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SmartMarket Report

The Business Value of


BIM for Infrastructure
Addressing Americas Infrastructure Challenges with
Collaboration and Technology
Premier Corporate Partner: Premier Association Partner:
American Society of Civil Engineers American Society of Civil Engineers
Design and Construction Intelligence
SmartMarket Report
McGraw-Hill Construction
President
Keith Fox
Vice President, Product Development
Kathryn E. Cassino
McGraw-Hill Construction
Research & Analytics/
Industry Insights & Alliances
Vice President, Industry
Insights & Alliances
Harvey M. Bernstein, F.ASCE, LEED AP
Senior Director, Research & Analytics
Burleigh Morton
Director, Green Content &
Research Communications
Michele A. Russo, LEED AP
Reproduction or dissemination
of any information contained
herein is granted only by contract
or prior written permission from
McGraw-Hill Construction.
Copyright 2012, McGraw-Hill
Construction, ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
The Business Value of
BIM for Infrastructure:
Addressing Americas
Infrastructure Challenges with
Collaboration and Technology
SmartMarket Report
Executive Editor
Harvey M. Bernstein, F.ASCE, LEED AP
Editorial Advisor and
ContributorBIM
Stephen A. Jones
Editorial Director
Michele A. Russo, LEED AP
Managing Editor
Donna Laquidara-Carr, LEED AP
Director,
Design & Production
William Taylor
Manager, Content Operations
Juan Ramos
Art Directors
Matthew Healy
Alison Lorenz
Contributing Art Director
AD-BOUTIQUE, INC.
Hisako Fujishima
Editor
Enver Fitch, LEED Green Associate
Contributor
Bruce Buckley
Research Project Manager
Dana Gilmore, MRA, PRC
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in the series, please contact:
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Research & Analytics
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Design and Construction Intelligence
SmartMarket Report
About McGraw-Hill
Construction
McGraw-Hill Construction
(MHC), part of The McGraw-Hill
Companies, connects people,
projects and products across the
design and construction industry,
serving owners, architects,
engineers, general contractors,
subcontractors, building product
manufacturers, suppliers, dealers,
distributors and adjacent markets.
A reliable and trusted source
for more than a century, MHC
has remained North Americas
leading provider of construction
project and product information,
plans and specifcations, industry
news, market research, and
industry trends and forecasts. In
recent years, MHC has emerged
as an industry leader in the
critical areas of sustainability and
interoperability as well.
In print, online and through
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tools, applications and resources
that embed in the workfow of our
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Backed by the power of Dodge,
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McGraw-Hill Construction serves
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us at construction.com.
Stephen A. Jones leads
McGraw-Hill Constructions
(MHC) initiatives in BIM and
integrated project delivery as
well as developing alliance
relationships for technology and
content. Active in numerous
industry organizations, he
frequently speaks at events
around the world about the
business impact of emerging
technologies and trends. Before
joining MHC, Jones was a
vice president with Primavera
Systems (now Oracle), a leading
provider of project management
software. Prior to that, he spent
19 years in creative, marketing
and management roles with
design rms, most recently as a
Principal and Board of Directors
member with Burt Hill (now
Stantec), a large, global
architectural and engineering
rm. Jones holds an M.B.A.
from Wharton and a B.A. from
Johns Hopkins.
Harvey M. Bernstein,
F.ASCE, LEED AP has been
a leader in the engineering
and construction industry for
over 30 years. Currently, he
has lead responsibilities for
MHCs market research group,
including MHCs thought
leadership initiatives in areas
such as green building, BIM,
interoperability, innovation
and global construction
markets. Bernstein was
one of the team members
involved in launching MHCs
GreenSource magazine.
Previously, Bernstein served
as President and CEO
of the Civil Engineering
Research Foundation. He has
written numerous papers
covering innovation and
sustainability and currently
serves as a member of the
Princeton University Civil and
Environmental Engineering
Advisory Council. He is a
visiting professor with the
University of Readings School
of Construction Management
and Engineering in England,
where he also serves on their
Innovative Construction
Research Centre Advisory
Board. Bernstein has an M.B.A.
from Loyola College, an M.S.
in engineering from Princeton
University and a B.S. in civil
engineering from the New
Jersey Institute of Technology.
Introduction
Harvey M. Bernstein
F.ASCE, LEED AP
Vice President
Industry Insights & Alliances
McGraw-Hill Construction
Stephen A. Jones
Senior Director
McGraw-Hill Construction
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SmartMarket Report
McGraw-Hill Construction 1www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
H
orizontal BIM Heavy BIM
VDC Civil Information
Modeling BIM on its side
all of these phrases, and
more, are being used in the construction
industry to describe the way companies are
deploying model-based technologies and
processes to non-building projects.
This ground-breaking SmartMarket
Report reveals the way in which BIM is
poised to transform the infrastructure
marketplace in the future. One of the most
important fndings of the research is that
exposure to BIM on vertical building
projects increases the likelihood of the
use of BIM for infrastructure as well. This
fnding is important because it reveals a
correlation between penetration of BIM
use overall and BIM use for infrastructure,
and, as a result, BIM use in infrastructure
will be adopted at faster rates than when
BIM was frst introduced for vertical
building projects.
Some other key fndings:
ADOPTION: Almost half (46%) of the frms
report using BIM on their infrastructure proj-
ects, up from 27% two years ago.
LEVEL OF USE: Organizations currently
using BIM for infrastructure plan to use it on
more of their infrastructure projects in the
future. The percentage of those using BIM
on more than 50% of their projects will grow
from 30% now to 52% in just two years.
OUTLOOK: 79% of current non-users feel
positively about future adoption, with only
4% actually opposed. Therefore, education
and best practices should be effective at
accelerating adoption.
VALUE: 67% of all users report a positive
ROI on their BIM investments, even higher
than the 63% of BIM users for buildings who
reported the same in 2009, demonstrating
that the value achieved will drive growth in
infrastructure as it has in the buildings sector.
BENEFITS: Top benefts achieved now
include reduced conficts and changes
(58%) and improved project quality (48%).
In addition, achieving lower project risk and
better predictability of project outcomes is
also perceived by 60% as a top beneft in the
next fve years, helping to drive wider BIM use
for infrastructure.
The need for innovative and cost-effective
approaches to both new and reconstructed
infrastructure has never been greater or
more urgent. This report not only demon-
strates what is being achieved through
BIM in infrastructure today, but it provides
a critical baseline for the transition to new
digitally-based collaborative processes for
infrastructure in the future.
