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My own (very informal) outline of many sections from the 2006-2007 version of the Introduction to Basic Statistics textbook. Note: While it remains incomplete, it is very comprehensive.

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You are on page 1of 65

1.1

Data are numbers with a context.

Variables

**• Individuals- objects described by a set of data.
**

• Variable- characteristic of an individual.

• Questions to pursue when studying Statistics:

o Why? What purpose do the data have?

o Who? What individuals do the data describe? How many individ.?

o What? How many variables? What is the unit of measurement?

Categorical and Quantitative Variables

**A categorical variable places an indi. into one of several
**

groups.

A quantitative variable takes numerical values for which

numerical operations make sense.

The distribution of a variable tells us what values it takes

and how often it takes these variables.

(7)

**1.1 Displaying Distributions with Graphs
**

• Exploratory Data Analysis- examination of data to describe their main

features,

o Steps:

Examine variables, then study relationships.

Begin with a graph, then summarize numerical aspects.

• Charts, and especially bar graphs and pie charts, are excellent ways of

representing data.

(11)

• Stemplots- are excellent ways to represent data, as are back-to-back

stemplots. They do not work well for large sets of data

(13)

• One can trim or split the data in order to deal with large amounts of data

in a stemplot.

• Histograms are good for large amounts of data. One sets up “classes” of

data, or simple ranges with a defined width. Individuals that fall into each

class, or frequencies, are grouped together and then graphed on a bar

graph.

• When analyzing graphs, one must look at the overall pattern for

deviations, shape, center, and spread. Always pay attention to

outliers.

• One must identify outliers and explain them.

(19)

• Time plots are used when there is a change over time from which data is

being collected.

• Time series are collections of measurements taken regularly over time.

• A trend is a persistent, long-term rise or fall.

• A patterin in a time series that repeats itself at known regular intervals of

time is called seasonal variation. When a variation like this is

pinpointed, data may be able to be seasonally adjusted to account for

an expected difference.

1.2

• A brief description of a distribution should include shape, center, &

spread.

• The mean of a set of observations is the sum of their values

divided by the number of observations.

o =(1/n)∑xsubi

• Because the mean cannot resist the influence of extreme observations like

outliers, we refer to it as not being a resistant measure.

• Median-formal version of midpoint.

o Steps to reaching the median.

Arrange all numbers from smallest to largest.

If number of observations n is odd, the median is the

midpoint, found by using (n+1)/2.

If the number of observations n is even, the median is

the average of the two midpoints, found using

(n+1)/2.

• The median is a resistant measure and is used when outliers are

present as a more accurate measurement.

• If mean and median are the same, the distribution is exactly

symmetric. If they are not, the distribution is skewed.

• The simplest useful numerical description of a distribution consists of both

a measure of center and a measure of spread.

• Percentiles, such as the pth percentile, of a distribution to describe how

many observations fall below said percentile.

• Two other percentiles often used, besides the median, are the third and

first quartile, 75% and 25% respectively.

o Q1- median of observations before median.

o Q3- median of observations after the median.

• The five number summary:

o Minimum Q1 M Q3 Maximum

o Gives good idea of center, spread, etc.

**o A boxplot is a graph of the five number summary.
**

Central box spans quartiles Q1 and Q3.

Line in the box marks the median M.

Lines extend from the box out to the smallest and largest

observations.

Modified boxplots plot suspected outliers individually.

• The Interquartile range or IQR:

o IQR= Q1-Q3

• The 1.5 x IQR rule for suspected outliers

o Call an observation a suspected outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x

IQR above the third quartile or below the first quartile.

• Spread is measured through Stanard Deviation

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**• Finding standard deviation on a TI-83
**

o Press STAT and choose Edit from the EDIT menu

o Enter your data in L1

o Press 2nd QUIT

o Press STAT and choose 1-Var Stats from the CALC menu

o Press 2nd 1 (for L1)

o Press Enter

• s, or Standard Deviation, is not resistant, and s=0 only when there is

no spread.

• When choosing which method of measuring spread is the most accurate,

use the five number summary when outliers are present.

1.3

• Clear strategy for describing distributions:

o Always plot your data: make a graph, usually a stemplot or

histogram.

o Look for the overall pattern and for striking deviations such

as outliers.

o Calculate an appropriate numerical summary to briefly

describe center and spread.

