5,317,861 5,395,935 5,500,481 5,618,506 5,740,683 5,850,359 5,977,788 5,657,353 5,705,871 5,749,384 5,740,683 Total 70,719 83,697 87,697 92,270 99,276 102,632 107,803 113,899 ---172,855 189,144 205,837 219,932 229,619 248,917 265,649 282,476 298,635 308,300 319,855 326,475 340,618 360,427 346,110 340,910 323,682 328,204 336,570 334,378 329,740 329,195 323,682 Receiving SSI b 70,719 83,697 87,697 92,270 99,276 102,632 102,288 108,734 ---157,223 173,519 187,583 196,415 202,355 217,268 230,350 241,793 251,633 256,395 262,766 266,933 271,353 276,855 269,655 258,733 252,585 254,523 258,365 259,820 257,724 255,619 252,585

Section 1619(b) participants ... ... ... ... ... ... 5,515 5,165 ---15,632 15,625 18,254 23,517 27,264 31,649 35,299 40,683 47,002 51,905 57,089 59,542 69,265 83,572 76,455 82,177 71,097 73,681 78,205 74,558 72,016 73,576 71,097

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 7

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 1. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2005—Continued
Recipients who work Total as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.6

Month 2004 March June September December 2005 March June September December

All blind and disabled recipients a 5,796,837 5,834,265 5,869,004 5,850,359 5,919,765 5,946,966 5,966,290 5,977,788

Total 321,030 323,624 328,831 328,204 325,357 333,089 337,325 336,570

Receiving SSI b 251,498 250,726 253,174 254,523 251,110 253,721 257,191 258,365

Section 1619(b) participants 69,532 72,898 75,657 73,681 74,247 79,368 80,134 78,205

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: . . . = not applicable; -- = not available. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. b. Includes section 1619(a) participants and SSI recipients earning less than the substantial gainful activity level ($860 effective January 2006). CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 8

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 2. Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2005
Recipients who work State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island All blind and disabled recipients 5,977,788 146,839 9,055 85,381 82,046 864,099 47,743 46,446 12,600 19,433 327,657 176,985 16,421 20,940 231,183 94,133 41,272 36,792 167,213 139,585 30,165 80,596 129,792 208,237 65,107 110,205 109,850 14,084 20,898 24,878 13,134 120,669 45,810 507,304 175,678 7,276 238,161 72,296 53,790 291,744 26,662 Number 336,570 4,059 597 3,919 3,700 44,807 4,016 3,825 890 720 12,752 7,145 893 1,892 13,534 5,755 6,690 4,101 4,749 5,271 2,160 6,032 9,505 13,526 9,976 3,088 7,299 1,805 3,046 1,689 1,283 7,683 2,259 30,609 8,202 1,346 16,792 3,971 4,064 15,472 1,683 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.6 2.8 6.6 4.6 4.5 5.2 8.4 8.2 7.1 3.7 3.9 4.0 5.4 9.0 5.9 6.1 16.2 11.1 2.8 3.8 7.2 7.5 7.3 6.5 15.3 2.8 6.6 12.8 14.6 6.8 9.8 6.4 4.9 6.0 4.7 18.5 7.1 5.5 7.6 5.3 6.3
(Continued)

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 9

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 2. Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2005—Continued
Recipients who work State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands All blind and disabled recipients 93,917 11,357 145,366 395,498 20,861 12,381 118,210 102,768 73,019 86,049 5,576 627 Number 4,883 2,061 5,210 14,113 2,263 1,157 6,852 6,042 2,166 10,171 836 11 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.2 18.1 3.6 3.6 10.8 9.3 5.8 5.9 3.0 11.8 15.0 1.8

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 10

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 3. Percentage distribution of recipients and those who work aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2005
All blind and disabled recipients 4,082,870 100.0 0.6 3.5 1.6 2.6 21.7 9.9 26.1 1.1 0.4 4.5 0.9 1.0 10.2 7.8 2.1 0.2 0.2 5.6 Recipients who work a 321,327 100.0 1.4 1.3 1.0 1.4 41.5 7.1 17.6 0.7 0.4 1.2 0.4 0.6 3.4 9.0 0.7 0.1 0.3 12.2

