SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006

Social Security Administration Office of Policy Office of Research, Evaluation, and Statistics 500 E Street, SW, 8th Floor Washington, DC 20254 SSA Publication No. 13-11829 Released: April 2007

Preface
Since its implementation in 1974, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program has included certain provisions to encourage blind and disabled recipients to work while allowing them to retain their eligibility and exclude a portion of their income from counting against their SSI payment. This report provides data on all SSI blind and disabled recipients who work, those who retain eligibility for special cash benefits when their earnings exceed the substantial gainful activity level, those who retain Medicaid eligibility when their earnings make them ineligible for any cash payments, and those who participate under work incentive provisions. Clark D. Pickett of the Division of SSI Statistics and Analysis programmed and compiled the data. Staff of the Division of Information Resources edited the report and prepared the print and electronic versions for publication. This and other reports on the SSI program are available on the Web at http://www.socialsecurity.gov/policy. For questions pertaining to the data, please call Clark Pickett at 410-965-9016 or e-mail ssi.workers@ssa.gov. For additional copies, please e-mail op.publications@ssa.gov or call 202-358-6274.

Susan Grad Acting Associate Commissioner for Research, Evaluation, and Statistics April 2007

Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Highlights, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Blind and Disabled Recipients
Charts 1. 2. Tables 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Percentage distribution of recipients and those who work aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Number and percentage of recipients, those who work, and section 1619(b) participants aged 18–64, by age, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . 12 Number in December 2005, by program status and earnings in December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Number who work, December 1987–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Percentage who work, by state, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work
Charts 3. 4. 5. Tables 6. 7. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Percentage distribution, by age, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Percentage distribution, by monthly earnings, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

Section 1619 Participants
Charts 6. 7. 8. Percentage distribution, by state, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Percentage distribution, by age, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Tables 8. 9. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months, 1982–2006. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2005–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2005–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Number and average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Percentage distribution of participants aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

10. 11. 12. 13.

Other Work Incentive Participants
Charts 9. 10. Percentage distribution, by age and provision, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Tables 14. 15. 16. 17. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Number, by selected characteristics and provision, December 2006 . . . . . . . . .41 Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Percentage distribution of persons with income excluded, by amount excluded and provision, December 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ iv

Introduction
This report provides information about Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disabled and blind recipients who work and receive earnings. The report presents data on all SSI disabled recipients who work, section 1619 participants, and recipients who benefit from other work incentive provisions. Unless specifically excluded or listed separately, all references to SSI disabled recipients and workers include persons whose eligibility is based on blindness. Since the beginning of the SSI program, a number of SSI disabled recipients have worked and received SSI payments. Initially, the program contained basic general and earned income exclusions that recognized the additional costs associated with employment. In computing the SSI payment, the first $20 of income is not counted. In addition, the first $65 of monthly earnings and one-half of the earnings in excess of $65 are also excluded. The law also contained a number of special income exclusions that were intended as work incentives: • Blind work expenses (BWE) permit the exclusion of any earned income of a blind person that is used to meet any expenses reasonably attributable to earning the income. Plans to achieve self-support (PASS) permit a recipient with an approved PASS to set aside earned or unearned income and resources for a work goal. The income or resources set aside are used to pay for goods or services needed to reach the goal, such as education, vocational training, starting a business, or purchasing work-related equipment. The income and resources that are set aside under a PASS are excluded from SSI income and resource tests, but they do not influence the determination of ability to engage in substantial gainful activity (SGA). Student child earned income exclusions allow for the exclusion of certain earnings of child recipients under age 22 who are students regularly attending school. The 1980 amendments to the Social Security Act established section 1619 and provided additional work incentive provisions to assist SSI recipients in entering the workforce. These provisions included income exclusions for impairment-related work expenses, a change in the treatment of sheltered workshop earnings, and the continuation of SSI payments for some individuals whose disability ceased because of a medical recovery. • Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) exclude from earnings the costs of items and services needed to work because of the person’s disability and are paid for by the individual. These expenses are excluded from earned income used to compute ongoing SSI monthly payments. Beginning December 1990, the IRWE exclusions are also applied in the determination of income for purposes of initial SSI eligibility. IRWE may also be deducted from earned income when determining SGA. A change in the treatment of sheltered workshop earnings provides that remuneration for services performed in sheltered workshops or activity centers is treated as earned income. This change makes it possible to apply the earned income exclusion to earnings that previously were subject to the general income exclusion; that is, the first $20 and a dollar-for-dollar offset thereafter. The provision for continuation of payments allows for SSI (and also Social Security Disability Insurance) payments to disabled individuals to continue after the disability ceases because of a medical recovery, if they are participating in approved vocational rehabilitation plans and the Social Security Administration (SSA) determines that completion of the program will increase the chances of permanent removal from the disability rolls. The provision assists individuals whose medical improvement occurs before completion of vocational training. This provision was extended, effective April 1988, to SSI recipients whose eligibility is based on blindness.