• Fitting a smooth curve to a histogram gives us a density curve.

o Density curves are done through software.

o Smooth approximation to the irregular curvature of a histogram.

o A density curve does not take outliers into consideration.

o The median of the curve is the point with half the total area on

each side. The mean is the balance point.

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**• A normal curve is bell-shaped.
**

• µ is the symbol for the mean of an idealized distribution. The standard

**deviation symbol of such a curve is sigma, or TIFF
**

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• The 65-95-99.7 rule shows how data should theoretically fall.

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**o Approximately 68% of the obs fall within the mean of µ.
**

o Approx 95% of the obs. Fall within 2(sigma) of µ.

o Approx 99.7% of the obs fall within 3(sigma) of µ

• Since normal distributions share many properties, we like to standardize

their units to

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**o The resulting number, the z-score, tells how many standard
**

deviations the original observation falls from the mean, and in

which direction.

(74)

• Standarized observations from symmetric distributions are used to

express things in a common scale. We might, for example, compare the

heights of two children of different ages by calculating their z-score, and

these heights could tell us where each child stands in the distribution of

his or her age group.

• Cumulative proportions are areas under a distribution that show the

proportion of observations in a distribution that lie at or below a given

value.

• One can use a standard normal table from the book to find cumulative

proportions

• EXMP:

•

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(80)

• The most useful tool for assessing normality is the normal quantile plot.

o Used when the stemplot or histogram appears roughly symmetric

and unimodal.

o Process:

Arrange data from smallest largest.

Do normal distribution calculations to find the z-scores at

these same percentiles.

Plot each data point against the corresponding z.

Voila!

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o If the points on a normal quantile plot lie close to a straight line,

the plot indicates that the data are normal. Systematic deviations

from a straight line indicate non-normal distribution. Outliers

appear as points that are far away from the overall pattern of the

plot.

Introduction to the Practice of Basic Statistics

2.1

• When examining relationships, one must keep in mind:

o What individuals do the data describe?

o What variables are present? How are they measured?

o Which variables are quantitative and which are categorical?

• A response variable or dependent variable measures the outcome of

a study. A explanatory variable or independent variable explains or

causes changes in the response variable.

• The goal of a study is to determine if an explanatory variable actually

causes a response variable to change.

• The most useful graph for displaying the relationship between two

quantitative variables is a scatterplot.

o Two variables, one set of individuals.

o Explanatory variable goes on the X.

• Examining a scatterplot

o Search for the overall pattern and deviations.

o You can describe the overall pattern of a scatterplot by the form,

direction, and strength of the relationship

• Two variables are positively associated when above-average values of

one tend to accompany above-average values of the other and below-

average values also tend to occur together.

• Two variables are negatively associated when above-average values of

one accompany below-average values of the other, and vice-versa.

• If the relationship has a clear direction, we speak of either positive or

negative association.

2.2

• Correlation r is the measure we use to determine the strength of a linear

relationship.

o The correlation measures the direction and strength of the linear

relationship between two quantitative variables.

o Suppose we have data on variables x and y for n individuals. The

means and standard deviations of the two variables are xbar and

sx for the x-values and ybar and sy for the y-values.

o

**• It makes no difference what values you make x & y.
**

• Positive r = positive association, negative r = negative association.

• Correlation always between -1 and 1.

• Correlation is strongly affected by outliers and is not resistant.

2.3

• A regression line is a straight line that describes how a response

variable y changes as an explanatory variable x changes. We often use a

regression line to predict the value of y for a given value of x.

Regression, unlike correlation, requires that we have an explanatory

variable and a response variable.

• The equation is

o Y = a + bx

B is slope

A is the intercept

• We extrapolate when we use a regression line for prediction far outside

the range of values of the explanatory variable x used to obtain the line.

Such predictions are often not accurate.

• Since prediction errors most often lie in the response variables, we must

find error.

o Error = observed gain – predicted gain

o Errors are positive if they are above the line, and vice versa.

• The least-squares regression line is the line that makes the sum of the

squares of the vertical distances of the data points from the line as small

as possible.

o Yhat= a + bx

o b = r * sy/sx

o a = meany – b * meanx

o ALWAYS passes through the mean point (xbar, ybar)

• 2

r is the square of the correlation, and it is the fraction of the variation in

the values of y that is explained by the least-squares regression of y on x.

o Gives the amount of variation accounted for in the linear

relationship.