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs b Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. b. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 4. Number and percentage of recipients, those who work, and section 1619(b) participants aged 18–64, by age, December 2005
Recipients who work All blind and disabled recipients a Age Total 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 Number 4,158,453 285,640 520,247 681,095 1,061,793 1,123,466 486,212 Percent 100.0 6.9 12.5 16.4 25.5 27.0 11.7 Number 321,327 32,658 79,819 76,150 72,837 46,716 13,147 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 7.7 11.4 15.3 11.2 6.9 4.2 2.7 Section 1619(b) participants Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 1.8 1.1 3.7 3.0 1.8 0.9 0.6

Number 75,583 3,176 19,252 20,653 19,234 10,379 2,889

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 5. Number in December 2004, by program status and earnings in December 2005
Not receiving payments in December 2005 Ineligible because of earned income Reasons no longer eligible Receiving payments in December 2005 Program status in December 2004 All blind and disabled recipients Receiving payments Section 1619(a) Have earnings No earnings Not receiving payments Section 1619(b) Total Section Have 1619(a) earnings No earnings Do not Can need pay for Section or use equivalent 1619(b) Medicaid coverage Other excess income

Both

Other nonpay

5,806,479 17,581 237,741 5,477,369 73,788

16,823 6,589 2,889 5,731 1,614

226,942 5,038,249 2,395 3,826 174,133 35,624 46,074 4,987,752 4,340 11,047

74,093 2,504 8,580 19,750 43,259

741 41 65 196 439

180 8 11 30 131

388 23 25 74 266

128,492 681 6,977 114,595 6,239

320,571 1,514 9,437 303,167 6,453

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 3. Percentage distribution, by age, December 2005 Over one-third of the working recipients in December 2005 were under age 30, and 23 percent were aged 30–39. Only 21 percent were aged 50 or older.

50 or older 21%

Under 22 11%

22–29 24%

40–49 22%

30–39 23%
SOURCE: Table 7. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 15

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 4. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2005 A large majority of working SSI recipients aged 18–64 in December 2005 were disabled because of a mental impairment. Forty-two percent were diagnosed with mental retardation and 25 percent with other mental disorders. Nine percent had diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, mostly blindness.

Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases 1%

Other physical disorders 8%

Unknown 12%

Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 3% Nervous system and sense organs 9%

Mental retardation 42%

Other mental disorders 25%
SOURCE: Table 3. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 5. Percentage distribution, by monthly earnings, December 2005 Two out of three working recipients earned less than $500 in December 2005. This amount would not affect their status as disabled, since it is less than the substantial gainful activity level of $830 for 2005. One out of seven earned $1,000 or more. This proportion includes those receiving special cash benefits, or special Medicaid status, under section 1619.

$1,000 or more 15% $65 or less 23%

$500–999 20%

$66–199 18%

$200–499 24%
SOURCE: Table 7. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 17

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 6. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2005
Section 1619(a) participants 17,621 290 25 260 147 3,970 171 135 43 68 865 332 62 95 753 229 177 128 275 329 98 305 601 535 261 208 260 48 95 95 45 315 114 1,585 323 29 602 150 129 745 77 Section 1619(b) participants 78,205 1,002 186 1,126 785 8,254 848 1,051 251 251 3,836 1,640 272 520 3,044 1,462 1,496 949 1,150 1,370 636 1,429 2,957 3,042 2,215 805 1,774 405 590 428 367 1,868 626 6,731 1,792 330 3,120 798 1,005 3,844 402 Other recipients who work 240,744 2,767 386 2,533 2,768 32,583 2,997 2,639 596 401 8,051 5,173 559 1,277 9,737 4,064 5,017 3,024 3,324 3,572 1,426 4,298 5,947 9,949 7,500 2,075 5,265 1,352 2,361 1,166 871 5,500 1,519 22,293 6,087 987 13,070 3,023 2,930 10,883 1,204
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island