Congress enacted these provisions because it concluded that additional incentives were required to help SSI disabled recipients to become self-supporting. Congress believed that individuals who could work outside of sheltered workshops might have been discouraged from doing so by the fear of losing their benefits before they had established for themselves the capability for continued self-support. Section 1619(a) provides special SSI cash benefits to disabled individuals who lose eligibility for SSI payments because they have earnings at the level that is ordinarily considered to represent SGA. Section 1619(b) provides special SSI recipient status for Medicaid purposes to working disabled or blind individuals when their earnings make them ineligible for cash payments. Under P.L. 99-643, which made section 1619 permanent, disabled individuals on the SSI rolls retain disability status until their medical condition improves. The distinction between a disabled person eligible for regular SSI benefits and a disabled person eligible for 1619(a) benefits is that the latter has several months with gross earnings above the SGA level. Under previous law, 1619(a) status did not begin until a trial work period had been completed and a determination had been made that subsequent work was SGA. A number of cases were defined as 1619(a)

after June 1987 as a result of this change in the definition, rather than from any change in their work activity. SSA regulations set the amount of earnings used to determine SGA. This amount is periodically adjusted to reflect increases in the national average wage index. Effective with 2001, the amount is adjusted annually. When these increases occur, the status of a number of recipients changes from 1619(a) to regular eligibility status. The SGA level was increased from $300 to $500 in 1990. It was further increased to $700 in 1999, $740 in 2001, $780 in 2002, $800 in 2003, $810 in 2004, $830 in 2005, $860 in 2006, and $900 in 2007. Under section 1619(b), cash payments are not made. However, recipient status for Medicaid purposes continues until earnings reach a plateau that takes into account the person's ability to afford medical care as well as normal living expenses. An individual may benefit from more than one of the work incentive provisions. For example, he or she may receive special cash payments under section 1619 and have income excluded under a PASS. Other combinations are also possible, but it is not possible to have both IRWE and BWE. The data in this report are based on the SSI caseload at the end of December 2006.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 2

Highlights, December 2006
In December 2006, there were 346,309 SSI disabled beneficiaries who were working—5.7 percent of the total SSI disabled caseload. Included in this count were 87,216 section 1619(b) participants who do not receive an SSI payment but have special SSI recipient status for Medicaid purposes. Over four-fifths (80.3 percent) of the workers had amounts of earned income below the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level of $900 per month; 22.0 percent earned $65 or less.

Section 1619
The greatest use of work incentive provisions was by participants under section 1619—roughly 30.5 percent of disabled workers. This included 5.0 percent under section 1619(a) and 25.6 percent under section 1619(b).

Other Work Incentives
Use of other work incentive provisions continued to have a smaller, but measurable, impact. In December 2006, about 2.7 percent of the SSI disabled workers had some of their income excluded under one of these provisions—plans to achieve self-support (PASS), 0.5 percent; impairment-related work expenses, 1.6 percent; or blind work expenses, 0.7 percent. Plans to achieve self-support permit an SSI recipient to set aside income and resources to help obtain the training or education necessary for certain specified occupational goals. In December 2006, 409 PASS participants had earnings, which averaged $792 per month. However, exclusions under a PASS are not limited to earnings. Of the 1,583 disabled recipients with a PASS, 69.4 percent did not have any earnings reported for December 2006. For this group, the PASS excluded unearned income such as Social Security benefits. Out of all PASS participants, 435 had a PASS that excluded only resources.

Geographic Distribution
Among the states, the percentage of disabled workers varied from a low of 2.9 percent in Mississippi to a high of 18.8 percent in North Dakota. In general, the percentage of disabled workers was higher in the northern states than in the southern states.

Demographic Characteristics
The majority of these disabled workers were male (53.5 percent). Almost half (49.1 percent) had unearned income; 43.4 percent were receiving Social Security benefits. Comparable figures for all disabled recipients in December 2006 were 45.8 percent male, 38.2 percent with unearned income, and 30.5 percent receiving Social Security benefits.

Diagnosis
Disabled workers are more likely to have certain impairments than other disabled recipients. Almost two-thirds (66.4 percent) of the workers had a mental disorder, including 40.5 percent who were diagnosed with mental retardation. By comparison, 58.1 percent of all disabled recipients were diagnosed with a mental disorder, including 21.6 percent with mental retardation.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 3

Blind and Disabled Recipients

Blind and Disabled Recipients Chart 1. Number who work, December 1987–2006 The number of blind and disabled recipients who work more than doubled between 1987 and 2006, from 173,000 to 349,000. Initially, the number of participants under sections 1619(a) and 1619(b) were approximately equal. However, participation under section 1619(b) gradually increased to almost six times the initial total, and it now exceeds participation under section 1619(a) by more than five to one. The number of working recipients not participating under either of these provisions has increased by more than 70 percent.

Thousands 300

250 Other

200

150

100

1619(b)

50 1619(a) 0 1988
SOURCE: Tables 1 and 8.

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 5

Blind and Disabled Recipients Chart 2. Percentage who work, by state, December 2006 In 13 of the 50 states, mostly in the South and Southeast, less than 5 percent of blind and disabled recipients were working in December 2006. The highest employment rates, 15 percent or more, were in the upper Midwest: Iowa, Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming.