We are excited to release the fndings on
this important topic and would like to thank
Autodesk, the American Society of Civil
Engineers and all our other project partners
for helping bring it to the industry.
04 Executive Summary
04 Executive Summary
06 Recommendations
07 Data
8 BIM Usage
8 BIM Usage on Infrastructure Compared to All Projects
9 BIM Expertise
10 Current Implementation of BIM in Infrastructure
11 BIM Implementation Trends for Infrastructure
12 BIM Implementation by Project Type
13 BIM Implementation by Organization Size
20 Business Benefts
20 Assigning Value to BIM Benefts
21 Top Internal Benefts for A/E Firms and Contractors
22 Top Business Benefts for Owners
23 SIDEBAR BIM Capabilities that Beneft Infrastructure Projects
24 Top Benefts by Phase
25 Top Benefts by Project Process
26 Impact of Project Factors on Benefts
27 Top Current Benefts
28 Top Benefts in Five Years
31 Investment and ROI
31 Top Investments in BIM for Infrastructure
32 Return on Investments in BIM for Infrastructure
33 Measuring ROI of BIM for Infrastructure
34 Length of Time Measuring ROI
34 Future Plans to Measure ROI
35 How to Improve ROI
35 SIDEBAR Green Infrastructure
36 How to Improve Value of BIM
39 Non-Users
39 Non-User Profle: Organization Type
40 SIDEBAR Comments by Users: Converting Non-Users to Adopt BIM for Infrastructure
41 Non-User Profle: Organization Size and Location
42 Non-User Profle: Project Type
43 Non-User Attitude Toward BIM for Infrastructure
44 Non-User Forecast: Importance of BIM to the Infrastructure Industry in Five Years
45 AEC Perception: BIM Use by Competitors for Infrastructure
TABLE OF
CONTENTS
SmartMarket Report
THE BUSINESS VALUE OF BIM FOR INFRASTRUCTURE
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 2www.construction.com
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46 AEC Perception: BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Clients
47 Owner Perceptions of BIM Usage for Infrastructure
48 Why BIM is Not Being Adopted for Infrastructure
49 Factors Infuencing Lack of BIM Adoption for Infrastructure
50 Benefts that Would Encourage BIM Adoption for Infrastructure
53 Looking Ahead
53 BIM Value for Infrastructure Projects in the Future
54 Where Help Is Needed
Case Studies
14 Use of BIM on Road and Highway Projects
16 Use of BIM on Airports
18 Use of BIM on Transit Projects
29 Use of BIM on Dams, Canals and Levees
37 Use of BIM on Water and Wastewater Facilities
38 Use of BIM on Energy Projects
51 Use of BIM on Park and Recreation Projects
55 Thought Leader Perspective
55 Owner Perspective: Robert A. Bank, Army Corps of Engineers
56 Technology Industry Perspective: Richard Humphrey, AutoDesk, Inc.
57 Industry Association Perspective: Dana Kennish Deke Smith, Building Seismic Safety
Council and BuildingSMART Alliance, National Institute of Building Sciences
58 Engineer Perspective: Cory Dippold, Hatch, Mott, MacDonald
59 General Contractor Perspective: Joseph H. Jarboe, Clark Construction Group, LLC
60 Methodology
61 Resources
McGraw-Hill Construction 3www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Front Cover:
The Panama Canal team is using
BIM for design currently and will
soon use it for scheduling.
This page:
Left: Mortenson Constructions
Renewable Energy Group models
its wind farm projects.
Right: VivaNext Bus Rapid
Transit System project in
Toronto is using BIM.
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The level of BIM adoption and use in the infrastructure sector is a few years
behind vertical construction, but infrastructure projects are well-suited to
beneft from a model-driven approach to design and construction, which bodes
well for accelerating usage and broad acceptance of BIM in this sector.
Business Value of BIM for
Infrastructure
Almost half (46%) of the infrastructure organizations
surveyed are currently using BIM technologies
and processes on some part of their infrastructure
portfolio. Only 27% report using it two years ago, so
the recent growth rate is impressive. The vast majority
(89%) of these companies that currently use BIM for
infrastructure report they are receiving value from it.
They experience benefts that impact their projects
as well as benefts that improve the internal business
functions of their organizations.
PROJECT BENEFITS
Reduced conficts and changes during construction is
unanimously cited as the number one project beneft
for all participants, both currently and fve years out.
Executive Summary
BIM Adoption and Level of Use Will Increase
at a Rapid Pace for Infrastructure Projects
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 4www.construction.com
Reduced rework is a top project-oriented beneft
identifed by owners.
Improved productivity is the BIM project beneft
expected to increase in importance the most over the
next fve years.
INTERNAL BUSINESS BENEFITS
Marketing BIM capability to win new work is the leading
internally-focused beneft for A/E frms and contractors.
BIM for Infrastructure Has a Positive
Return on Investment (ROI)
67% of all BIM users report a positive ROI for BIM use on
infrastructure projects.
ROI has a powerful correlation with BIM expertise.
Those characterized as BIM experts comprise 43% of
the group that reports high ROI (50% or greater).
At 77%, more contractors report a positive ROI than
any other industry player.
Metrics for the benefts and ROI of BIM are increasingly
important to spur the investments required for adoption
and greater implementation. Most current users (56%)
are formally measuring the ROI of BIM, and over half of
those that currently are not measuring it expect to do so
in the future.
Implementation Trends of BIM
for Infrastructure
The implementation trends track the frequency of
use, as BIM users evolve from using it on a few
select projects to using it on the majority of projects
in their portfolio.
Implementation Forecasts Predict Strong Growth
79% of current users expect to be using BIM on more
than 25% of their infrastructure projects by 2013a
dramatic increase from the 43% reporting that level
in 2011.
Business Value of BIM for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
ES_BusinessValue
Owners
14%
Were getting
no meaningful
value
Were just
scratching the
surface
Were getting
a lot of
value
Were getting
everything
out of BIM
6%
16%
42%
51%
53%
42%
40%
26%
2%
3%
5%
No Value
11%
Receiving Some
Level of Value 89%
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Executive Summary CONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 5www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Level of BIM Implementation for Infrastructure
Over Time (for Users)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Level of BIM Implementation for Infrastructure Projects
Over Time
>25% of Projects
>50% of Projects
>75% of Projects
27%
16%
7%
2009 4 Year Change
43% 79%
29% 52%
16% 31%
2011
4.5x
2.9x
3.2x
2013
100%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
2009 2011 2013
More Than 75% of Projects
50%-75% of Projects
25%-50% of Projects
Less Than 25% of Projects
ES_ImpTrends2
7%
9%
11%
73%
16%
13%
14%
57%
31%
21%
27%
21%
The group of companies implementing BIM for
infrastructure at a very high level (employing it on
over three quarters of their infrastructure projects)
increases most dramatically, rising from only 7% in
2009 to almost a third (31%) by 2013. This rapid increase
in heavy users demonstrates the value BIM is bringing
to projects.