Total 336,570 4,059 597 3,919 3,700 44,807 4,016 3,825 890 720 12,752 7,145 893 1,892 13,534 5,755 6,690 4,101 4,749 5,271 2,160 6,032 9,505 13,526 9,976 3,088 7,299 1,805 3,046 1,689 1,283 7,683 2,259 30,609 8,202 1,346 16,792 3,971 4,064 15,472 1,683

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 18

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 6. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2005—Continued
Section 1619(a) participants 171 52 237 705 81 64 362 481 141 319 31 3 Section 1619(b) participants 879 457 1,182 3,559 519 379 1,700 1,902 549 2,199 220 3 Other recipients who work 3,833 1,552 3,791 9,849 1,663 714 4,790 3,659 1,476 7,653 585 5

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Total 4,883 2,061 5,210 14,113 2,263 1,157 6,852 6,042 2,166 10,171 836 11

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 19

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 7. Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2005
Average earnings (dollars) 500 404 465 544 533 512 460 403 311 503 497 513 336 50 82 137 234 333 433 528 630 732 828 932 1,646 586 387 337 725 432 610
(Continued)

Characteristic Total Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income a Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) 65 or less 66–99 100–199 200–299 300–399 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–799 800–899 900–999 1,000 or more Unearned income a None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other

Number 336,570 3,314 32,658 79,819 76,150 72,837 46,716 13,147 11,929 179,586 156,984 317,589 20,467 76,605 16,012 43,089 32,838 25,897 22,552 20,589 16,807 12,303 10,980 7,416 51,482 170,583 146,252 2,465 167 17,656 13,902

Percent 100.0 1.0 9.7 23.7 22.6 21.6 13.9 3.9 3.5 53.4 46.6 94.4 6.1 22.8 4.8 12.8 9.8 7.7 6.7 6.1 5.0 3.7 3.3 2.2 15.3 50.7 43.5 0.7 0 5.2 4.1

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 20

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 7. Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2005—Continued
Average earnings (dollars) 1,111 1,118 840 526 969

Characteristic Work incentives a Section 1619(a) Section 1619(b) Plans for achieving self-support b Impairment-related work expenses Blind work expenses

Number 17,621 78,205 419 6,310 2,552

Percent 5.2 23.2 0.1 1.9 0.8

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Includes section 1619(b) participants. a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income or both earned and unearned income, or they may benefit from more than one work incentive provision. b. Number of working recipients with a plan for achieving self-support (PASS). See Tables 14–17 for data on all recipients with a PASS. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 21

Section 1619 Participants

Section 1619 Participants Chart 6. Percentage distribution, by state, December 2005 The state distribution of section 1619 cases mirrors that for all working recipients in Chart 2. Proportions of section 1619 cases were higher in the Midwest and lower in the South.

Under 2%

2–2.9%

3–3.9%

4% or more

SOURCE: Table 9.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 23

Section 1619 Participants Chart 7. Percentage distribution, by age, December 2005 Recipients who benefit from section 1619(a) are younger than those who benefit from 1619(b).

Percent 30 1619(a) 25 1619(b)

20

15

10

5

0 Under 22 22–29 30–39 Age
SOURCE: Table 12.

40–49

50 or older

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 24

Section 1619 Participants Chart 8. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2005 As with all working recipients, the majority of the section 1619 participants were diagnosed with a mental disorder. Two-thirds of participants under section 1619(a) and three-fifths of participants under section 1619(b) had either mental retardation or other mental disorders.

Percent 35 1619(a) 30 1619(b)

25

20

15

10

5

0 Mental retardation Other mental disorders Nervous system and sense organs Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Other physical disorders Unknown

SOURCE: Table 13.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 25

Section 1619 Participants Table 8. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months, 1982–2005
Section 1619(a) participants Month December 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2003 March June September December Number 287 392 ---14,559 19,920 25,655 13,994 15,531 17,603 20,028 24,315 28,060 31,085 34,673 37,271 25,528 27,542 22,100 17,271 17,130 17,115 17,621 16,771 16,539 16,562 17,130 Percentage change from prior period ... 36.6 ---... 36.8 28.8 -45.5 11.0 13.3 13.8 21.4 15.4 10.8 11.5 7.5 -31.5 7.9 -19.8 -21.9 -0.8 -0.1 3.0 -2.9 -1.4 0.1 3.4 Section 1619(b) participants a Number 5,515 5,165 ---15,632 15,625 18,254 23,517 27,264 31,649 35,299 40,683 47,002 51,905 57,089 59,542 69,265 83,572 76,455 82,177 71,097 73,681 78,205 74,558 72,016 73,576 71,097 Percentage change from prior period ... -6.3 ---... 0 16.8 28.8 15.9 16.1 11.5 15.3 15.5 10.4 10.0 4.3 16.3 20.7 -8.5 7.5 -13.5 3.6 6.1 -9.3 -3.4 2.2 -3.4
(Continued)