Under 5%

5–9.9%

10–14.9%

15% or more

SOURCE: Table 2.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 1. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2006
Recipients who work Total as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 3.4 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.3 4.4 4.7 4.8 ---5.9 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.2 6.0 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.2 6.2 6.4 6.7 6.3 6.1 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.5 5.5 5.6 5.6
(Continued)

All blind and disabled Month December 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2004 March June September December recipients a 2,088,242 2,186,771 2,249,025 2,277,859 2,334,241 2,340,785 2,314,364 2,391,262 2,499,046 2,633,552 2,795,756 2,945,244 3,046,074 3,172,270 3,386,603 3,681,050 4,126,816 4,544,777 4,870,564 5,115,014 5,252,991 5,189,724 5,293,829 5,317,861 5,395,935 5,500,481 5,618,506 5,740,683 5,850,359 5,977,788 6,113,277 5,796,837 5,834,265 5,869,004 5,850,359 Total 70,719 83,697 87,697 92,270 99,276 102,632 107,803 113,899 ---172,855 189,144 205,837 219,932 229,619 248,917 265,649 282,476 298,635 308,300 319,855 326,475 340,618 360,427 346,110 340,910 323,682 328,204 336,570 349,420 321,030 323,624 328,831 328,204 Receiving SSI b 70,719 83,697 87,697 92,270 99,276 102,632 102,288 108,734 ---157,223 173,519 187,583 196,415 202,355 217,268 230,350 241,793 251,633 256,395 262,766 266,933 271,353 276,855 269,655 258,733 252,585 254,523 258,365 260,070 251,498 250,726 253,174 254,523

Section 1619(b) participants ... ... ... ... ... ... 5,515 5,165 ---15,632 15,625 18,254 23,517 27,264 31,649 35,299 40,683 47,002 51,905 57,089 59,542 69,265 83,572 76,455 82,177 71,097 73,681 78,205 89,350 69,532 72,898 75,657 73,681

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 7

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 1. Number and percentage who work, selected months, 1976–2006—Continued
Recipients who work Total as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.7 5.7

Month 2005 March June September December 2006 March June September December

All blind and disabled recipients a 5,919,765 5,946,966 5,966,290 5,977,788 6,014,109 6,045,960 6,098,112 6,113,277

Total 325,357 333,089 337,325 336,570 336,446 341,450 346,309 349,420

Receiving SSI b 251,110 253,721 257,191 258,365 257,536 258,360 259,093 260,070

Section 1619(b) participants 74,247 79,368 80,134 78,205 78,910 83,090 87,216 89,350

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: . . . = not applicable; -- = not available. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. b. Includes section 1619(a) participants and SSI recipients earning less than the substantial gainful activity level ($900 effective January 2007). CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 8

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 2. Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2006
Recipients who work State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island All blind and disabled recipients 6,113,277 149,300 9,439 87,205 84,700 876,326 49,120 47,747 13,041 20,021 331,835 180,879 16,810 21,841 234,207 96,891 41,920 37,313 169,732 142,044 30,857 82,612 132,997 211,639 68,020 110,460 112,676 14,577 21,214 26,206 14,003 122,884 47,370 513,648 180,285 7,438 242,316 75,688 55,410 301,386 27,265 Number 349,420 4,268 621 4,263 3,858 46,849 4,102 3,941 969 795 13,435 7,213 926 2,007 14,242 5,911 6,985 4,282 4,843 5,428 2,193 6,277 9,812 13,664 10,430 3,164 7,635 1,904 3,133 1,814 1,313 7,869 2,316 31,382 8,353 1,396 17,170 4,242 4,227 16,180 1,641 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.7 2.9 6.6 4.9 4.6 5.3 8.4 8.3 7.4 4.0 4.0 4.0 5.5 9.2 6.1 6.1 16.7 11.5 2.9 3.8 7.1 7.6 7.4 6.5 15.3 2.9 6.8 13.1 14.8 6.9 9.4 6.4 4.9 6.1 4.6 18.8 7.1 5.6 7.6 5.4 6.0
(Continued)

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 9

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 2. Number and percentage who work, by state or other area, December 2006—Continued
Recipients who work State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands All blind and disabled recipients 94,643 11,626 147,892 419,516 21,902 12,753 120,819 106,134 74,621 87,723 5,658 666 Number 4,859 2,114 5,352 15,027 2,517 1,255 7,198 6,415 2,254 10,488 875 13 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 5.1 18.2 3.6 3.6 11.5 9.8 6.0 6.0 3.0 12.0 15.5 2.0

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 10

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 3. Percentage distribution of recipients and those who work aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2006
All blind and disabled recipients 4,152,130 100.0 0.7 3.4 1.6 2.6 21.6 9.7 26.8 1.2 0.4 4.4 0.9 1.0 10.3 7.8 2.0 0.2 0.2 5.2 Recipients who work a 333,701 100.0 1.5 1.2 0.9 1.4 40.5 7.0 18.9 0.7 0.4 1.3 0.4 0.6 3.6 9.0 0.7 0.1 0.3 11.3

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs b Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. b. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 4. Number and percentage of recipients, those who work, and section 1619(b) participants aged 18–64, by age, December 2006
Recipients who work All blind and disabled recipients a Age Total 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 Number 4,238,519 304,948 539,439 671,409 1,056,432 1,167,963 498,328 Percent 100.0 7.2 12.7 15.8 24.9 27.6 11.8 Number 333,701 33,863 85,238 76,904 73,613 49,920 14,163 Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 7.9 11.1 15.8 11.5 7.0 4.3 2.8 Section 1619(b) participants Percentage of all blind and disabled recipients 2.0 1.2 4.2 3.4 2.0 1.1 0.7

