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# Introduction to the Practice of Basic Statistics

1.1

Variables

## • Individuals- objects described by a set of data.

• Variable- characteristic of an individual.
• Questions to pursue when studying Statistics:
o Why? What purpose do the data have?
o Who? What individuals do the data describe? How many individ.?
o What? How many variables? What is the unit of measurement?

## A categorical variable places an indi. into one of several

groups.
A quantitative variable takes numerical values for which
numerical operations make sense.
The distribution of a variable tells us what values it takes
and how often it takes these variables.

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## 1.1 Displaying Distributions with Graphs

• Exploratory Data Analysis- examination of data to describe their main
features,
o Steps:
 Examine variables, then study relationships.
 Begin with a graph, then summarize numerical aspects.
• Charts, and especially bar graphs and pie charts, are excellent ways of
representing data.
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• Stemplots- are excellent ways to represent data, as are back-to-back
stemplots. They do not work well for large sets of data

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• One can trim or split the data in order to deal with large amounts of data
in a stemplot.
• Histograms are good for large amounts of data. One sets up “classes” of
data, or simple ranges with a defined width. Individuals that fall into each
class, or frequencies, are grouped together and then graphed on a bar
graph.
• When analyzing graphs, one must look at the overall pattern for
deviations, shape, center, and spread. Always pay attention to
outliers.
• One must identify outliers and explain them.
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• Time plots are used when there is a change over time from which data is
being collected.
• Time series are collections of measurements taken regularly over time.
• A trend is a persistent, long-term rise or fall.
• A patterin in a time series that repeats itself at known regular intervals of
time is called seasonal variation. When a variation like this is
pinpointed, data may be able to be seasonally adjusted to account for
an expected difference.

1.2
• A brief description of a distribution should include shape, center, &
• The mean of a set of observations is the sum of their values
divided by the number of observations.
o =(1/n)∑xsubi
• Because the mean cannot resist the influence of extreme observations like
outliers, we refer to it as not being a resistant measure.
• Median-formal version of midpoint.
o Steps to reaching the median.
 Arrange all numbers from smallest to largest.
 If number of observations n is odd, the median is the
midpoint, found by using (n+1)/2.
 If the number of observations n is even, the median is
the average of the two midpoints, found using
(n+1)/2.
• The median is a resistant measure and is used when outliers are
present as a more accurate measurement.
• If mean and median are the same, the distribution is exactly
symmetric. If they are not, the distribution is skewed.
• The simplest useful numerical description of a distribution consists of both
a measure of center and a measure of spread.
• Percentiles, such as the pth percentile, of a distribution to describe how
many observations fall below said percentile.
• Two other percentiles often used, besides the median, are the third and
first quartile, 75% and 25% respectively.
o Q1- median of observations before median.
o Q3- median of observations after the median.
• The five number summary:
o Minimum Q1 M Q3 Maximum
o Gives good idea of center, spread, etc.

## o A boxplot is a graph of the five number summary.

 Central box spans quartiles Q1 and Q3.
 Line in the box marks the median M.
 Lines extend from the box out to the smallest and largest
observations.
 Modified boxplots plot suspected outliers individually.
• The Interquartile range or IQR:
o IQR= Q1-Q3
• The 1.5 x IQR rule for suspected outliers
o Call an observation a suspected outlier if it falls more than 1.5 x
IQR above the third quartile or below the first quartile.
• Spread is measured through Stanard Deviation

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## • Finding standard deviation on a TI-83

o Press STAT and choose Edit from the EDIT menu
o Enter your data in L1
o Press 2nd QUIT
o Press STAT and choose 1-Var Stats from the CALC menu
o Press 2nd 1 (for L1)
o Press Enter

• s, or Standard Deviation, is not resistant, and s=0 only when there is
• When choosing which method of measuring spread is the most accurate,
use the five number summary when outliers are present.

1.3
• Clear strategy for describing distributions:
o Always plot your data: make a graph, usually a stemplot or
histogram.
o Look for the overall pattern and for striking deviations such
as outliers.
o Calculate an appropriate numerical summary to briefly
• Fitting a smooth curve to a histogram gives us a density curve.
o Density curves are done through software.
o Smooth approximation to the irregular curvature of a histogram.
o A density curve does not take outliers into consideration.
o The median of the curve is the point with half the total area on
each side. The mean is the balance point.
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## • A normal curve is bell-shaped.