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 26

Section 1619 Participants Table 8. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months, 1982–2005—Continued
Section 1619(a) participants Month 2004 March June September December 2005 March June September December Number 16,879 16,587 16,891 17,115 17,082 17,655 17,874 17,621 Percentage change from prior period -1.5 -1.7 1.8 1.3 -0.2 3.4 1.2 -1.4 Section 1619(b) participants a Number 69,532 72,898 75,657 73,681 74,247 79,368 80,134 78,205 Percentage change from prior period -2.2 4.8 3.8 -2.6 0.8 6.9 1.0 -2.4

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTES: When the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level is periodically raised, SSI recipients with earnings below the increased SGA level become eligible for regular SSI benefits rather than the special cash payments under section 1619(a). This can lead to decreases in the number of 1619(a) participants. . . . = not applicable; -- = not available. a. Includes blind participants. Of the 75,583 participants in December 2005, 1,228 were blind. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 27

Section 1619 Participants Table 9. Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2005
All blind and disabled recipients a 4,158,453 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 5,474 8,079 4,308 30,922 48,104 9,379 15,594 10,816 61,877 26,583 15,493 15,127 10,399 34,097 8,295 108,545 76,381 23,886 56,490 7,033 35,530 18,558 40,585 81,219 12,843 66,968 81,394 79,844 19,273 12,821 342,309 58,328 151,213 159,328 31,416 202,597 204,821 174,435 598,454 51,138 Section 1619 participants Number 92,950 353 495 247 1,652 2,433 431 671 443 2,469 1,043 606 585 402 1,166 283 3,444 2,319 718 1,694 204 1,001 507 1,101 2,116 326 1,661 2,017 1,974 465 304 8,081 1,341 3,473 3,657 708 4,485 4,530 3,619 11,678 921 Percent 2.24 6.45 6.13 5.73 5.34 5.06 4.60 4.30 4.10 3.99 3.92 3.91 3.87 3.87 3.42 3.41 3.17 3.04 3.01 3.00 2.90 2.82 2.73 2.71 2.61 2.54 2.48 2.48 2.47 2.41 2.37 2.36 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.25 2.21 2.21 2.07 1.95 1.80
(Continued)

State or area All areas North Dakota South Dakota Wyoming Iowa Minnesota Vermont Nebraska Montana Wisconsin Kansas Idaho Utah New Hampshire Connecticut Delaware Massachusetts Washington Maine Maryland Alaska Colorado Nevada Oregon New Jersey Hawaii Indiana Virginia Missouri Rhode Island District of Columbia New York Arizona Michigan Illinois New Mexico Pennsylvania Florida Ohio California Oklahoma

Ranking

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 28

Section 1619 Participants Table 9. Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2005—Continued
All blind and disabled recipients a 115,687 93,942 54,505 62,895 256,784 119,503 384 72,173 103,983 101,533 56,459 120,649 Section 1619 participants Number 2,061 1,650 890 1,017 4,128 1,911 6 981 1,368 1,259 677 1,379 Percent 1.78 1.76 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.60 1.56 1.36 1.32 1.24 1.20 1.14

State or area North Carolina Louisiana Arkansas South Carolina Texas Georgia Northern Mariana Islands Mississippi Tennessee Alabama West Virginia Kentucky