Number 86,389 3,784 22,558 23,155 21,331 12,265 3,296

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 12

Blind and Disabled Recipients Table 5. Number in December 2005, by program status and earnings in December 2006
Not receiving payments in December 2006 Ineligible because of earned income Reasons no longer eligible Receiving payments in December 2006 Program status in December 2005 All blind and disabled recipients Receiving payments Section 1619(a) Have earnings No earnings Not receiving payments Section 1619(b) Total Section Have 1619(a) earnings No earnings Do not Can need pay for Section or use equivalent 1619(b) Medicaid coverage Other excess income

Both

Other nonpay

5,931,220 17,694 241,863 5,593,327 78,336

16,537 6,658 2,835 5,454 1,590

228,838 5,169,888 2,460 3,921 179,421 32,759 43,099 5,122,983 3,858 10,225

84,226 2,773 9,077 20,937 51,439

355 33 50 113 159

92 2 7 20 63

159 12 11 34 102

120,918 734 6,622 107,178 6,384

310,207 1,101 11,081 293,509 4,516

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 13

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 3. Percentage distribution, by age, December 2006 Over one-third of the working recipients in December 2006 were under age 30, and 22 percent were aged 30–39. Only 22 percent were aged 50 or older.

50 or older 22%

Under 22 11%

22–29 24%

40–49 21%

30–39 22%
SOURCE: Table 7. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 15

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 4. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2006 A large majority of working SSI recipients aged 18–64 in December 2006 were disabled because of a mental impairment. Forty-one percent were diagnosed with mental retardation and 26 percent with other mental disorders. Nine percent had diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, mostly blindness.

Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases 1%

Other physical disorders 8%

Unknown 11%

Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue 4% Nervous system and sense organs 9%

Mental retardation 41%

Other mental disorders 26%
SOURCE: Table 3. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 16

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Chart 5. Percentage distribution, by monthly earnings, December 2006 Two out of three working recipients earned less than $500 in December 2006. This amount would not affect their status as disabled, since it is less than the substantial gainful activity level of $860 for 2006. One out of six earned $1,000 or more. This proportion includes those receiving special cash benefits, or special Medicaid status, under section 1619.

$1,000 or more 17%

$65 or less 22%

$500–999 20% $66–199 17%

$200–499 23%
SOURCE: Table 7. NOTE: Data include section 1619(b) participants.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 17

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 6. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2006
Section 1619(a) participants 17,394 284 a 281 164 4,067 156 132 46 63 810 322 58 91 702 225 159 140 225 332 91 286 544 504 279 188 254 60 94 104 35 333 127 1,598 310 35 576 132 153 728 63 Section 1619(b) participants 89,350 1,195 a 1,424 897 9,945 938 1,171 303 282 4,530 1,839 338 613 3,603 1,589 1,592 1,037 1,249 1,539 677 1,658 3,295 3,159 2,493 938 2,100 456 639 561 402 2,124 645 7,568 1,974 357 3,546 1,019 1,079 4,361 468 Other recipients who work 242,676 2,789 388 2,558 2,797 32,837 3,008 2,638 620 450 8,095 5,052 530 1,303 9,937 4,097 5,234 3,105 3,369 3,557 1,425 4,333 5,973 10,001 7,658 2,038 5,281 1,388 2,400 1,149 876 5,412 1,544 22,216 6,069 1,004 13,048 3,091 2,995 11,091 1,110
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island

Total 349,420 4,268 621 4,263 3,858 46,849 4,102 3,941 969 795 13,435 7,213 926 2,007 14,242 5,911 6,985 4,282 4,843 5,428 2,193 6,277 9,812 13,664 10,430 3,164 7,635 1,904 3,133 1,814 1,313 7,869 2,316 31,382 8,353 1,396 17,170 4,242 4,227 16,180 1,641

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 6. Number participating in section 1619(a) or 1619(b) and others who work, by state or other area, December 2006—Continued
Section 1619(a) participants 153 44 223 737 100 60 331 482 150 308 33 a Section 1619(b) participants 992 508 1,360 4,131 690 418 2,018 2,197 654 2,284 278 a Other recipients who work 3,714 1,562 3,769 10,159 1,727 777 4,849 3,736 1,450 7,896 564 7

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Total 4,859 2,114 5,352 15,027 2,517 1,255 7,198 6,415 2,254 10,488 875 13

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

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Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 7. Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2006
Average earnings (dollars) 542 449 506 589 582 554 500 430 332 547 536 557 351 49 82 137 234 333 433 529 631 733 829 932 1,704 644 408 390 775 461 668
(Continued)

Characteristic Total Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income a Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) 65 or less 66–99 100–199 200–299 300–399 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–799 800–899 900–999 1,000 or more Unearned income a None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other

Number 349,420 3,246 33,863 85,238 76,904 73,613 49,920 14,163 12,473 186,840 162,580 329,457 21,565 76,736 16,384 43,182 32,460 26,021 22,472 21,173 17,684 12,951 11,662 7,874 60,821 177,891 151,486 2,402 201 16,300 14,592

Percent 100.0 0.9 9.7 24.4 22.0 21.1 14.3 4.1 3.6 53.5 46.5 94.3 6.2 22.0 4.7 12.4 9.3 7.4 6.4 6.1 5.1 3.7 3.3 2.3 17.4 50.9 43.4 0.7 0.1 4.7 4.2