• µ is the symbol for the mean of an idealized distribution. The standard

## deviation symbol of such a curve is sigma, or TIFF

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• The 65-95-99.7 rule shows how data should theoretically fall.

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## o Approximately 68% of the obs fall within the mean of µ.

o Approx 95% of the obs. Fall within 2(sigma) of µ.
o Approx 99.7% of the obs fall within 3(sigma) of µ
• Since normal distributions share many properties, we like to standardize

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## o The resulting number, the z-score, tells how many standard

deviations the original observation falls from the mean, and in
which direction.
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• Standarized observations from symmetric distributions are used to
express things in a common scale. We might, for example, compare the
heights of two children of different ages by calculating their z-score, and
these heights could tell us where each child stands in the distribution of
his or her age group.
• Cumulative proportions are areas under a distribution that show the
proportion of observations in a distribution that lie at or below a given
value.
• One can use a standard normal table from the book to find cumulative
proportions
• EXMP:

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• The most useful tool for assessing normality is the normal quantile plot.
o Used when the stemplot or histogram appears roughly symmetric
and unimodal.
o Process:
 Arrange data from smallest  largest.
 Do normal distribution calculations to find the z-scores at
these same percentiles.
 Plot each data point against the corresponding z.
 Voila!

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o If the points on a normal quantile plot lie close to a straight line,
the plot indicates that the data are normal. Systematic deviations
from a straight line indicate non-normal distribution. Outliers
appear as points that are far away from the overall pattern of the
plot.
Introduction to the Practice of Basic Statistics
2.1
• When examining relationships, one must keep in mind:
o What individuals do the data describe?
o What variables are present? How are they measured?
o Which variables are quantitative and which are categorical?
• A response variable or dependent variable measures the outcome of
a study. A explanatory variable or independent variable explains or
causes changes in the response variable.
• The goal of a study is to determine if an explanatory variable actually
causes a response variable to change.
• The most useful graph for displaying the relationship between two
quantitative variables is a scatterplot.
o Two variables, one set of individuals.
o Explanatory variable goes on the X.
• Examining a scatterplot
o Search for the overall pattern and deviations.
o You can describe the overall pattern of a scatterplot by the form,
direction, and strength of the relationship
• Two variables are positively associated when above-average values of
one tend to accompany above-average values of the other and below-
average values also tend to occur together.
• Two variables are negatively associated when above-average values of
one accompany below-average values of the other, and vice-versa.
• If the relationship has a clear direction, we speak of either positive or
negative association.
2.2
• Correlation r is the measure we use to determine the strength of a linear
relationship.
o The correlation measures the direction and strength of the linear
relationship between two quantitative variables.
o Suppose we have data on variables x and y for n individuals. The
means and standard deviations of the two variables are xbar and
sx for the x-values and ybar and sy for the y-values.
o

## • It makes no difference what values you make x & y.

• Positive r = positive association, negative r = negative association.
• Correlation always between -1 and 1.
• Correlation is strongly affected by outliers and is not resistant.
2.3
• A regression line is a straight line that describes how a response
variable y changes as an explanatory variable x changes. We often use a
regression line to predict the value of y for a given value of x.
Regression, unlike correlation, requires that we have an explanatory
variable and a response variable.
• The equation is
o Y = a + bx
 B is slope
 A is the intercept
• We extrapolate when we use a regression line for prediction far outside
the range of values of the explanatory variable x used to obtain the line.
Such predictions are often not accurate.
• Since prediction errors most often lie in the response variables, we must
find error.
o Error = observed gain – predicted gain
o Errors are positive if they are above the line, and vice versa.
• The least-squares regression line is the line that makes the sum of the
squares of the vertical distances of the data points from the line as small
as possible.
o Yhat= a + bx
o b = r * sy/sx
o a = meany – b * meanx
o ALWAYS passes through the mean point (xbar, ybar)
• 2
r is the square of the correlation, and it is the fraction of the variation in
the values of y that is explained by the least-squares regression of y on x.
o Gives the amount of variation accounted for in the linear
relationship.
• We often transform relationships, especially one involving sizes. We
usually use logarithms to rid the data of extreme outliers
2.4
• A residual is the difference between an observed value of the response
variable and the value predicted by the regression line. That is,
o Residual = observed y - predicted y
o = y – yhat
o The mean of the least-squares residuals is always zero.
• A residual plot is a scatterplot of the regression residuals can be made.
o Since the mean of the residuals is always zero, a horizontal line at
zero is centered in the scatter plot.
• A lurking variable is a variable that is not among the explanatory or
response variables in a study and yet may influence the interpretation of
relationships among those variables.
• An association between an explanatory variable x and a response variable
y, even if it is very strong, is not by itself good evidence that changes in x
actually cause changes in y.
o Those that aren’t are called “nonsense variables.”
• A correlation based on averages over many individuals is usually higher
than the correlation between the same variables based on data for
individuals.