VARIATION BY INDUSTRY PLAYER
A/E frms and owners report the fastest adoption
growth rates.
Two years ago, 73% of current A/E users were either
not using BIM for infrastructure or using it at a low level.
By 2013, that trend is reversed, with 78% expecting to
use it on more than 25% of their projects.
Owners go from 74% with low/no levels of use in
2009 to 84% using it on 25% or more of their projects
by 2013.
Non-Users Offer Strong
Market Potential
Most Non-Users Perspectives on BIM Are Positive
Among the companies not currently using BIM on their
infrastructure work:
79% are open to considering it or already evaluating it.
Only 4% report having tried it and then rejected it.
Most non-users perceive that BIM is being actively deployed
among their competitors and peers. Over 70% of design
and construction non-users believe their competitors and
clients are using BIM. A similar percentage of owners report
the same perception of their peers.
DRIVERS AND CHALLENGES TO ADOPTION
The top benefts that non-users identify as critical
to encourage them to adopt include more accurate
construction documents, reduced construction costs
and schedule and improved communicationall well-
documented benefts by BIM users.
Concern about BIMs applicability to smaller projects
and lack of time to evaluate it are identifed by all
non-users as leading obstacles to adoption. Other key
challenges vary by player type:
Design and construction frms: At 67%, lack of demand
by clients is the top concern.
Owners: At 55%, poor internal understanding of BIM is
the top reason for delaying use of BIM on projects.
In an industry known for valuing previous experience in
forming project teams, an additional adoption driver will
come from A/E frms changing view on who they want to
work with.
64% of A/E respondents currently using BIM for
infrastructure place a high importance on having BIM-
knowledgeable design professionals on the project,
as opposed to only 41% that cite previous experience
working with other companies on a project as equally
critical to get the most of BIM.
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Architects and
Engineers
Embrace collaborative
modeling as the
most effective way to
unambiguously convey your
teams design intent and help
keep unscrupulous bidders
from taking advantage of the
discrepancies, errors and
omissions that are inevitable
in 2D drawings. Also,
leverage BIMs powerful
visualization capabilities to
engage your clients more
deeply in the solution-fnding
process, and align their
expectations more closely
with realistic outcomes.
Owners
Demand more from your
teams and drive out
ambivalence. Even for
public projects, where
you must take the lowest
responsive bid, you can
still require modeled
deliverables in your scope
throughout the process,
as several federal and
state entities are currently
doing. The project-related
benefts of model-based
design and construction
accrue directly to owners
and are compelling.
Contractors
Get BIM to the feld. Vertical
project users have made
huge strides in leveraging
Recommendations
Each company needs to develop a tailored approach to advancing its BIM
objectives in order to meet its particular needs in the design and construction
ecosystem. Below are insights drawn from the report for different players.
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 6 www.construction.com
the depth, accuracy and
consistency of the data
now available to generate
new kinds of documents for
daily use at the site. Often
incorporating information
from several sources (e.g.,
GIS, laser scans, BIM),
refecting existing conditions
and providing a shop-
drawing level of detail,
these are true construction
documents, meant for
precise implementation by
craft practitioners in the feld.
Infrastructure projects can
beneft just as greatly.
Fabricators
How much more can
you make offsite? How
much more can you
preassemble prior to fnal
installation? The accuracy
of models is enabling an
offsite manufacturing and
prefabrication revolution
in the vertical construction
industry, especially with
ever-larger structural and
MEP assemblies. Cost,
safety, quality and timeliness
all beneft. Help extend
this innovative trend to the
infrastructure sector.
BIM Beginners
Keep the faith. Although
initial projects may be
challenging, the data show
that benefts and ROI accrue
in relation to increasing
experience. Join local BIM
user groups and attend
national events where you
will meet a wide variety
of BIM users, almost all
of whom will gladly share
advice and perspectives
with you.
Advanced and
Expert Users
Dont get complacent. As
more companies adopt
and implementation
accelerates, innovation will
distinguish the leaders. Your
current capabilities may be
unique and successful, but
competitors will be actively
trying to surpass you.
Technology
Companies
Invest the time to understand
the characteristics of
infrastructure work that
differ from buildings and
dont assume your solution
will apply equally well to any
project. Seek out direct input
from the frms currently
engaged in this feld and
tailor your tools to meet
their needs.
Regulatory
Authorities
Every day, more companies
upstream from you are
developing and working
with data-rich models. The
process and the benefts
break down when authorities
having jurisdiction (AHJs)
require traditional 2D
documents for review. Some
AHJs are accepting models
in addition to 2D documents
as a way to clarify intent in
the process of evaluating
compliance. This is a good
way to start moving up the
learning curve of dealing
with modeled data, and your
feedback will help to create
an appropriate deliverable.
Non-Users
Lack of demand is a leading
reason for non-adoption,
but marketing BIM capability
to win new work (rather
than waiting to be asked)
is the top internal beneft
being enjoyed by users. This
indicates that the longer you
wait to adopt BIM, the greater
the gap will grow between
you and these competitors.
Start small, stay focused and
commit to the process of
change. It should pay off.
All BIM Users
Support data standards
and demand data
interoperability. The
more quickly we can
create a cohesive, data-
rich environment without
technology barriers, the
faster the entire industry
will enjoy the benefts of
digital transformation.
Section Hed1 Data:
McGraw-Hill Construction 7www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Section Hed1 Data:
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D
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BIM for Infrastructure on the Rise
I
n recent years, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has become
an important strategy in vertical (building) construction to improve
productivity and proftability. As the industry has struggled to emerge from
the Great Recession, the business advantages of BIM and its collaborative
tools have become even more pronounced and highly valued.
However, in the horizontal world of infrastructure construction, use of BIM
is just beginning. In fact, even the term BIM presumes vertical buildings being
constructed. A plethora of terms have been created for BIM for infrastructure,
such as Civil BIM or CIM, virtual design and construction (VDC) and Heavy BIM,
but all refer to the same capability to create data-rich models in three or more
dimensions that facilitate better design, enhance construction effciency and
enable collaboration. These features hold equally strong benefts to horizontal,
infrastructure construction, and the industry has begun to take notice.