Ranking 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 29

Section 1619 Participants Table 10. Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2004–2005
December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 1,076 1,037 1,133 1,044 1,013 1,181 1,044 1,042 1,032 1,040 1,030 1,014 1,033 1,062 1,024 1,040 1,051 1,068 1,031 1,032 1,080 1,041 1,082 1,033 1,059 1,017 1,043 1,034 1,045 1,065 1,057 1,037 1,024 1,086 1,019 1,032 1,041 1,022 1,038 1,041 1,099 September 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,081 1,029 1,006 1,059 1,028 1,194 1,029 1,022 1,044 1,038 1,034 1,033 1,052 1,038 1,035 1,037 1,055 1,061 1,056 1,034 1,060 1,050 1,086 1,041 1,038 1,023 1,041 1,045 1,050 1,040 1,041 1,047 1,019 1,087 1,026 1,024 1,038 1,038 1,053 1,040 1,067 December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,111 1,074 1,039 1,084 1,083 1,221 1,060 1,054 1,076 1,050 1,065 1,068 1,085 1,085 1,058 1,066 1,076 1,077 1,088 1,083 1,095 1,082 1,130 1,057 1,066 1,050 1,074 1,086 1,117 1,063 1,097 1,086 1,065 1,121 1,052 1,048 1,070 1,066 1,098 1,064 1,102
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island

Number 17,115 250 32 206 152 3,788 163 144 42 60 697 338 62 91 701 253 185 152 238 335 96 310 582 606 262 194 257 49 79 78 63 321 100 1,617 292 37 677 143 125 775 85

Number 17,874 284 30 240 150 4,117 175 135 47 61 823 332 65 84 736 236 171 121 260 347 98 301 595 562 264 199 272 53 96 90 48 352 120 1,643 333 26 660 154 133 738 87

Number 17,621 290 25 260 147 3,970 171 135 43 68 865 332 62 95 753 229 177 128 275 329 98 305 601 535 261 208 260 48 95 95 45 315 114 1,585 323 29 602 150 129 745 77

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 30

Section 1619 Participants Table 10. Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2004–2005—Continued
December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 1,030 1,063 1,047 1,024 1,023 1,097 1,043 1,056 1,039 1,050 1,034 945 September 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,037 1,014 1,042 1,031 1,036 1,081 1,036 1,055 1,072 1,049 1,001 1,018 December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,071 1,052 1,079 1,062 1,105 1,097 1,069 1,081 1,093 1,080 1,053 1,018

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Number 136 60 256 643 79 62 321 421 127 341 29 3

Number 158 50 250 714 75 56 359 476 152 316 27 3

Number 171 52 237 705 81 64 362 481 141 319 31 3

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 31

Section 1619 Participants Table 11. Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2004–2005
December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 1,070 1,110 1,183 1,104 1,004 1,399 1,021 979 1,123 1,441 1,094 1,055 1,148 957 1,078 944 819 867 1,069 1,001 988 1,131 1,200 989 863 1,123 879 876 933 1,211 985 1,166 1,080 1,221 1,009 815 950 840 900 1,025 1,105 September 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,107 1,096 1,249 1,164 1,029 1,439 1,138 1,034 1,201 1,438 1,121 1,100 1,210 1,008 1,107 966 847 929 1,164 1,052 985 1,181 1,210 1,026 922 1,104 900 880 951 1,244 984 1,185 1,109 1,247 1,036 881 974 898 939 1,074 1,136 December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,118 1,121 1,222 1,171 1,052 1,420 1,148 1,043 1,224 1,429 1,161 1,110 1,246 980 1,095 973 843 951 1,155 1,071 1,000 1,189 1,240 1,024 935 1,125 917 906 919 1,278 1,023 1,182 1,089 1,270 1,054 879 965 900 916 1,082 1,112
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska a Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut a Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii a Idaho a Illinois a Indiana a Iowa Kansas a Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota a Mississippi Missouri a Montana Nebraska a Nevada a New Hampshire a New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota a Ohio a Oklahoma a Oregon a Pennsylvania Rhode Island

Number 73,681 903 178 944 778 7,216 809 1,056 246 239 3,248 1,558 203 470 2,875 1,434 1,419 930 1,141 1,464 662 1,241 2,979 3,124 2,150 785 1,717 383 579 392 339 1,752 568 6,242 1,629 319 3,072 676 945 3,587 367