2.5
• We often seek to understand if changes in the explanatory cause changes
in the response variable. What ties between two variables, (or lurking
ones), cause observed association?
• Dashed lines mean observed association.
• Solid lines explain direct cause and effect association.
• As we see above, it can seem apparent that in (b), x and y are
related. They are, however, not. They just seem to be.
• Two variables are confounded when their effects on a response variable
cannot be distinguished from each other. The confounded variables may
either be explanatory variables or lurking variables.
• Strong association between two variables is not by itself good
evidence that there is a cause-effect link between the variables.
• Confounding of two variables, (either explanatory or lurking), means
that we cannot distinguish their effects on the response variable.
• One can establish a direct, causal link between x and y only through
experiment.
• Criteria for establishing causation when we cannot do an experiment:
o The association is strong.
o The association is consistent.
o Higher does are associated with stronger responses.
o The alleged cause precedes the effect in time.
o The alleged clause is plausible.
Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics
3.1
• Designs focus on patterns for collecting data.
o How many individuals will be studied?
o How shall one select the individuals?
o Etc.
• To rely on anecdotal evidence is to base evidence on haphazardly
selected individual cases, which often come to our attention because they
are striking in some way. These cases need not be representative of any
larger group of cases.
• Many nations have federally run data collecting agencies that collect all
kinds of data.
o www.fedstats.gov
• Available data are data that were produced in the past for some other
purpose but that may help answer a present question.
• Sampling for data and experimenting are two very essential methods
of data collection.
• An observational study observes individuals and measures variables of
interest but does not attempt to influence the responses.
• An experiment deliberately imposes some treatment on individuals in
order to observe their responses.