• We often transform relationships, especially one involving sizes. We

usually use logarithms to rid the data of extreme outliers

2.4

• A residual is the difference between an observed value of the response

variable and the value predicted by the regression line. That is,

o Residual = observed y - predicted y

o = y – yhat

o The mean of the least-squares residuals is always zero.

• A residual plot is a scatterplot of the regression residuals can be made.

o Since the mean of the residuals is always zero, a horizontal line at

zero is centered in the scatter plot.

• A lurking variable is a variable that is not among the explanatory or

response variables in a study and yet may influence the interpretation of

relationships among those variables.

• An association between an explanatory variable x and a response variable

y, even if it is very strong, is not by itself good evidence that changes in x

actually cause changes in y.

o Those that aren’t are called “nonsense variables.”

• A correlation based on averages over many individuals is usually higher

than the correlation between the same variables based on data for

individuals.

2.5

• We often seek to understand if changes in the explanatory cause changes

in the response variable. What ties between two variables, (or lurking

ones), cause observed association?

• Dashed lines mean observed association.

• Solid lines explain direct cause and effect association.

• As we see above, it can seem apparent that in (b), x and y are

related. They are, however, not. They just seem to be.

• Two variables are confounded when their effects on a response variable

cannot be distinguished from each other. The confounded variables may

either be explanatory variables or lurking variables.

• Strong association between two variables is not by itself good

evidence that there is a cause-effect link between the variables.

• Confounding of two variables, (either explanatory or lurking), means

that we cannot distinguish their effects on the response variable.

• One can establish a direct, causal link between x and y only through

experiment.

• Criteria for establishing causation when we cannot do an experiment:

o The association is strong.

o The association is consistent.

o Higher does are associated with stronger responses.

o The alleged cause precedes the effect in time.

o The alleged clause is plausible.

Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics

3.1

• Designs focus on patterns for collecting data.

o How many individuals will be studied?

o How shall one select the individuals?

o Etc.

• To rely on anecdotal evidence is to base evidence on haphazardly

selected individual cases, which often come to our attention because they

are striking in some way. These cases need not be representative of any

larger group of cases.

• Many nations have federally run data collecting agencies that collect all

kinds of data.

o www.fedstats.gov

• Available data are data that were produced in the past for some other

purpose but that may help answer a present question.

• Sampling for data and experimenting are two very essential methods

of data collection.

• An observational study observes individuals and measures variables of

interest but does not attempt to influence the responses.

• An experiment deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in

order to observe their responses.

3.2

• A study is an experiment when we actually do something to people,

animals, or objects in order to observe the response.

o Experimental Units- Individuals under experimentation

Subjects – Humans under expermentation

o Treatment – condition applied to the units

• In principle experiments can give good evidence for causations.

• Experiments are sometimes simple, with a Treatment Observed

Response format.

• Control Groups are often used as groups that get a faux experiment to

see if situations like the placebo effect are in action.

• The design of a study is biased if it systematically favors certain

outcomes.

• The design of an experiment first describes the response variable or

variables, the factors, and the layout of the treatments with comparison

as the leading principle.

• To avoid bias, rely on chance. Randomization is the way to achieve this.

• When relying on chance, one must make the field of individuals large

enough to combat the luck of the draw. (One group out of two gets a

majority of the better-abled individuals.

• Principles of Experimental Design:

o Control the effects of lurking variable son the response, most

simply by comparing two or more treatments.

o Randomize using impersonal chance to assign experimental units to

treatments.

o Repeat each treatment on many units to reduce chance variation.

• An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance is called

statistically significant.

• Often, we run double-blind experiments, especially in medicine, in which

neither the subjects nor the personnel who worked with them knew which

treatment any subject had received.

• A serious weakness in experimentation is a lack of realism, in which the

the subjects or treatments or setting of an experiment may not

realistically duplicate the conditions we really want to study.

o One cannot always generalize conclusions to some setting wider

than that of the actual experiment.

• For even more accuracy than a completely randomized experiment, one

may use matched pair designs which compares just two treatments.

o Often matches individuals that are similar in many categories.

o Because the two are so similar, the comparison is more efficient.