Number 80,134 1,040 187 1,134 827 7,961 879 1,131 265 242 3,861 1,688 270 539 3,187 1,522 1,519 986 1,189 1,421 706 1,459 3,046 3,212 2,338 862 1,841 424 581 426 375 1,906 647 6,791 1,814 335 3,256 789 1,036 4,003 410

Number 78,205 1,002 186 1,126 785 8,254 848 1,051 251 251 3,836 1,640 272 520 3,044 1,462 1,496 949 1,150 1,370 636 1,429 2,957 3,042 2,215 805 1,774 405 590 428 367 1,868 626 6,731 1,792 330 3,120 798 1,005 3,844 402

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 32

Section 1619 Participants Table 11. Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2004–2005—Continued
December 2004 Average earnings (dollars) 945 776 1,085 1,008 889 946 1,043 1,116 1,140 884 827 1,080 September 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 981 798 1,107 1,042 965 964 1,118 1,143 1,184 907 894 906 December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 984 849 1,101 1,054 980 1,083 1,113 1,163 1,197 925 887 808

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah a Vermont Virginia a Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Number 858 458 1,178 3,342 471 378 1,554 1,721 525 2,351 222 4

Number 903 453 1,303 3,675 525 365 1,767 1,895 563 2,338 238 4

Number 879 457 1,182 3,559 519 379 1,700 1,902 549 2,199 220 3

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. The Social Security Administration identifies persons as potential participants; the state makes final Medicaid determinations. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 33

Section 1619 Participants Table 12. Number and average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2005
Section 1619(a) participants Average earnings (dollars) 1,111 1,059 1,072 1,104 1,119 1,127 1,120 1,137 1,132 1,122 1,098 1,113 1,065 ... ... ... ... 879 1,017 1,334 1,113 1,074 1,100 1,043 1,133 1,077 Section 1619(b) participants Average earnings (dollars) 1,118 -1,255 1,167 1,112 1,095 1,107 1,003 926 1,144 1,089 1,125 1,036 268 436 529 630 775 1,011 1,920 1,784 747 994 1,312 1,030 1,259

Characteristic All participants Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income a Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) Less than 400 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–899 900–1,199 1,200 or more Unearned income a None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other Work incentives a Plans for achieving self-support b Impairment-related work expenses Blind work expenses

Number 17,621 135 2,139 4,752 4,358 3,774 1,982 362 119 9,750 7,871 17,148 586 ... ... ... ... 1,062 10,849 5,710 15,809 545 27 7 736 563

Number 78,205 185 3,176 19,252 20,653 19,234 10,379 2,889 2,437 40,782 37,423 75,876 2,997 9,954 6,106 7,205 6,791 9,947 7,757 30,445 24,970 49,837 488 41 3,693 3,765

176 446 3

1,439 1,197 1,869

0 1,486 545

0 989 1,503

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: -- = not available; . . . = not applicable. a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income or both earned and unearned income, or they may benefit from more than one work incentive provision. b. Includes 18 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 34

Section 1619 Participants Table 13. Percentage distribution of participants aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2005
All blind and disabled recipients 4,082,870 100.0 0.6 3.5 1.6 2.6 21.7 9.9 26.1 1.1 0.4 4.5 0.9 1.0 10.2 7.8 2.1 0.2 0.2 5.6 Section 1619(a) participants 17,367 100.0 0.7 1.8 1.6 1.8 32.3 8.4 25.7 1.1 0.6 1.5 0.5 1.0 3.9 10.8 1.0 0.1 0.4 6.8 Section 1619(b) participants 75,583 100.0 0.8 1.9 1.8 2.3 30.6 8.6 22.6 1.1 0.7 1.7 0.6 1.2 5.3 10.4 1.0 0.1 0.3 9.0

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs a Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 35

Other Work Incentive Participants

Other Work Incentive Participants Chart 9. Percentage distribution, by age and provision, December 2005 Recipients with income excluded under plans for achieving self-support (PASS), impairment-related work expenses (IRWE), or blind work expenses (BWE) were similar in age to all working recipients (Chart 3). PASS participants were somewhat older—53 percent were aged 40 or older, compared with 33 percent of those with IRWE and 42 percent of those with BWE.