3.2
• A study is an experiment when we actually do something to people,
animals, or objects in order to observe the response.
o Experimental Units- Individuals under experimentation
 Subjects – Humans under expermentation
o Treatment – condition applied to the units
• In principle experiments can give good evidence for causations.
• Experiments are sometimes simple, with a Treatment  Observed
Response format.
• Control Groups are often used as groups that get a faux experiment to
see if situations like the placebo effect are in action.
• The design of a study is biased if it systematically favors certain
outcomes.
• The design of an experiment first describes the response variable or
variables, the factors, and the layout of the treatments with comparison
• To avoid bias, rely on chance. Randomization is the way to achieve this.
• When relying on chance, one must make the field of individuals large
enough to combat the luck of the draw. (One group out of two gets a
majority of the better-abled individuals.
• Principles of Experimental Design:
o Control the effects of lurking variable son the response, most
simply by comparing two or more treatments.
o Randomize using impersonal chance to assign experimental units to
treatments.
o Repeat each treatment on many units to reduce chance variation.
• An observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance is called
statistically significant.
• Often, we run double-blind experiments, especially in medicine, in which
neither the subjects nor the personnel who worked with them knew which
• A serious weakness in experimentation is a lack of realism, in which the
the subjects or treatments or setting of an experiment may not
realistically duplicate the conditions we really want to study.
o One cannot always generalize conclusions to some setting wider
than that of the actual experiment.
• For even more accuracy than a completely randomized experiment, one
may use matched pair designs which compares just two treatments.
o Often matches individuals that are similar in many categories.
o Because the two are so similar, the comparison is more efficient.
• Block designs are experiments in which a block of experimental units
that are known to be similar in some way before the experiment are
grouped together because they are expected to affect the response to the
treatments
3.3
• The entire group of individuals that we want information about is called
the population.
• A sample is part of the population that we actually examine in order to
gather information.
• The design of a sample survey refers to the method used to choose the
sample from the population.
• A voluntary response sample consists of people who choose
themselves by responding to a general appeal. Voluntary response
samples are biased because people with strong opinions, especially
negative opinions, are likely to respond.
• A simple random sample (SRS) of size n consists of n individuals from
the population chosen in such a way that every set on n individuals has
an equal chance to be the sample actually selected.
• A probability sample is a sample chosen by chance. We must know
what samples are possible and what chance, or probability, each possible
sample has.
• To select a stratified random sample, first divide the population into
groups of similar individuals, called strata. Then, choose a separate SRS
in each stratum and combine these SRSs to form the full sample.
• A common means of restricting random selection is to choose the sample
in stages.
o Used for households or people.
• A multistage sampling design selects successively smaller groups
within the population in stages, resulting in a sample consisting of clusters
of individuals. Each stage may employ an SRS, a stratified sample, or
another type of sample.
• Undercoverage occurs when some groups in the population are left out
of the process of choosing the sample.
• Nonresponse occurs when an individual chosen for the sample can’t be
contacted or does not cooperate.
• Response bias is often the fault of behavior by either the respondent or
the interviewer.
o Illegal or unpopular behavior often incites lies.
• The wording of questions is the most important influence on the
answers given to a sample survey.
o Confusing or leading questions can introduce small bias.
3.4
• Statistical inference is when assumptions about a larger population are
made through the results of the smaller, sampled population.
• A parameter is a number that describes the population. A parameter is a
fixed number, but in practice we do not know it’s value.
• A statistic is a number that describes a sample. We often use a statistic
to estimate an unknown parameter.
• Often, we use sample variability to make many samples. This helps us
get a better picture of a possible trend and to account for changes form
sample to sample. A histogram is then made.
• Process:
o Take a large number of samples
o Calculate the sample proportion phat for each sample.
o Make a histogram of the values of phat.
o Describe the histogram.
• Using random digits from a table or computer software to initiate chance
behavior is called simulation.
• The sampling distribution of a statistic is the distribution of values
taken by the statistic in all possible samples of the same size from the
same population.
• Bias concerns the center of the sampling distribution. A statistic used to
estimate a parameter is unbiased if the mean of its sampling distribution
is equal to the true value of the parameter being estimated.
• The variability of a statistic is described by the spread of its sampling
distribution. This spread is determined by the sampling design and the
sample size n. Statistics from larger probability samples have smaller

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• To reduce bias, use random sampling. When we start with a list of the
entire population, simple random sampling produces unbiased estimates-
the values of a statistic computer from an SRS neither consistently
overestimate nor consistently underestimate the value of the population
parameter.
• To reduce the variability of a statistic from an SRS, use a larger
sample. You can make the variability as small as you want by taking a
large enough sample.
• Large SRSs are often a close estimate of the truth.
• A margin of error comes from the results and sets bounds of the size of
the likely error.
The variability of a statistic from a random sample does not
depend on the size of the population, as long as the population
is at least 100 times larger than the sample.
Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics
4.1
• Random in statistics does not mean haphazard, but rather a kind of order
that emerges in the long run. We call a phenomenon random if individual
outcomes are uncertain but there is nonetheless a regular distribution of
outcomes in a large number of repetitions.
• The probability of any outcome of a random phenomenon is the
proportion of times the outcome would occur in a very long series of
repetitions.
• A long series of independent trials that don’t affect each other must be
enacted before we can study probability of an outcome effectively.