• Block designs are experiments in which a block of experimental units

that are known to be similar in some way before the experiment are

grouped together because they are expected to affect the response to the

treatments

3.3

• The entire group of individuals that we want information about is called

the population.

• A sample is part of the population that we actually examine in order to

gather information.

• The design of a sample survey refers to the method used to choose the

sample from the population.

• A voluntary response sample consists of people who choose

themselves by responding to a general appeal. Voluntary response

samples are biased because people with strong opinions, especially

negative opinions, are likely to respond.

• A simple random sample (SRS) of size n consists of n individuals from

the population chosen in such a way that every set on n individuals has

an equal chance to be the sample actually selected.

• A probability sample is a sample chosen by chance. We must know

what samples are possible and what chance, or probability, each possible

sample has.

• To select a stratified random sample, first divide the population into

groups of similar individuals, called strata. Then, choose a separate SRS

in each stratum and combine these SRSs to form the full sample.

• A common means of restricting random selection is to choose the sample

in stages.

o Used for households or people.

• A multistage sampling design selects successively smaller groups

within the population in stages, resulting in a sample consisting of clusters

of individuals. Each stage may employ an SRS, a stratified sample, or

another type of sample.

• Undercoverage occurs when some groups in the population are left out

of the process of choosing the sample.

• Nonresponse occurs when an individual chosen for the sample can’t be

contacted or does not cooperate.

• Response bias is often the fault of behavior by either the respondent or

the interviewer.

o Illegal or unpopular behavior often incites lies.

• The wording of questions is the most important influence on the

answers given to a sample survey.

o Confusing or leading questions can introduce small bias.

3.4

• Statistical inference is when assumptions about a larger population are

made through the results of the smaller, sampled population.

• A parameter is a number that describes the population. A parameter is a

fixed number, but in practice we do not know it’s value.

• A statistic is a number that describes a sample. We often use a statistic

to estimate an unknown parameter.

• Often, we use sample variability to make many samples. This helps us

get a better picture of a possible trend and to account for changes form

sample to sample. A histogram is then made.

• Process:

o Take a large number of samples

o Calculate the sample proportion phat for each sample.

o Make a histogram of the values of phat.

o Describe the histogram.

• Using random digits from a table or computer software to initiate chance

behavior is called simulation.

• The sampling distribution of a statistic is the distribution of values

taken by the statistic in all possible samples of the same size from the

same population.

• Bias concerns the center of the sampling distribution. A statistic used to

estimate a parameter is unbiased if the mean of its sampling distribution

is equal to the true value of the parameter being estimated.

• The variability of a statistic is described by the spread of its sampling

distribution. This spread is determined by the sampling design and the

sample size n. Statistics from larger probability samples have smaller

spreads.

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**• To reduce bias, use random sampling. When we start with a list of the
**

entire population, simple random sampling produces unbiased estimates-

the values of a statistic computer from an SRS neither consistently

overestimate nor consistently underestimate the value of the population

parameter.

• To reduce the variability of a statistic from an SRS, use a larger

sample. You can make the variability as small as you want by taking a

large enough sample.

• Large SRSs are often a close estimate of the truth.

• A margin of error comes from the results and sets bounds of the size of

the likely error.

The variability of a statistic from a random sample does not

depend on the size of the population, as long as the population

is at least 100 times larger than the sample.

Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics

4.1

• Random in statistics does not mean haphazard, but rather a kind of order

that emerges in the long run. We call a phenomenon random if individual

outcomes are uncertain but there is nonetheless a regular distribution of

outcomes in a large number of repetitions.

• The probability of any outcome of a random phenomenon is the

proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long series of

repetitions.

• A long series of independent trials that don’t affect each other must be

enacted before we can study probability of an outcome effectively.

4.2

• Probability models are descriptions of random phenomenon in the

language of math.

o List of all outcomes and the probability of each outcome.

• The sample space S of a random phenomenon is the set of all possible

outcomes.

o S = {………………………………}

• An event is an outcome or a set of outcomes of a random phenomenon.

That is, an event is a subset of the sample space.

• Rules of probabilities:

o A probability is a number between 0 & 1.

o All possible outcomes together must have probability 1.

o If two events have no outcomes in common, the probability

that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual

probabilities.

o The probability that an event does not occur is 1 minus the

probability that the event does occur.

o Multiplication Rule

Two events A and B are independent if

knowing that one

occurs does not change the probability that

the other occurs.