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 20

Blind and Disabled Recipients Who Work Table 7. Number and percentage who work and their average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2006—Continued
Average earnings (dollars) 1,166 1,193 792 551 1,028

Characteristic Work incentives a Section 1619(a) Section 1619(b) Plans to achieve self-support b Impairment-related work expenses Blind work expenses

Number 17,394 89,350 409 5,650 2,370

Percent 5.0 25.6 0.1 1.6 0.7

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: Includes section 1619(b) participants. a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income or both earned and unearned income, or they may benefit from more than one work incentive provision. b. Number of working recipients with a plan to achieve self-support (PASS). See Tables 14–17 for data on all recipients with a PASS. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 21

Section 1619 Participants

Section 1619 Participants Chart 6. Percentage distribution, by state, December 2006 The state distribution of section 1619 cases mirrors that for all working recipients in Chart 2. Proportions of section 1619 cases were higher in the Midwest and lower in the South.

Under 2%

2–2.9%

3–3.9%

4% or more

SOURCE: Table 9.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 23

Section 1619 Participants Chart 7. Percentage distribution, by age, December 2006 Recipients who benefit from section 1619(a) are younger than those who benefit from 1619(b).

Percent 30 1619(a) 25 1619(b)

20

15

10

5

0 Under 22 22–29 30–39 Age
SOURCE: Table 12.

40–49

50 or older

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 24

Section 1619 Participants Chart 8. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group, December 2006 As with all working recipients, the majority of the section 1619 participants were diagnosed with a mental disorder. Two-thirds of participants under section 1619(a) and three-fifths of participants under section 1619(b) had either mental retardation or other mental disorders.

Percent 40 1619(a) 35 1619(b) 30

25

20

15

10

5

0 Mental retardation Other mental disorders Nervous system and sense organs Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Other physical disorders Unknown

SOURCE: Table 13.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 25

Section 1619 Participants Table 8. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months, 1982–2006
Section 1619(a) participants Month December 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2004 March June September December Number 287 392 ---14,559 19,920 25,655 13,994 15,531 17,603 20,028 24,315 28,060 31,085 34,673 37,271 25,528 27,542 22,100 17,271 17,130 17,115 17,621 17,394 16,879 16,587 16,891 17,115 Percentage change from prior period ... 36.6 ---... 36.8 28.8 -45.5 11.0 13.3 13.8 21.4 15.4 10.8 11.5 7.5 -31.5 7.9 -19.8 -21.9 -0.8 -0.1 3.0 -1.3 -1.5 -1.7 1.8 1.3 Section 1619(b) participants a Number 5,515 5,165 ---15,632 15,625 18,254 23,517 27,264 31,649 35,299 40,683 47,002 51,905 57,089 59,542 69,265 83,572 76,455 82,177 71,097 73,681 78,205 89,350 69,532 72,898 75,657 73,681 Percentage change from prior period ... -6.3 ---... 0 16.8 28.8 15.9 16.1 11.5 15.3 15.5 10.4 10.0 4.3 16.3 20.7 -8.5 7.5 -13.5 3.6 6.1 14.3 -2.2 4.8 3.8 -2.6
(Continued)

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 26

Section 1619 Participants Table 8. Number and percentage change from prior period, selected months, 1982–2006—Continued
Section 1619(a) participants Month 2005 March June September December 2006 March June September December Number 17,082 17,655 17,874 17,621 17,597 18,159 18,670 17,394 Percentage change from prior period -0.2 3.4 1.2 -1.4 -0.1 3.2 2.8 -6.8 Section 1619(b) participants a Number 74,247 79,368 80,134 78,205 78,910 83,090 87,216 89,350 Percentage change from prior period 0.8 6.9 1.0 -2.4 0.9 5.3 5.0 2.4

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTES: When the substantial gainful activity (SGA) level is periodically raised, SSI recipients with earnings below the increased SGA level become eligible for regular SSI benefits rather than the special cash payments under section 1619(a). This can lead to decreases in the number of 1619(a) participants. . . . = not applicable; -- = not available. a. Includes blind participants. Of the 89,350 participants in December 2006, 1,444 were blind. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 27

Section 1619 Participants Table 9. Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2006
All blind and disabled recipients a 4,238,519 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 4,356 5,591 8,179 31,315 50,035 9,637 15,940 15,795 11,114 16,073 26,782 62,891 8,568 11,076 34,878 110,553 78,555 19,419 57,804 24,384 7,333 13,144 36,476 82,515 41,686 81,828 59,147 83,462 19,677 344,700 161,294 68,732 207,534 13,314 208,306 153,051 32,265 176,942 605,127 53,324 Section 1619 participants Number 103,553 306 385 540 1,729 2,714 469 771 722 501 695 1,147 2,536 342 431 1,276 3,730 2,611 639 1,900 752 226 389 1,074 2,381 1,194 2,278 1,642 2,292 516 8,910 4,164 1,774 5,149 328 4,951 3,550 739 4,011 13,393 1,125 Percent 2.44 7.02 6.89 6.60 5.52 5.42 4.87 4.84 4.57 4.51 4.32 4.28 4.03 3.99 3.89 3.66 3.37 3.32 3.29 3.29 3.08 3.08 2.96 2.94 2.89 2.86 2.78 2.78 2.75 2.62 2.58 2.58 2.58 2.48 2.46 2.38 2.32 2.29 2.27 2.21 2.11
(Continued)