4.2
• Probability models are descriptions of random phenomenon in the
language of math.
o List of all outcomes and the probability of each outcome.
• The sample space S of a random phenomenon is the set of all possible
outcomes.
o S = {………………………………}
• An event is an outcome or a set of outcomes of a random phenomenon.
That is, an event is a subset of the sample space.
• Rules of probabilities:
o A probability is a number between 0 & 1.
o All possible outcomes together must have probability 1.
o If two events have no outcomes in common, the probability
that one or the other occurs is the sum of their individual
probabilities.
o The probability that an event does not occur is 1 minus the
probability that the event does occur.
o Multiplication Rule
Two events A and B are independent if
knowing that one
occurs does not change the probability that
the other occurs.
 P(A and B) = P (A)P(B)
o Compliment Rule
The complement of any event A is the event
that A does not
occur, written as Ac= 1- P(A)
• If a random phenomenon has k possible outcomes, all equally likely,
thene ach individual outcome has probability 1/k. The probability of any
event A is:
o P(A) = Count of outcomes in A / Count of Outcomes in S
 = Count of outcomes in A / k
4.3
• A random variable is a variable whose value is a numerical outcome of a
random phenomenon.

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## • Probability Histograms compare the probability model for random

digits.
• A continuous random variable X takes all values in an interval of
numbers. The probability distribution of X is described by a density
curve. The probability of any event is the area under the density curve
and above the values of X that make up the event.
• All continuous probability distributions assign probability 0 to
every individual outcome.
4.3
• The mean of a probability distribution describes the long-run average
outcome, not the direct center of the data.
• We cannot refer to the mean of a probability distribution as “xbar,” for the
mean of a probability distribution does not describe data that has an
equal likelihood of happening. Rather, the mean of a probability
distribution is referred to as µ, and sometimes µX

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## • The mean of a random variable X is often called the expected value of

X.
• µ is a parameter and xbar is a statistic.
• Law of Large Numbers:
o Draw independent observations at random from any population
with finite mean µ. As the number of observed values eventually
approaches the mean of the draw increases, the meanxbar of the
observed values eventually approaches the mean µ of the
population as closely as you specified and then stays that close.
• The more variable the outcomes, the more trials are needed to ensure
that the mean outcome xbar is close to the distribution mean µ.

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## • If random variables are independent, this kind of association between

their values is ruled out and their variances do add. Two random variables
X and Y are independent if knowing that any event involving X alone did
or did not occur tells us nothing about the occurrence of any event
involving Y alone.
• When random variables are not independent, the variance of their sum
depends on the correlation between them as well as on their individual
variables.
• The correlation between two independent random variables is
zero.

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Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics
Introduction
• The link between probability and data is formed by the sampling
distributions of statistics. It is an idealized mathematical description of
the results of an indefinitely large number of samples, rather than the
results of a particular 1000 samples.
The Distribution of a Statistic
A statistic from a random sample or randomized experiment is a random
variable. The probability distribution of the statistic is its sampling
distribution.
Population Distribution
The population distribution of a variable is the distribution of its values for all
members of the population. The population distribution is also the probability
distribution of the variable when we choose one individual at random from the
population.
5.1
• The count is the number of occurrences of some outcome in a fixed
number of observations. It is often a random variable, like X.
• If the number of observations is n, then the sample proportion is
phat=X/n.
o For example, if three hundred people were asked if they agree with
a statement or not, and 200 say they agree, then the count is 200
and the sample proportion is phat = (200)/(300) = 0.66.
• The distribution of a count X depends on how the data are produced.
The Binomial Setting
1. There are a fixed number n of observations.

## 2. The n observations are all independent.

3. Each observation falls into one of just two categories, which for convenience we
call “success” and “failure.”
4. The probability of a success, call it p, is the same for each observation.
Binomial Distributions
The distribution of the count X of success in the binomial setting is called the
binomial distribution with parameters n and p. The parameter n is the number of
observations, and p is the probability of a success on any one observation. The
possible values of X are the whole numbers from 0 to n. As an abbreviation, we say
that X is B(n,p).
• The most important skill for using binomial distribution sis the
ability to recognize the situations to which they do an don’t apply.
• Choosing an SRS from a population is not quite a binomial setting.
Sampling Distribution of a Count
A population contains proportion of p of successes. If the population is much larger
than the sample, the count X of successes in a SRS of size n has approximately the
binomial distribution B(n,p).

The accuracy of this approximation improves as the size of the population increases
relative to the size of the sample. As a rule of thumb, we will use the binomial
sampling distribution for counts when the population is at least 20 times as large as
the sample.
Binomial Mean and Standard Deviation
If a count X has the binomial distribution B(n,p),
then

µx = np
x = (np(1-p)) 1/2

## • Proportion is ALWAYS a number between 0 and 1. Do NOT get it

confused with the count.