P(A and B) = P (A)P(B)

o Compliment Rule

The complement of any event A is the event

that A does not

occur, written as Ac= 1- P(A)

• If a random phenomenon has k possible outcomes, all equally likely,

thene ach individual outcome has probability 1/k. The probability of any

event A is:

o P(A) = Count of outcomes in A / Count of Outcomes in S

= Count of outcomes in A / k

4.3

• A random variable is a variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a

random phenomenon.

•

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**• Probability Histograms compare the probability model for random
**

digits.

• A continuous random variable X takes all values in an interval of

numbers. The probability distribution of X is described by a density

curve. The probability of any event is the area under the density curve

and above the values of X that make up the event.

• All continuous probability distributions assign probability 0 to

every individual outcome.

4.3

• The mean of a probability distribution describes the long-run average

outcome, not the direct center of the data.

• We cannot refer to the mean of a probability distribution as “xbar,” for the

mean of a probability distribution does not describe data that has an

equal likelihood of happening. Rather, the mean of a probability

distribution is referred to as µ, and sometimes µX

•

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**• The mean of a random variable X is often called the expected value of
**

X.

• µ is a parameter and xbar is a statistic.

• Law of Large Numbers:

o Draw independent observations at random from any population

with finite mean µ. As the number of observed values eventually

approaches the mean of the draw increases, the meanxbar of the

observed values eventually approaches the mean µ of the

population as closely as you specified and then stays that close.

• The more variable the outcomes, the more trials are needed to ensure

that the mean outcome xbar is close to the distribution mean µ.

•

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**• If random variables are independent, this kind of association between
**

their values is ruled out and their variances do add. Two random variables

X and Y are independent if knowing that any event involving X alone did

or did not occur tells us nothing about the occurrence of any event

involving Y alone.

• When random variables are not independent, the variance of their sum

depends on the correlation between them as well as on their individual

variables.

• The correlation between two independent random variables is

zero.

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Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics

Introduction

• The link between probability and data is formed by the sampling

distributions of statistics. It is an idealized mathematical description of

the results of an indefinitely large number of samples, rather than the

results of a particular 1000 samples.

The Distribution of a Statistic

A statistic from a random sample or randomized experiment is a random

variable. The probability distribution of the statistic is its sampling

distribution.

Population Distribution

The population distribution of a variable is the distribution of its values for all

members of the population. The population distribution is also the probability

distribution of the variable when we choose one individual at random from the

population.

5.1

• The count is the number of occurrences of some outcome in a fixed

number of observations. It is often a random variable, like X.

• If the number of observations is n, then the sample proportion is

phat=X/n.

o For example, if three hundred people were asked if they agree with

a statement or not, and 200 say they agree, then the count is 200

and the sample proportion is phat = (200)/(300) = 0.66.

• The distribution of a count X depends on how the data are produced.

The Binomial Setting

1. There are a fixed number n of observations.

**2. The n observations are all independent.
**

3. Each observation falls into one of just two categories, which for convenience we

call “success” and “failure.”

4. The probability of a success, call it p, is the same for each observation.

Binomial Distributions

The distribution of the count X of success in the binomial setting is called the

binomial distribution with parameters n and p. The parameter n is the number of

observations, and p is the probability of a success on any one observation. The

possible values of X are the whole numbers from 0 to n. As an abbreviation, we say

that X is B(n,p).

• The most important skill for using binomial distribution sis the

ability to recognize the situations to which they do an don’t apply.

• Choosing an SRS from a population is not quite a binomial setting.

Sampling Distribution of a Count

A population contains proportion of p of successes. If the population is much larger

than the sample, the count X of successes in a SRS of size n has approximately the

binomial distribution B(n,p).

**The accuracy of this approximation improves as the size of the population increases
**

relative to the size of the sample. As a rule of thumb, we will use the binomial

sampling distribution for counts when the population is at least 20 times as large as

the sample.

Binomial Mean and Standard Deviation

If a count X has the binomial distribution B(n,p),

then

µx = np

x = (np(1-p)) 1/2

**• Proportion is ALWAYS a number between 0 and 1. Do NOT get it
**

confused with the count.