Percent 35 PASS 30 IRWE BWE 25

20

15

10

5

0 Under 22 22–29 30–39 Age
SOURCE: Table 15.

40–49

50 or older

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 37

Other Work Incentive Participants Chart 10. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2005 The most frequently identified diagnosis varied among recipients who had income excluded under plans for achieving self-support (PASS), impairment-related work expenses (IRWE), or blind work expenses (BWE). Over half of the recipients who had some income excluded under IRWE were mentally retarded, and 41 percent of those with a PASS had other mental disorders. Over four-fifths of those with BWE had a nervous system disorder.

Percent 90 PASS 80 IRWE 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 BWE

Mental retardation

Other mental disorders

Nervous system and sense organs

Other physical disorders

Unknown

SOURCE: Table 16.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 38

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 14. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2005
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 1,582 25 7 15 27 414 17 9 0 0 35 27 9 28 31 16 33 20 63 b 38 26 80 41 35 8 20 24 20 6 10 3 4 80 69 3 35 7 27 19 8 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 6,310 159 4 72 58 475 27 130 29 b 352 206 10 10 210 105 51 329 89 110 30 181 168 113 106 30 134 8 22 24 22 198 61 479 329 8 110 79 36 289 11 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,552 26 b 29 20 397 30 23 9 4 99 50 10 b 55 44 58 28 38 34 12 38 212 87 49 32 38 9 10 14 8 47 13 202 111 3 89 20 30 103 9
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 39

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 14. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2005—Continued
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 16 12 19 24 3 27 14 41 8 75 b b Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 66 13 121 306 46 7 482 104 31 265 4 b Blind work expenses (BWE) 30 5 36 177 13 4 62 42 16 72 b b

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 400 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 40

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 15. Number, by selected characteristics and provision, December 2005
Plans for achieving self-support Characteristic Total Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income b Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) None 65 or less 66–99 100–199 200–299 300–399 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–799 800–899 900–999 1,000 or more Unearned income b None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other (PASS) a 1,582 3 65 321 345 482 312 46 8 644 938 409 99 1,089 22 7 36 35 46 28 38 40 35 29 26 151 297 1,240 13 0 68 56 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 6,310 5 312 2,042 1,874 1,254 588 133 102 3,446 2,864 6,233 101 0 499 256 932 828 734 636 568 383 299 199 152 824 2,700 3,259 35 c 433 198 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,552 4 111 619 723 598 366 73 58 1,370 1,182 2,481 94 0 173 82 240 200 161 145 142 114 97 114 102 982 1,311 1,107 10 c 170 73

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 400 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income or both earned and unearned income. c. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 41

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 16. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2005
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 1,582 100.0 0.9 2.3 1.8 6.0 4.4 9.1 31.4 1.1 0.4 1.2 0.9 0.6 7.3 13.1 0.4 0 0.3 18.7 Impairmentrelated work expenses (IRWE) 6,310 100.0 2.4 0.5 0.7 2.1 53.5 3.4 9.7 0.3 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.3 1.4 12.5 0.3 0 0.3 11.5

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs b Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

All blind and disabled recipients 4,082,870 100.0 0.6 3.5 1.6 2.6 21.7 9.9 26.1 1.1 0.4 4.5 0.9 1.0 10.2 7.8 2.1 0.2 0.2 5.6

Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,552 100.0 1.3 0.2 0.2 0 2.0 0 0.3 0.2 0 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 82.2 0 0 0.1 12.0

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 400 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 42

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 17. Percentage distribution of persons with income excluded, by amount excluded and provision, December 2005
Plans for achieving self-support (PASS) a 1,182 100.0 0.3 1.0 1.7 5.2 8.1 21.7 49.3 12.5 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 6,310 100.0 18.9 23.6 32.5 15.4 4.4 3.4 1.5 0.3 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,552 100.0 18.1 10.6 14.6 18.6 11.2 12.8 10.6 3.3

Amount excluded (dollars) Total Number Percent Under 25 25–49 50–99 100–199 200–299 300–499 500–999 1,000 or more

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Data do not include plans for achieving self-support that exclude only resources. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2005 ♦ 43