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5.2
• Averages are less variable than individual observations.
• Averages are more normal than individual observations.
Mean and Standard Deviation of a Sample Mean
Let xbar be the mean of an SRS of size n from a population having mean µ and
standard deviation . The mean and standard deviation of xbar are:

µxbar = µ

xbar = / (√n)

## Sampling Distribution of a Sample Mean

If a population has the N(µ, ), then the sample mean xbar of n independent
observations has the N( µ, ( / √n))

## Central Limit Theorem

Draw an SRS of size n from any population with mean µ and finite standard
deviation . When n is large, the sampling distribution of the sample mean xbar is
approximately normal:

## Central Limit Theorem

Draw an SRS of size n from any population with mean µ and finite standard
deviation . When n is large, the sampling distribution of the sample mean xbar is
approximately normal:

## • The normal approximation for the sample proportions and counts

is an example of the central limit theorem.
• More general versions of the central limit theorem say that the
distribution of a sum or average of many small random quantities
is close to normal.
• Any linear combination of independent normal random variables is
also normally distributed
Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics
Introduction
• When you use statistical inference, you are acting as if the data come
from a random sample or a randomized experiment.

6.1
• An estimate without an indication of its variability is of little value.
• The 68-95-99.7 rule comes back into play here. When looking at a
normal distribution, the probability is that 95 percent of your data will fall
within 2 standard deviations of the mean.
• If we’re looking at a sample mean “xbar,” we know that that is a sample
estimator of the population mean µ. We can safely say in a large enough
sample that the true µ can be found within 95 percent of the data, or
within two standard deviations. This is called a 95% confidence
interval for µ.
o Estimate ± margin of error
Confidence Interval
A level C confidence interval for a parameter is an interval
computed from a sample data by a method that has probability
C of producing an interval containing the true value of the
parameter.

## 1.It is an interval of the form (a,b), where a and b are numbers

computed from the data..
2.It has a property called a confidence level that gives the probability
that interval covers the parameter.
3.A confidence level does not have to be 95%
• Any normal curve has probability C between the point z* standard
deviations below the mean and the point z* above the mean.
• z* is simply the exact amount of standard deviations away from the mean
could be. Refer to table D in the back of the book.
• The unknown population mean µ lies between

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## • Margin of Error too large?

o Use a lower level of confidence (smaller C)
o Increase the sample size (larger n)

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## o A wise user of statistics never plans data collection without at the

same time planning the inference. You can arrange to have both
high confidence and a small margin of error. To obtain a desired
margin of error m, just use the equation for margin of error
above, substitute the value of z* for your desired confidence
level, and solve for the sample size n.

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## • It is always safe to round up to the next higher whole number when

finding n because this will give us a small margin of error.
• CAUTION:
o THESE CONDITIONS MUST BE MET TO USE A FORMULA FOR
INFERENCE.
 The data should be an SRS from the population.
 The formula is not correct for probability sampling
designs more complex than SRS.
 There is no correct method for inference for
haphazardly collected data with bias of unknown size.
 Because “xbar” is not resistant, outliers can have a large
effect on the confidence interval.
 If the sample size is small and the population is not
normal, the true confidence level will be different from
the value C used in computing the interval.
 You must know the standard deviation of the
population.

6.2
• Confidence intervals are appropriate when our goal is to estimate a
population parameter. The second common type of inference is directed at
a quite different goal: to assess the evidence provided by the data in
favor of some claim about the population.
• A significance test is a formal procedure for comparing observed data
with a hypothesis whose truth we want to assess.
• The hypothesis is a statement about the parameters in a population.
Null Hypothesis
The statement being tested in a test of significance is called the
null hypothesis. The test of significance is designed to assess the
strength of the evidence against the null hypothesis. Usually the
null hypothesis is a statement of “no effect” or “no difference.”
We abbreviate this as H0.
• HA is the alternative hypothesis and it states that the statement we
hope or suspect is true instead of the null hypothesis.
• Hypotheses always refer to some population or model, not to a particular
outcome. For this reason, we must state the null and the
alternative hypotheses in terms of population parameters.
• It is not always clear, in particular, whether the alternative hypothesis
should be one sided or two sided, which refers to whether a parameter
differs from its null hypothesis value in a specific direction or in
either direction.
• Test Statistics
o The test is based on a statistic that estimates the parameter that
appears in the hypotheses. Usually this is the same estimate we
would use in a confidence interval for the parameter. When the null
hypothesis is true, we expect the estimate to take a value near the
parameter value specified by the null hypothesis.
o Values of the estimate far from the parameter value specified by
the null hypothesis give evidence against the null hypothesis. The
alternative hypothesis determines which directions count against
the null hypothesis.
o To assess how far the estimate is from the parameter, standardize
the estimate. In many common stat situations, the test statistic has
the form:
 z = (estimate-hypothesized value)÷(standard
deviation of the estimate)