State or area All areas Wyoming North Dakota South Dakota Iowa Minnesota Vermont Utah Nebraska Montana Idaho Kansas Wisconsin Delaware New Hampshire Connecticut Massachusetts Washington Nevada Maryland Maine Alaska Hawaii Colorado New Jersey Oregon Missouri Arizona Virginia Rhode Island New York Illinois Indiana Florida District of Columbia Pennsylvania Michigan New Mexico Ohio California Oklahoma

Ranking

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 28

Section 1619 Participants Table 9. Ranking of state or other area, by section 1619 participants as a percentage of all blind and disabled recipients in state aged 18–64, December 2006—Continued
All blind and disabled recipients a 95,526 118,818 55,838 269,469 63,338 121,663 393 72,176 105,736 103,393 57,583 121,784 Section 1619 participants Number 1,831 2,232 1,021 4,718 1,107 2,097 6 1,088 1,522 1,437 788 1,424 Percent 1.92 1.88 1.83 1.75 1.75 1.72 1.53 1.51 1.44 1.39 1.37 1.17

State or area Louisiana North Carolina Arkansas Texas South Carolina Georgia Northern Mariana Islands Mississippi Tennessee Alabama West Virginia Kentucky

Ranking 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes section 1619(b) participants. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 29

Section 1619 Participants Table 10. Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2005–2006
December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,111 1,074 1,039 1,084 1,083 1,221 1,060 1,054 1,076 1,050 1,065 1,068 1,085 1,085 1,058 1,066 1,076 1,077 1,088 1,083 1,095 1,082 1,130 1,057 1,066 1,050 1,074 1,086 1,117 1,063 1,097 1,086 1,065 1,121 1,052 1,048 1,070 1,066 1,098 1,064 1,102 September 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,119 1,075 1,066 1,082 1,061 1,235 1,097 1,052 1,103 1,055 1,065 1,066 1,100 1,094 1,064 1,056 1,090 1,076 1,091 1,073 1,086 1,091 1,128 1,068 1,064 1,068 1,088 1,077 1,080 1,078 1,053 1,101 1,102 1,122 1,058 1,059 1,067 1,071 1,069 1,068 1,124 December 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,166 1,120 1,131 1,144 1,115 1,279 1,155 1,135 1,129 1,104 1,115 1,105 1,162 1,178 1,110 1,107 1,120 1,129 1,153 1,118 1,138 1,134 1,183 1,126 1,106 1,114 1,134 1,153 1,123 1,120 1,153 1,136 1,148 1,172 1,102 1,126 1,109 1,132 1,153 1,120 1,152
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island

Number 17,621 290 25 260 147 3,970 171 135 43 68 865 332 62 95 753 229 177 128 275 329 98 305 601 535 261 208 260 48 95 95 45 315 114 1,585 323 29 602 150 129 745 77

Number 18,670 310 a 265 176 4,515 158 140 46 77 899 370 69 127 695 230 174 139 246 331 100 287 614 526 274 219 250 57 102 120 44 326 124 1,691 316 40 615 144 160 773 75

Number 17,394 284 a 281 164 4,067 156 132 46 63 810 322 58 91 702 225 159 140 225 332 91 286 544 504 279 188 254 60 94 104 35 333 127 1,598 310 35 576 132 153 728 63

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 30

Section 1619 Participants Table 10. Section 1619(a) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2005–2006—Continued
December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,071 1,052 1,079 1,062 1,105 1,097 1,069 1,081 1,093 1,080 1,053 1,018 September 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,083 1,069 1,086 1,062 1,071 1,130 1,075 1,089 1,087 1,079 1,069 964 December 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,119 1,130 1,119 1,115 1,119 1,150 1,128 1,138 1,130 1,117 1,079 964

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Number 171 52 237 705 81 64 362 481 141 319 31 3

Number 167 63 247 797 103 60 349 530 138 328 41 a

Number 153 44 223 737 100 60 331 482 150 308 33 a

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 31

Section 1619 Participants Table 11. Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2005–2006
December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 1,118 1,121 1,222 1,171 1,052 1,420 1,148 1,043 1,224 1,429 1,161 1,110 1,246 980 1,095 973 843 951 1,155 1,071 1,000 1,189 1,240 1,024 935 1,125 917 906 919 1,278 1,023 1,182 1,089 1,270 1,054 879 965 900 916 1,082 1,112 September 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,173 1,185 1,358 1,252 1,109 1,527 1,166 1,114 1,258 1,431 1,198 1,146 1,248 1,019 1,175 1,035 860 998 1,249 1,159 1,037 1,225 1,278 1,059 975 1,157 961 926 961 1,371 1,055 1,211 1,131 1,301 1,082 872 1,002 987 1,017 1,125 1,224 December 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,193 1,224 1,304 1,280 1,147 1,549 1,177 1,130 1,244 1,443 1,233 1,153 1,311 1,078 1,182 1,057 891 1,015 1,280 1,187 1,056 1,257 1,288 1,064 973 1,202 986 928 979 1,377 1,064 1,249 1,124 1,325 1,073 867 1,027 1,002 1,026 1,136 1,216
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska a Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut a Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii a Idaho a Illinois a Indiana a Iowa Kansas a Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota a Mississippi Missouri a Montana Nebraska a Nevada a New Hampshire a New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota a Ohio a Oklahoma a Oregon a Pennsylvania Rhode Island