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5.2

• Averages are less variable than individual observations.

• Averages are more normal than individual observations.

Mean and Standard Deviation of a Sample Mean

Let xbar be the mean of an SRS of size n from a population having mean µ and

standard deviation . The mean and standard deviation of xbar are:

µxbar = µ

xbar = / (√n)

**Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean
**

If a population has the N(µ, ), then the sample mean xbar of n independent

observations has the N( µ, ( / √n))

**Central Limit Theorem
**

Draw an SRS of size n from any population with mean µ and finite standard

deviation . When n is large, the sampling distribution of the sample mean xbar is

approximately normal:

**Central Limit Theorem
**

Draw an SRS of size n from any population with mean µ and finite standard

deviation . When n is large, the sampling distribution of the sample mean xbar is

approximately normal:

Xbar is approximately n (µ, ( / (√n))

**• The normal approximation for the sample proportions and counts
**

is an example of the central limit theorem.

• More general versions of the central limit theorem say that the

distribution of a sum or average of many small random quantities

is close to normal.

• Any linear combination of independent normal random variables is

also normally distributed

Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics

Introduction

• When you use statistical inference, you are acting as if the data come

from a random sample or a randomized experiment.

6.1

• An estimate without an indication of its variability is of little value.

• The 68-95-99.7 rule comes back into play here. When looking at a

normal distribution, the probability is that 95 percent of your data will fall

within 2 standard deviations of the mean.

• If we’re looking at a sample mean “xbar,” we know that that is a sample

estimator of the population mean µ. We can safely say in a large enough

sample that the true µ can be found within 95 percent of the data, or

within two standard deviations. This is called a 95% confidence

interval for µ.

o Estimate ± margin of error

Confidence Interval

A level C confidence interval for a parameter is an interval

computed from a sample data by a method that has probability

C of producing an interval containing the true value of the

parameter.

**1.It is an interval of the form (a,b), where a and b are numbers
**

computed from the data..

2.It has a property called a confidence level that gives the probability

that interval covers the parameter.

3.A confidence level does not have to be 95%

• Any normal curve has probability C between the point z* standard

deviations below the mean and the point z* above the mean.

• z* is simply the exact amount of standard deviations away from the mean

could be. Refer to table D in the back of the book.

• The unknown population mean µ lies between

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**• Margin of Error too large?
**

o Use a lower level of confidence (smaller C)

o Increase the sample size (larger n)

o ReduceTIFF

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**o A wise user of statistics never plans data collection without at the
**

same time planning the inference. You can arrange to have both

high confidence and a small margin of error. To obtain a desired

margin of error m, just use the equation for margin of error

above, substitute the value of z* for your desired confidence

level, and solve for the sample size n.

•

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**• It is always safe to round up to the next higher whole number when
**

finding n because this will give us a small margin of error.

• CAUTION:

o THESE CONDITIONS MUST BE MET TO USE A FORMULA FOR

INFERENCE.

The data should be an SRS from the population.

The formula is not correct for probability sampling

designs more complex than SRS.

There is no correct method for inference for

haphazardly collected data with bias of unknown size.

Because “xbar” is not resistant, outliers can have a large

effect on the confidence interval.

If the sample size is small and the population is not

normal, the true confidence level will be different from

the value C used in computing the interval.

You must know the standard deviation of the

population.

6.2

• Confidence intervals are appropriate when our goal is to estimate a

population parameter. The second common type of inference is directed at

a quite different goal: to assess the evidence provided by the data in

favor of some claim about the population.

• A significance test is a formal procedure for comparing observed data

with a hypothesis whose truth we want to assess.

• The hypothesis is a statement about the parameters in a population.

Null Hypothesis

The statement being tested in a test of significance is called the

null hypothesis. The test of significance is designed to assess the

strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis. Usually the

null hypothesis is a statement of “no effect” or “no difference.”

We abbreviate this as H0.

• HA is the alternative hypothesis and it states that the statement we

hope or suspect is true instead of the null hypothesis.

• Hypotheses always refer to some population or model, not to a particular

outcome. For this reason, we must state the null and the

alternative hypotheses in terms of population parameters.

• It is not always clear, in particular, whether the alternative hypothesis

should be one sided or two sided, which refers to whether a parameter

differs from its null hypothesis value in a specific direction or in

either direction.