## • A test statistic measures compatibility between the null hypothesis and

the data. We use it for the probability calculation that we need for our test
of significance. It is a random variable with a distribution that we know.
• A test of significance finds the probability as extreme or more extreme
than the actual observed outcome.
P-Value
The probability, computed assuming that the null value is true, that the test statistic
would take a value as extreme or more extreme than that actually observed is
called the P-value of the test. The smaller the P-value, the stronger the evidence
against the null value provided by the data.
• After one translates the test statistic into a P-value to quantify the
evidence of the null hypothesis, we need to compare the P-value we
calculated with a fixed value that we regard as decisive. This is
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Statistic Significange
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## • Four steps common to all tests of significance

o State the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.
o Calculate the value of the test statistic on which the test will be
based. This statistic usually measures how far the data are from
the null hypothesis.
o Find the P-value for the observed data. This is the probability,
calculated assuming that the null hypothesis is true, that the test
statistic will weigh against the null hypothesis at least as strongly
as it does for these data.
o State a conclusion! You can choose a significance level TIFF
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 Sentence form.

## Z Test for a Population Mean

To test the hypothesis Ho : µ = µo based on an SRS of size n from a population with
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These P-values are exact if the population distribution is normal and are
approximately correct for large n in other cases.
Two-Sided Significance Tests and Confidence Intervals
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## • The P-value is the smallest level TIFF

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6.3
• There is no sharp border between “significant” and “not
significant,” only increasingly strong evidence as P-value decreases.
• We use the 5% standard often.
• Formal statistical inference cannot correct basic flaws in the design.
We must often analyze data that do not arise from randomized
samples or experiments. To apply statistical inference to such
data, we must have confidence in a probability model for the
data.
Intro to the Practice of Basic Statistics
7.1
Standard Error
When the standard deviation of a statistic is estimated from the data, the result is
called the standard error of the statistic.

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• When is not known, we estimate it with the sample standard

## deviation s, and then we estimate the standard deviation of xbar by

s/√n. This quantity is the standard error of the sample mean xbar seen
above.
• When we substitute the standard error s/√n for the standard deviation

## has a distribution called a t-distribution.

The t Distributions
Suppose that an SRS of size n is drawn from an N (µ, ) population. Then, the
one-sample t statistic

t = (xbar-µ) / (s/√n)
has the t distribution with n-1 degrees of freedom.
• Degrees of freedom are a measure of how much precision an estimate
of variability has.
• Table D on page T-11 in the back of the book gives critical values for
the t distribution.
The One-Sample t Confidence Interval
Suppose that an SRS of size n is drawn from a population having unknown mean µ.
A level C confidence interval for µ is

Xbar ± t* (s/√n)
where t* is the value for the t(n-1) density curve with area C between –t* & t*. The
quantity
t* (s/√n)
is the margin of error. This interval is exact when the population distribution is
normal and is approximately correct for large n in other cases.
Z Test for a Population Mean
• Suppose that an SRS of size n is drawn from a population having unknown
mean µ. To test the hypothesis Ho : µ = µo based on an SRS of size n,
compute the one-sample t statistic

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## • In terms of a standard normal random variable T having the t(n – 1)

distribution, the P-value for a test of the null hypothesis against

• These P-values are exact if the population distribution is normal and are
approximately correct for large n in other cases.

## • It is wrong to examine the data first and then decide to do a one-sided

test in the direction indicated by the data.
• In a matched pairs study, subjects are matched in pairs and the
outcomes are compare within each matched pair.