This report provides the results of a groundbreaking study to measure the
use of BIM in infrastructure design and construction. The results reveal an
industry in the early stages of adoption, but they also demonstrate an even
more exciting picture of expected growth in the next few years. In fact, the
level of use and adoption rate closely mirror those for commercial construction
originally reported by McGraw-Hill Construction in 2009a prediction that has
been borne out by the rise in BIM use for buildings over the last few years.
The forecasted growth of BIM use for infrastructure is no surprise given
the expertise available from vertical construction, the high level of complexity
involved in large infrastructure projects, the increased use of prefabrication in
infrastructure, and the growing need for greater effciency and effectiveness
on all aspects of infrastructure projects. In fact, according to McGraw-Hill
Constructions annual construction forecast, vertical construction activity
is forecasted to improve over the next three years while the volume of
infrastructure work is expected to shrink. This is in contrast to the start of the
recession, when the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act made a major
investment in infrastructure in many sectors, from transportation to water,
leading to its slight growth through 2010 while the other segments of the
industry declined dramatically. Now, however, as commercial construction
improves, increased austerity in the public sector and funding uncertainty
due to partisan politics during an election year are driving the volume of
infrastructure work down.
In addition, as infrastructure fnancing becomes scarcer and the need
for infrastructure improvements continues to grow, the industry has begun
to explore alternative fnancing and delivery methods for infrastructure
construction, such as public-private partnerships. Collaboration is often a
critical part of these strategies, and BIM is well recognized in the construction
industry as a process that enables collaboration.
In order for organizations doing infrastructure work to remain competitive,
they will need to increase the effciency and the proftability of their projects.
Many of these organizations are also involved in vertical construction and have
seen the benefts of BIM frsthand, and they are just beginning to recognize its
value for infrastructure. This period of early adoption of BIM for infrastructure
offers an extraordinary opportunity for organizations to become adept at using
BIM and reap the rewards ahead of other industry players.
Note About
the Data
Most of the charts in
this report and much
of the analysis focus on
the dierences among
three groups: A/E
rms, contractors
and owners.
A/E frms include all
frms that primarily do
design and engineering
work on infrastructure
projects. If architects
or engineers are
mentioned separately
in the analysis, it is in
reference to a subset
of the data just for
those professions. (51%
of total)
Contractors include
general contractors,
construction managers,
specialty contractors
and fabricators. (36%
of total)
Owners include project
owners and a few other
respondents that do not
fall into the other two
categories listed above,
such as consultants
and educators. (13%
of total)
For a fuller description of
the study participants and
details on when the survey
was conducted, please
see the Methodology on
page 60.
Introduction Data:
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 8www.construction.com
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D
A
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AWhile many organizations have been using BIM on
vertical building projects for a number of years, its
application to infrastructure projects has been slower to
gain traction. The use of BIM for infrastructure, in fact,
appears to be about three years behind its use on other
project types, a conclusion supported when comparing
the length of time using BIM for infrastructure to that for
building projects reported in McGraw-Hill Constructions
2009 The Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report:
12 Years
2012 Infrastructure: 50%
2009 Buildings: 48%
34 Years
2012 Infrastructure: 27%
2009 Buildings: 28%
5 Plus Years
2012 Infrastructure: 23%
2009 Buildings: 24%
To establish a baseline of comparison among the respondents
to this survey, companies that indicated they are using BIM
for infrastructure work were also asked about their BIM
experience on all project types.
Half of the companies using BIM for infrastructure have
only one to two years of experience doing so, versus
only 28% with that limited track record working on all
project types.
While 43% have fve or more years of BIM experience
on all project types, only about half that number (23%)
have an equivalent length of experience using it on
infrastructure work.
Variation by Player
Among the most highly experienced (fve or more years) BIM
user group, architects show the greatest disparity between
those using BIM on all projects (45%) and on infrastructure
(18%). This is likely due to longer-standing BIM use by
architects on vertical projects. This conclusion is further
supported by the fnding that only 3% of architects reported
one year of BIM experience on all projects, compared to 29%
that are novices in using BIM for infrastructure work.
The lag in experience with BIM for infrastructure
among the group having the greatest overall experience
with BIM again supports the conclusion that BIM for
infrastructure is lagging a couple of years behind its
adoption in vertical construction.
BIM Use on Infrastructure Compared to All Projects
BIM Usage Data:
Length of Time Using BIM
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Infrastructure Projects All Project Types
USE_Q13Q13A
1-2 Years 3-4 Years 5+ Years
28%
50%
29%
27%
43%
23%
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consistent with previous McGraw-Hill Construction
SmartMarket Reports about BIMsurvey respon-
dents who use BIM for infrastructure were asked to
self-describe their level of BIM expertise as beginner,
moderate, advanced or expert. In addition, they were
asked to rate their expertise on all project types and,
separately, more specifcally on infrastructure work.
44% of BIM users self-describe as advanced or expert on
all projects, but only 33% are at that level for infrastructure.
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS
Architects report an especially dramatic difference
between their expertise with BIM for all project types and
for infrastructure projects.
BIM expertise on all project types: 55%
BIM expertise on infrastructure projects: 35%
In addition, only 16% of architects and engineers self-
describe as beginners for all projects, but that percentage
jumps to 34% on infrastructure work.
OWNERS
Owners report the lowest expertise across both project
categories. This is consistent with the fndings of the 2009
BIM SmartMarket Report in which owners of buildings
also reported the lowest expertise across all player types.
BIM UsageCONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 9www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
BIM Expertise
BIM Expertise: All Project Types
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
Use_Q16
Owners
Beginner Moderate Advanced Expert
Beginner 20% Advanced/Expert 44%
16%
23%
37%
37%37%
26%
31%
20%
21%
16%
20%
16%
BIM Expertise: Infrastructure Projects
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
Use_Q16A
Owners
Beginner Moderate Advanced Expert
Beginner 34% Advanced/Expert 33%
34%
31%
42%
32%
38%
26%
20%20%
21%
14%
11%11%
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 10www.construction.com
Current Implementation of BIM in Infrastructure
Consistent with previous McGraw-Hill Construction
SmartMarket Reports about BIM, the term implementation
refers to the percentage of a companys projects that are
done using BIM technologies and processes.
Comparing Implementation on All
Project Types to Infrastructure
Respondents that reported using BIM for infrastructure
were frst asked to baseline their level of BIM
implementation on all project types, then asked separately
about their implementation on infrastructure work. (Note:
Some respondents indicate none for their current BIM
usage because, even though they have used BIM in the past
and plan to do so in the future, they had no BIM projects
currently underway at the time of the survey.)