Number 78,205 1,002 186 1,126 785 8,254 848 1,051 251 251 3,836 1,640 272 520 3,044 1,462 1,496 949 1,150 1,370 636 1,429 2,957 3,042 2,215 805 1,774 405 590 428 367 1,868 626 6,731 1,792 330 3,120 798 1,005 3,844 402

Number 87,216 1,170 229 1,405 900 9,345 903 1,188 286 267 4,481 1,828 338 610 3,496 1,532 1,605 1,002 1,243 1,424 702 1,637 3,235 3,176 2,469 917 2,079 475 633 511 395 2,029 649 7,341 1,949 345 3,490 1,000 1,060 4,234 427

Number 89,350 1,195 b 1,424 897 9,945 938 1,171 303 282 4,530 1,839 338 613 3,603 1,589 1,592 1,037 1,249 1,539 677 1,658 3,295 3,159 2,493 938 2,100 456 639 561 402 2,124 645 7,568 1,974 357 3,546 1,019 1,079 4,361 468

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 32

Section 1619 Participants Table 11. Section 1619(b) participants and their average earnings, by state or other area, selected months, 2005–2006—Continued
December 2005 Average earnings (dollars) 984 849 1,101 1,054 980 1,083 1,113 1,163 1,197 925 887 808 September 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,008 839 1,143 1,128 982 1,130 1,174 1,219 1,301 951 979 859 December 2006 Average earnings (dollars) 1,013 863 1,160 1,139 1,038 1,090 1,192 1,242 1,332 962 999 1,103

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah a Vermont Virginia a Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

Number 879 457 1,182 3,559 519 379 1,700 1,902 549 2,199 220 3

Number 963 480 1,330 4,040 652 416 1,936 2,197 655 2,271 267 4

Number 992 508 1,360 4,131 690 418 2,018 2,197 654 2,284 278 b

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. The Social Security Administration identifies persons as potential participants; the state makes final Medicaid determinations. b. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 33

Section 1619 Participants Table 12. Number and average earnings, by selected characteristics, December 2006
Section 1619(a) participants Average earnings (dollars) 1,166 1,083 1,134 1,155 1,173 1,180 1,183 1,193 1,225 1,176 1,154 1,168 1,111 ... ... ... ... ... 1,033 1,343 1,168 1,119 1,137 1,040 1,166 1,138 Section 1619(b) participants Average earnings (dollars) 1,193 -1,363 1,253 1,196 1,161 1,164 1,051 955 1,227 1,156 1,201 1,079 268 436 530 631 777 1,012 1,987 1,877 771 1,128 1,401 1,095 1,363

Characteristic All participants Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income a Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) Less than 400 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–899 900–1,199 1,200 or more Unearned income a None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other Work incentives a Plans to achieve self-support b Impairment-related work expenses Blind work expenses

Number 17,394 119 2,162 4,877 3,952 3,681 2,091 401 111 9,582 7,812 16,948 542 ... ... ... ... ... 9,952 7,442 15,776 484 32 10 610 535

Number 89,350 235 3,784 22,558 23,155 21,331 12,265 3,296 2,726 46,968 42,382 86,788 3,376 10,523 6,288 7,582 7,547 10,901 8,830 37,679 30,470 54,688 540 64 3,752 4,328

141 359 2

1,513 1,229 2,047

0 1,461 588

0 1,023 1,646

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. NOTE: -- = not available; . . . = not applicable. a. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income or both earned and unearned income, or they may benefit from more than one work incentive provision. b. Includes 22 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 34

Section 1619 Participants Table 13. Percentage distribution of participants aged 18–64, by diagnostic group, December 2006
All blind and disabled recipients 4,152,130 100.0 0.7 3.4 1.6 2.6 21.6 9.7 26.8 1.2 0.4 4.4 0.9 1.0 10.3 7.8 2.0 0.2 0.2 5.2 Section 1619(a) participants 17,164 100.0 0.8 1.7 1.6 1.9 30.8 8.1 27.1 1.0 0.7 1.4 0.5 1.0 4.3 10.8 1.0 0.1 0.4 6.6 Section 1619(b) participants 86,389 100.0 0.8 1.8 1.7 2.3 29.4 8.4 24.2 1.2 0.7 1.7 0.6 1.2 5.5 10.5 0.9 0.1 0.3 8.5

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs a Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 35

Other Work Incentive Participants

Other Work Incentive Participants Chart 9. Percentage distribution, by age and provision, December 2006 Recipients with income excluded under plans to achieve self-support (PASS), impairment-related work expenses (IRWE), or blind work expenses (BWE) were similar in age to all working recipients (Chart 3). PASS participants were somewhat older—53 percent were aged 40 or older, compared with 35 percent of those with IRWE and 44 percent of those with BWE.

Percent 35 PASS 30 IRWE BWE

25

20

15

10

5

0 Under 22 22–29 30–39 Age
SOURCE: Table 15.

40–49

50 or older

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 37

Other Work Incentive Participants Chart 10. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2006 The most frequently identified diagnosis varied among recipients who had income excluded under plans to achieve self-support (PASS), impairment-related work expenses (IRWE), or blind work expenses (BWE). Over half of the recipients who had some income excluded under IRWE were mentally retarded, and 41 percent of those with a PASS had other mental disorders. Over four-fifths of those with BWE had a nervous system disorder.