• Test Statistics

o The test is based on a statistic that estimates the parameter that

appears in the hypotheses. Usually this is the same estimate we

would use in a confidence interval for the parameter. When the null

hypothesis is true, we expect the estimate to take a value near the

parameter value specified by the null hypothesis.

o Values of the estimate far from the parameter value specified by

the null hypothesis give evidence against the null hypothesis. The

alternative hypothesis determines which directions count against

the null hypothesis.

o To assess how far the estimate is from the parameter, standardize

the estimate. In many common stat situations, the test statistic has

the form:

z = (estimate-hypothesized value)÷(standard

deviation of the estimate)

**• A test statistic measures compatibility between the null hypothesis and
**

the data. We use it for the probability calculation that we need for our test

of significance. It is a random variable with a distribution that we know.

• A test of significance finds the probability as extreme or more extreme

than the actual observed outcome.

P-Value

The probability, computed assuming that the null value is true, that the test statistic

would take a value as extreme or more extreme than that actually observed is

called the P-value of the test. The smaller the P-value, the stronger the evidence

against the null value provided by the data.

• After one translates the test statistic into a P-value to quantify the

evidence of the null hypothesis, we need to compare the P-value we

calculated with a fixed value that we regard as decisive. This is

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• When we choose a significance level, we are saying in advance how

much evidence against the null hypothesis will be needed to reject

it.

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Statistic Significange

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**• Four steps common to all tests of significance
**

o State the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

o Calculate the value of the test statistic on which the test will be

based. This statistic usually measures how far the data are from

the null hypothesis.

o Find the P-value for the observed data. This is the probability,

calculated assuming that the null hypothesis is true, that the test

statistic will weigh against the null hypothesis at least as strongly

as it does for these data.

o State a conclusion! You can choose a significance level TIFF

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**Z Test for a Population Mean
**

To test the hypothesis Ho : µ = µo based on an SRS of size n from a population with

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**In terms of a standard normal random variable Z, the P-value for a test of the null
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hypothesis against

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**These P-values are exact if the population distribution is normal and are
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approximately correct for large n in other cases.

Two-Sided Significance Tests and Confidence Intervals

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significant.

6.3

• There is no sharp border between “significant” and “not

significant,” only increasingly strong evidence as P-value decreases.

• We use the 5% standard often.

• Formal statistical inference cannot correct basic flaws in the design.

We must often analyze data that do not arise from randomized

samples or experiments. To apply statistical inference to such

data, we must have confidence in a probability model for the

data.

Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics

7.1

Standard Error

When the standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from the data, the result is

called the standard error of the statistic.

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• When is not known, we estimate it with the sample standard

**deviation s, and then we estimate the standard deviation of xbar by
**

s/√n. This quantity is the standard error of the sample mean xbar seen

above.

• When we substitute the standard error s/√n for the standard deviation

/ √n of xbar, the statistic does not have a normal distribution. It

**has a distribution called a t-distribution.
**

The t Distributions

Suppose that an SRS of size n is drawn from an N (µ, ) population. Then, the

one-sample t statistic

t = (xbar-µ) / (s/√n)

has the t distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom.

• Degrees of freedom are a measure of how much precision an estimate

of variability has.

• Table D on page T-11 in the back of the book gives critical values for

the t distribution.

The One-Sample t Confidence Interval

Suppose that an SRS of size n is drawn from a population having unknown mean µ.

A level C confidence interval for µ is

Xbar ± t* (s/√n)

where t* is the value for the t(n-1) density curve with area C between –t* & t*. The

quantity

t* (s/√n)

is the margin of error. This interval is exact when the population distribution is

normal and is approximately correct for large n in other cases.

Z Test for a Population Mean

• Suppose that an SRS of size n is drawn from a population having unknown

mean µ. To test the hypothesis Ho : µ = µo based on an SRS of size n,

compute the one-sample t statistic

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**• In terms of a standard normal random variable T having the t(n – 1)
**

distribution, the P-value for a test of the null hypothesis against

**• These P-values are exact if the population distribution is normal and are
**

approximately correct for large n in other cases.

**• It is wrong to examine the data first and then decide to do a one-sided
**

test in the direction indicated by the data.

• In a matched pairs study, subjects are matched in pairs and the

outcomes are compare within each matched pair.

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