The fndings confrm the trend that BIM use in
infrastructure, and the extent of that use, lags several years
behind vertical construction. Only 37% of respondents
report low or no current BIM implementation on all projects,
but that percentage jumps to 53% for infrastructure. In
addition, the fndings are again comparable to the 2009
Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report, which reported
BIM implementation for buildings. In that report, 27% report
doing high/very high implementation, defned as more than
60% of projects using BIM.
Variation by Player
A/E frms have a steep differential in the level of BIM use,
with 49% reporting high/very high implementation on all
project types, but only 30% reporting that advanced level
for infrastructure.
Owners report a consistent 42% high/very high level
of implementation across both project categories,
indicating a predominant focus on infrastructure by those
owners, versus the A/E frms, which generally practice
on a wider variety of project types and may have more
experience using BIM on vertical projects.
Use_Q14
Current Implementation of BIM:
ALL PROJECTS
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms Owners
Medium (25%-
50% of Projects)
High/Very High
(>51% of Projects)
Low/No Use 37%
High/Very High
Use 44%
None
Low (<25% of
Projects)
2%
3%
31%
41%
42%
18%
19%
16%
49%
37%
42%
Use_ImplementCurrent
Current Implementation of BIM:
INFRASTRUCTURE PROJECTS
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms Owners
Medium (25%-
50% of Projects)
High/Very High
(>51% of Projects)
Low/No Use 53%
9%
4%
11%
44%
53%
32%
17%
14%
16%
30%
29%
42%
None
Low (<25% of
Projects)
High/Very High
Use 30%
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BIM UsageCONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 11www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Comparing the past implementation of BIM for
infrastructure with the expected implementation in
two years reveals a striking increase in implementation
expected. Again, the predicted growth parallels the
results of the 2009 BIM SmartMarket Report, in which
52% of those using BIM for buildings report that they
expect to use BIM on more than 60% of their projects.
Low/no usage, which dominates the past (73%)
and current (53%) responses, decreases sharply
in two years, with only 21% expecting low usage
and no respondents expecting not to use BIM for
infrastructure.
Very high usage will grow dramatically, from only 7%
two years ago to 30% two years from now, more than
four times greater.
BIM Implementation Trends for Infrastructure
Use_ImplementPast
2009 Implementation of BIM
for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms Owners
Medium (25%-
50% of Projects)
High/Very High
(>51% of Projects)
Low/No Use 73% High/Very High
Use 16%
None
Low (<25% of
Projects)
34%
36%
42%
37%
41%
32%
13%
6%
10%
16%
17%
16%
Use_ImplementFuture
2013 Implementation of BIM
for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms Owners
Low (<25% of
Projects)
Medium (25%-
50% of Projects)
High/Very High
(>51% of Projects)
Low Use 21%/
No Use 0%
High/Very High
Use 52%
22%
19%
16%
25%
27%
42%
53%
54%
42%
Variation by Player
Owners show the most growth, going from 42% not
using BIM for infrastructure two years ago to 100% saying
they will be doing some amount of BIM for infrastructure
in two years. Over a quarter (26%) plan to be at a very
high level of implementation at that time.
Because owner demand is cited as a top factor that
will encourage adoption among non-users, this trend has
the potential to be the biggest driver of BIM adoption for
infrastructure. As more owners increase the number of
projects they commit to this approach, implementation
levels will increase across the board for design
professionals and contractors.
All project types show substantial growth over the four-
year period, more than doubling, on average. Much of the
growth for these project types will derive from increas-
ingly sophisticated civil design tools for BIM, which allow
users to more accurately capture existing conditions, as
well as greater latitude in exploring alternate design solu-
tions and robust analysis of project performance.
In fact, every project category is anticipated to have
well over half of its practitioners using BIM on more than
50% of projects within two years.
Variation by Project Type
The greatest expansion over the four-year period is
predicted for water projects and public parks and recre-
ation. Only 15% of respondents in these sectors report a
high use of BIM two years ago, but 57% and 56%, respec-
tively, forecast that they will be using a high level of BIM
two years from now, almost quadrupling.
BIM Implementation by Project Type
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BIM Implementation on More than 50% of
Infrastructure Projects by Project Type
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
2011 2009
Use_ProjType
2013
Dams and Other Waste
Rail, Transit &
Aviation Energy
Public Parks &
Recreation
Bridges, Roads &
Highways Water
20%
44%
59%
20%
32%
58%
19%
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BIM UsageCONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 13www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Organizations of all sizes foresee increasing their
implementation of BIM to more than 50% of their infra-
structure projects, but the size of the organization has
implications for the pattern of high infrastructure BIM
usage over the fve year span. (Refer to the Methodology
section on page 60 for organization size defnitions.)
Midsize organizations show the pattern of greatest
growth, more than quadrupling the percentage of
high-level implementers from 2009 to 2013, with the
small-medium group expanding from 11% to 47%,
and medium-large organizations expanding from
13% to 58%.
By 2013, small organizations will lead the way in high-
level implementation, when almost two thirds (65%)
predict they will be practicing at that level.
Although small organizations express concerns about
BIMs cost and applicability to small projects, once they
have adopted BIM, their size actually provides an advan-
tage in driving higher levels of implementation. Small
projects have shorter durations, thereby creating more
opportunities to start them off using BIM. Larger orga-
nizations, which tend to work on larger projects with
longer durations, are unlikely to introduce BIM during
the course of an existing project and therefore will take
longer to get the majority of their projects using BIM.
Once a small organization has become a user, its higher
rate of project turnover will tend to accelerate its level of
BIM implementation.
BIM Implementation by Organization Size
BIM Implementation on More than 50% of
Infrastructure Projects by Size of Organization
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
2011 2009
Use_FirmSize
2013
Small Small-Medium Medium-Large Large
19%
39%
65%
11%
18%
47%
13%
25%
58%
19%
37%
54%
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rom complex megaprojects
to standard roadway work,
designers, contractors and
owners are seeking ways to
merge BIM into their workfows.
Wisconsin DOT Projects
The Wisconsin Department of Trans-
portation (WisDOT) is taking a lead
role in testing the application of BIM
on state roadway projects. Within its
design methods group, the state is
seeking the best ways to maximize
return on investment in BIM, says
Lance Parve, senior project engineer
in the Southeast Region of WisDOT
and co-chair for the Transportation
Research Boards Virtual Design and
Construction Joint Subcommittee.
Parve says he sees value in the
collaborative aspects of BIM, but,
because the state mandates design-
bid-build procurement, early
integration of teams is not possible.
WisDOT is testing a hybrid approach
that uses its in-house design and
construction departments to
collaborate on design models to gain
many of the benefts of working in an
alternative delivery method, such
as design-build.