Percent 90 PASS 80 IRWE 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 BWE

Mental retardation

Other mental disorders

Nervous system and sense organs

Other physical disorders

Unknown

SOURCE: Table 16.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 38

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 14. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2006
Plans to achieve self-support (PASS) a 1,583 23 4 7 16 371 13 9 0 b 39 26 5 23 43 30 53 25 64 b 46 18 100 43 52 7 34 17 17 b 12 3 0 86 73 b 26 6 31 13 10 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 5,650 143 b 59 48 366 27 108 27 0 306 194 7 8 191 94 50 286 81 96 27 161 147 95 113 36 104 9 19 19 19 201 56 477 293 7 106 65 36 242 10 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,370 28 b 27 20 391 24 32 9 3 82 48 8 4 57 38 47 30 34 34 10 34 211 78 44 22 29 9 8 13 6 44 15 185 93 3 80 21 20 88 8
(Continued)

State or area All areas Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 39

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 14. Number, by state or other area and provision, December 2006—Continued
Plans to achieve self-support (PASS) a 20 7 20 22 b 30 7 33 11 78 b b Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 60 12 101 284 36 9 465 89 25 234 b b Blind work expenses (BWE) 31 6 36 156 13 4 58 45 13 64 3 b

State or area South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Outlying area Northern Mariana Islands

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 435 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. Data are not shown to avoid disclosure of information for particular individuals. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 40

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 15. Number, by selected characteristics and provision, December 2006
Plans to achieve self-support (PASS) a 1,583 1 69 308 364 461 313 57 10 643 940 393 101 1,098 33 9 32 26 40 36 40 44 45 29 23 128 317 1,228 18 0 58 54 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 5,650 4 276 1,813 1,608 1,102 601 145 101 3,106 2,544 5,556 117 0 469 227 798 696 663 493 497 364 269 231 141 802 2,367 2,978 30 1 345 195 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,370 4 84 579 678 536 364 67 58 1,273 1,097 2,296 91 0 150 78 229 188 154 117 116 99 103 94 86 956 1,217 1,023 6 0 153 63

Characteristic Total Age Under 18 18–21 22–29 30–39 40–49 50–59 60–64 65 or older Sex Male Female Earned income b Wages Self-employment Earnings (dollars) None 65 or less 66–99 100–199 200–299 300–399 400–499 500–599 600–699 700–799 800–899 900–999 1,000 or more Unearned income b None Social Security Other pensions Income based on need Asset income Other

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 435 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. The sum of the entries may be greater than the total because some recipients may receive more than one type of earned or unearned income or both earned and unearned income. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 41

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 16. Percentage distribution, by diagnostic group and provision, December 2006
Plans to achieve self-support (PASS) a 1,583 100.0 0.9 1.7 1.9 5.9 3.9 9.7 31.0 0.8 0.6 1.5 0.6 0.8 7.8 13.8 0.5 0 0.3 18.5 Impairmentrelated work expenses (IRWE) 5,650 100.0 2.8 0.5 0.7 1.8 51.5 3.5 10.8 0.4 0.1 0.8 0.2 0.3 1.5 13.2 0.4 0 0.4 10.9

Diagnostic group Total Number Percent Congenital anomalies Endocrine, nutritional, and metabolic diseases Infectious and parasitic diseases Injuries Mental disorders Retardation Schizophrenia Other Neoplasms Diseases of the— Blood and blood-forming organs Circulatory system Digestive system Genitourinary system Musculoskeletal system and connective tissue Nervous system and sense organs b Respiratory system Skin and subcutaneous tissue Other Unknown

All blind and disabled recipients 4,152,130 100.0 0.7 3.4 1.6 2.6 21.6 9.7 26.8 1.2 0.4 4.4 0.9 1.0 10.3 7.8 2.0 0.2 0.2 5.2

Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,370 100.0 1.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 2.4 0 0.4 0.2 0 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 81.9 0 0 0.1 12.2

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Includes 435 persons with a PASS that excludes only resources. b. Most disabled recipients classified as blind are included in this category. A few blind recipients with a primary impairment other than diseases of the eye are coded in other categories. Also, a few recipients are classified with diseases of the eye, but their impairment does not meet the definition of blindness. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 42

Other Work Incentive Participants Table 17. Percentage distribution of persons with income excluded, by amount excluded and provision, December 2006
Plans to achieve self-support (PASS) a 1,148 100.0 0.3 1.1 1.1 5.9 7.3 20.7 49.7 13.8 Impairment-related work expenses (IRWE) 5,650 100.0 18.5 24.1 31.8 15.6 4.8 3.2 1.8 0.3 Blind work expenses (BWE) 2,370 100.0 18.7 10.8 14.8 16.6 11.9 13.0 11.0 3.1

Amount excluded (dollars) Total Number Percent Under 25 25–49 50–99 100–199 200–299 300–499 500–999 1,000 or more

SOURCE: Social Security Administration, Supplemental Security Record (Characteristic Extract Record format), 100 percent data. a. Data do not include plans to achieve self-support that exclude only resources. CONTACT: Clark Pickett (410) 965-9016 or ssi.workers@ssa.gov.

SSI Disabled Recipients Who Work, 2006 ♦ 43