Pure design plans can have
issues, Parve says. Theres a lot
of coordination and design reviews
between different disciplines, but
thats not enough. Were taking a
construction-oriented approach
that really impacts the design in a
benefcial way.
Parve says the process gives the
team a greater likelihood of fxing
issues virtually, rather than in the feld.
Weve found that on projects, there
can be 5% to 10% of costs coming
from [change orders], he says. On
some of these projects, that is more
than adequate payback. It doesnt take
more than avoiding a few incidents,
and youve paid for a whole boatload
of BIM software.
WisDOT is testing its approach
on two current projectsthe $162.5
million Mitchell Interchange Project
and the $1.7 billion Zoo Interchange.
On the Mitchell project, modeling
was done after design was complete.
Still, the team was able to use the
model for visualization and clash
detection that reaped savings, says
Parve. In addition, the team used
that model for 4D scheduling of the
construction phase.
On the Zoo Interchange project, the
team was able to start earlier, creating a
robust model that could be provided for
contractor bidding. Both 4D schedule
simulation and 5D cost estimation are
possible with the model. The models
include mobile, static and aerial light
detection and ranging. In total, the team
expects to scale up to a 20,000-page set
of design plans using models created
by more than 200 designers.
Under the states design-bid-
build method, Parve says, WisDOT
encourages contractors to use
its models but does not require
it. Theres a lot of room for the
contracting side to develop models
further and recognize this as a design-
level issuing of the model that could
have further enhancements, he
says. If they fnd a shorter way to
do something, that saves us money
and saves them time. On a lump sum
contract, theres a lot to be gained.
Fore River Bridge
Replacement
Regardless of an owners outlook
on BIM, some frms see big benefts
in modeling on their own. STV has
been using BIM on vertical buildings
since 2006 but decided to test its
application on the Fore River Bridge
Replacement in Quincy, Mass., for
Massachusetts DOT. The design calls
for a vertical-lift bridge with towers
that are nearly 300 feet high.
After starting the design in CAD,
STV decided that the bridges
complexity required modeling, says
Greg Spears, a designer at STV.
The coordination of the different
disciplines was a huge part of this
Wisconsin Department of Transportation is taking a lead role in testing the application
of BIM on state roadway projects, including the $1.7 billion Zoo Interchange.
Use of BIM on Road and Highway Projects
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A plan to integrate the model with
the citys GIS (global information
system) was considered, but was
shelved for future consideration
because the city was updating its
GIS system at the time.
Kyle Jacocks, a civil engineer at
Clark Nexsen involved in integrating
BIM into the frms infrastructure-
related disciplines, says modeling
the project improved visualization,
enabled faster design reviews,
enhanced coordination, ensured
better constructability and
increased collaboration.
Jacocks says that while BIM
provided considerable benefts,
it did add time to the process.
However, he believes it proved
valuable on the project. We know
some things took extra time, but
its hard to measure what didnt
happen, he adds. There was
probably an additional cost, but
down the road, as we get more
experienced and faster [with
modeling], I anticipate that will be
less of an issue.
project, he says. We have a lot of
equipment that requires electrical
conduit that had to be designed for
extremely tight places. By designing
in 3D, were able to see what our
electrical engineers are doing and
have immediate feedback over the
placement of their components.
In addition to MEP, STV created a
structural model and architectural
components of the bridge. However, no
analysis was done in the models.
Although BIM was not required
by the owner and the owner was not
charged extra fees for the models,
Spears says, the effort paid off. It
streamlined our process, he says.
There is a tight schedule for this
project, and modeling is one way
we were able to speed up the
process internally. The client also
gained direct benefts through better
over-the-shoulder reviews of the
models as they progressed.
Still, the benefts were limited to
the designer. Although the project is
being delivered using design-build, the
contractor is not creating construction
models. That was not part of the initial
contract, Spears adds.
Spears says he expects STV to
incorporate BIM into future heavy
civil projects, particularly on complex
facilities. Weve learned that this
is really effective at the intersection
between infrastructure and [vertical]
buildings, he says. If there are
minimal building elements, we can still
do it, but we dont get the same kind
of benefts as when there are many
disciplines to coordinate.
Chesapeake Roadway
Projects
While large, complex roadway
projects seem a more likely candidate
for BIM use, some frms are testing
its applicability on small projects as
well. Clark Nexsen used modeling on
two intersection projects for the City
of Chesapeake, Va., with combined
design and engineering fees of less
than $100,000.
The roadway project, which
began in 2009, aimed to realign an
intersection. Drainage improvements
and stormwater management were
included in the scope. Clark Nexsen
was contracted the following year to
design a new mast arm traffc signal
at the intersection.
The team modeled the roadway
and performed stormwater design
analysis based on the model. Quantity
takeoffs were performed for engineers
estimates for inclusion in a bid package.
With the roadway model in place, Clark
Nexsen added its traffc signal study.
The city commissioned a laser scan to
identify existing above-ground utilities
and other features, such as trees. The
model, laser scan and additional digital
drawings were integrated to create
a virtual project drive-through for
visualization and analysis.
Use of BIM on Road and Highway Projects
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McGraw-Hill Construction 15www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
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ultibillion-dollar airport
expansion programs
often include a mix
of complex vertical
and horizontal projects split among
numerous bid packages. To better
manage projects, many airport
authorities encourage designers and
contractors to collaborate in BIM.
Since many of these programs are split
into multiple phases, some build teams
are crossing competitive lines for the
greater good of the program.
Delta Air Lines
Redevelopment at JFK
Satterfeld & Pontikes (S&P) is
providing project-control services
for the $1.2 billion Delta Air Lines
Redevelopment project at John F.
Kennedy International Airport (JFK)
in New York City. The program is
split into multiple packages. Turner
Construction and Lend Lease
each oversee separate concourse
packages. Turners scope also
includes signifcant civil work. Peter
Scalamandre & Sons was awarded
a separate taxiway package. Several
stakeholders are involved as well,
including Delta, JFK International Air
Terminal and the Port Authority of
New York and New Jersey. Numerous
businesses housed within the
concourses are also affected by
the program.
To better monitor all contracts and
keep stakeholders informed, S&P
is modeling the project, providing
estimating and scheduling analysis
and cost controls. When S&P joined
the project, the design was already
complete, but S&P was able to work
from the design teams models to
build its own, says Tim Kelly, technical
services manager at S&P. S&P also
incorporated models generated by
contractors and some of their subs.
The teams conduct coordination
and constructability reviews.
Visualization is another major
component. Team members work
collaboratively in an on-site virtual
studio on schedule planning, site
logistics and other aspects of
project execution.
S&P broke out its model in
accordance with how the project
would be built, enabling 4D scheduling
capabilities. S&P also can conduct
rough 5D cost estimates. Through 4D,
Kelly says, the team can better track
production. We track early, late and
actual fnish of tasks in the model, he
says. We then analyze it to show how
things are tracking going forward.
If the schedule starts to slip, the team
can react quickly to recover. Frank
Roetzel, senior vice president at S&P,
says that kind of knowledge yields
signifcant benefts. When youre on a
big project, you can lose control and not
even know it, he says. Its too much
to handle in the traditional way with 2D
blueprints. Once youve modeled and
you can tie these other applications to
the model, then you have incredible
real-time knowledge about where your
project is. That allows managers to
focus on issues, and you can flter out
the background noise.
On San Diego International Airports Green Build, the team that handles the main roadway and parking aspects of the project
coordinates in BIM with a team under a separate contract that is building a terminal expansion, new gates and a new taxiway.
Use of BIM on Airports
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also crossing competitive lines
to work together. Dwain Brown,
TRIP implementation director and
program manager at Freese and
Nichols, says the airport authority
wanted teams to work in common
platforms to enable high-value BIM
use and consistent communication.
The airport also had a separate
sustainability goal to go paperless
on the project, necessitating greater
use of BIM and related tools. The
joint venture of Balfour Beatty
Construction, Azteca Enterprises,
H.J. Russell & Company and
CARCON Industries was the
frst team in, so Brown worked
with those frms to establish an
implementation plan.
Recognizing the potential
savings, the airport agreed to pay
for items such as software and
plan rooms with large computer
displays. The airport also purchased
hundreds of iPads to allow
managers, superintendents and
subcontractors digital access to
all plans. WiFi throughout the site
enabled access to a cloud server for
updated models and plans. These
are tools to achieve our goals, he
says. We would pay for them one
way or another.
When a second joint venture of
Manhattan Construction Co., Thos.
S. Byrne, James R. Thompson and
3i Construction came on board,
Brown asked the Balfour Beatty
team to get all parties on the
same platforms.
Brown estimates that its
paperless initiative alone could
save the airport more than $8
million in printing costs and
added effciencies.
The Green Build at San
Diego International
On the $1.2 billion Green Build project at
San Diego International Airport, major
contractors on separate contracts work
in harmony through BIM. The program
is split primarily between the team of
Kiewit, Sundt Construction and URS,
which handles the main roadway and
parking aspects of the project, and the
team of Turner Construction, Flatiron
Construction, PCL Construction
Services and HNTB, which is building
a terminal expansion, new gates and a
new taxiway.
From the outset of the program,
the airport authority envisioned
a fully integrated program from
design through construction with
modeled content that was created
as a deliverable for the facilities
management side, says AECOMs Mark
Hughes, who serves as BIM manager
for the airport authority.
When the teams were selected
in 2007, both were contractually
obligated to collaborate in BIM and
create data-rich models, Hughes
says. We entered a 90-day validation
period, where the three parties locked
ourselves in a room and came up with
a game plan, he adds.
Hughes says the team had very open
dialogue about technology options and
expectations of deliverables. Although
a plan was set in place, Hughes says the
team understood that BIM technology
was still evolving. We all recognized
that this was really only a starting
point, he says. We left the door open
for exploration along the path. If we
found a better solution, the opportunity
was brought to the table to discuss.
Simple things like platform changes
and platform products had to be
discussed. New products came online
that we couldnt even dream of initially.
On the civil side, Rob Foster, BIM
manager for the Kiewit/Sundt/URS
team, says a major initiative for his team
was to model utilities and create highly
accurate as-built drawings. When the
team began its work, Foster says the
provided as-builts were very unreliable.
Like any good utility contractor, we
tossed those aside and started drilling
potholes [to locate utilities], he says.
They cost about $1,000 each, and we
did more than 500 of them. We kept
track and modeled the existing and
new utilities so that when the as-builts
are sent to the next contractor, youre
saving another half million dollars.
An overarching goal is to produce
a data-rich deliverable model for
future facilities management, Hughes
says. Currently, for every dollar we
spend in design, we spend $50 to $60
in maintenance, he says. If we can
spend an extra dollar in design and
save $10 in maintenance costs, thats
signifcant savings for us.
Hughes says that the process
signifcantly accelerated the program,
trimming costs and keeping more
of the airport open for business. He
estimates that between hard and
soft costs, the $1.2 billion program
might have cost nearly $2 billion using
traditional means. We were able to
start foundations at 30% construction
documents, he says. If we waited
for the design to be done, wed still be
waiting today, and were two years into
construction now. Thats a lot of lost
airport revenue.
Terminal Renewal and
Improvement at Dallas/
Fort Worth
Joint ventures on the Dallas/Fort
Worth International Airports
$2.3 billion Terminal Renewal and
Improvement Program (TRIP) are
Use of BIM on Airports
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and horizontal building
is often referenced by
BIM users as an ideal
opportunity to use the technology
in infrastructure. Many transit
projects, which combine stations
with roadways and rail lines, ft that
description perfectly.
Use of BIM on Transit
Projects
Parsons Brinckerhoff (PB), an early
adopter of BIM in vertical building sec-
tors, has seen a interest in BIM slowly
increasing within the transit world.
Starting in 2006, the frm used BIM to
deliver the 4th Street Bus Station in
Reno, Nev.
Tom Brooks-Pilling, vice president
and architectural practice leader at
PB, says the frm used modeling early
in the project for conceptual design
to identify the best site concepts.
Architecture, MEP and structural
elements were modeled by PB, but
electrical and plumbing were not
because the functions were not well
developed at the time, he says. Civil
engineering was also not modeled.
The model was used for systems
coordination and cost estimating.
Since then, the frm has seen
expanded use of BIM on transit
projects, including the Fulton Street
Transit Project in Manhattan, on
which PB served as the construction
manager. The frm is also currently
using BIM on mass transit stations in
Mumbai and Los Angeles.
Brooks-Pilling says he expects use
of BIM on mass transit work to gain
momentum as more owners request it.
Once owners request it for facility
management, then there is a lot of
value to be gained, he says. We
see more sophisticated clients taking
an interest in things like modeling
underground utilities. Knowing where
those are would be very useful for a
long-term facilities owner.
Jay Mezher, manager of virtual
design and construction at PB, says
the frms use of BIM on its transit jobs,
regardless of owner requirements,
is garnering interest from transit
authorities. In places like New York City,
where the frm has worked extensively
on the citys subway system, use of
BIM is proving its value.
We werent required to use it, but
they have been really supportive of it,
especially on the trickier issues that
help with scheduling, RFI or anything
that makes project controls easier, he
says. The Port Authority [of New York
and New Jersey] now has a published
BIM standard. That tells you a lot.
BIM is being used extensively for
transit projects in Toronto, Canada.
Multiple frms working on the $730
million Toronto-York Spadina Subway
Extension Project are modeling
segments with the encouragement of
the Toronto Transit Commission. Hatch
Mott MacDonald (HMM) modeled its
work on a 6.7-kilometer tunnel segment
of the project. Given the tight spatial
restriction, the model was used for
coordination of various disciplines.
The clearances were very tight,
says Chris Tattersall, vice president of
transportation in central Canada for
HMM. One area had a tight curve with
utilities and a fre main running through
it. We had no confdence we were clear
in there until we modeled it.
Although HMM made good use of
its model, the information was siloed.
The real value for BIM on these
projects is the downstream usage,
he says. The problem is that public
procurement models tend to silo the
disciplines. The only way to span
across the silos is for the authorities
to get involved. Were seeing some
heading that way.
VivaNext Bus Rapid
Transit System
Also in the Toronto area, extensive
modeling is being used on the
VivaNext Bus Rapid Transit system
project. A partnership of Kiewit
and EllisDon is modeling much of
Use of BIM on Transit Projects
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Seven kilometers of roadways, 22 stations and two new pedestrian bridges were
modeled for a section of the VivaNext Bus Rapid Transit system project in Toronto.
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 18www.construction.com
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The point clouds are also used for
quantity takeoffs and estimating. Erlich
says the scans are accurate to within a
couple of millimeters.
The team is also scanning the
roadways, using an outside frm with
a vehicular scanner. Again, getting
accurate measurements is a major
beneft. A centimeter difference
over seven kilometers adds up to a
lot in quantities.
During construction, the point
clouds allow the owner and other
team members to monitor progress of
the project.
Potentially, one of the most valuable
aspects of scanning will be realized after
completion. Because the project is being
scanned regularly, the point clouds can
be combined after completion to create
highly accurate as-built models, Erlich
says. You can see the station peeled like
an onion, he says.
a 7-kilometer section of the project
that will include road-widening for
dedicated bus lanes, 22 stations,
two pedestrian bridges and fve
new bridges built for environmental
protection along the corridor.
The team converted 2D drawings
into 3D models to help analyze road
structures, corridors, intersections
and culverts for constructability.
The team also generated quantity
takeoffs and earthwork calculations
from the model. For the stations and
bridges, the team modeled structural
elements; coordinated existing and
proposed utilities; and performed
quantity takeoffs. The model was
also used for 4D scheduling with
site superintendents to help them
visualize the process.
Denis Erlich, senior BIM
coordinator with EllisDon, says the
team came in after the frst phase of
design was well underway, so it had
to build its model from scratch. For
the second phase, Erlich says, the
team got designers to work in 3D to
speed up the modeling process.
Perhaps the most robust tool
used in its modeling effort is
laser scanning. The team, which
purchased its own scanner, is
regularly scanning all conditions as
construction progresses. Kiewit/
EllisDon sees multiple benefts from
the process. Erlich says the team
uses the point clouds produced
by the scanners to ensure quality,
particularly at the interfaces
between the civil works aspects
of the project and the vertical
construction. Those point clouds
can be pulled into the 3D model to
compare site conditions with the
design. When discrepancies are
found, they can be addressed quickly.
Use of BIM on Transit Project
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McGraw-Hill Construction 19www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 20www.construction.com
Data:
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AThe benefts of BIM manifest in a variety of ways. In some
cases they accrue directly to the individual company
that is deploying it in the form of improved productivity,
proftability or effciency. In other cases, the benefts are
enjoyed by the entire team and often contribute directly
to better overall projects.
In addition to this variety of benefts, each type of
player involved in a project experiences the value of
BIM from its own perspective of needs, risks, rewards
and objectives. One common thread running through
the fndings of this study is the positive impact on
the business aspects of running organizations and
designing, building and operating projects.
To determine the relative value of BIM benefts across
these dynamic dimensions, respondents were asked
to assign one of fve levels of importance (none, low,
medium, high or very high) to:
A variety of specifc benefts that result from using BIM
technologies and processes
Project phases and project processes which beneft
from BIM to varying degrees
Project factors that most affect the ability to generate
benefts from BIM
Current versus future benefts
To focus on the aspects with the most impact, the graphs
in this section of the report show just the percentage of
respondents that assigned high or very high levels of
importance to any choice offered.
Assigning Value to BIM Benefts
Business Benets
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Business BenetsCONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 21www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
The top four benefts noted by users of BIM for
infrastructure are the same as the top benefts noted
for buildings in MHCs 2009 Business Benefts of
BIM SmartMarket Report, and they are ranked in the
same order. This demonstrates the consistent results
experienced from BIM across project types, especially to
create new business and improve project outcomes.
Several of the most critical benefts of using BIM for
infrastructure hold equally strong appeal to A/E frms
and contractors.
Marketing New Business
An equally high percentage (45%) of A/E frms and
contractors rank the ability to leverage BIM capabilities
and experience to win new work as a top beneft, making
it the most universally important among all internal
benefts. This competitive advantage aspect has scored
well consistently in previous BIM research conducted by
McGraw-Hill Construction.
Other factors related directly to business concerns
were also selected as important by over one third of A/E
frms and contractors:
Offer New Services
Maintain Repeat Business
Reduce Errors in Construction Documents
A/E frms and contractors also agree (42% and 41%,
respectively) on the high importance of BIMs ability to
reduce construction document errors.
Improve Learning for Younger Staff
A/E frms and contractors also highly regard BIMs
usefulness for working with younger staff, an important
aspect of attracting and retaining the emerging tech-
savvy workforce in the construction industry.
Benefts scoring lower among A/E frms and contractors
include reduced claims/litigation and increased profts.
This result does not suggest that these are unimportant
benefts, but that they are not yet demonstrated to the
extent that many frms can report experiencing them.
Top Internal Benefts for A/E Firms and Contractors
Top Internal Business Benefts of Using BIM for
Infrastructure Projects for A/E Firms and Contractors
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
45%
45%
51%
38%
41%
42%
Offer New Services
42%
39%
Maintain Repeat Business
38%
38%
Reduce Rework
44%
31%
Improve Learning for Younger Staff
38%
34%
Marketing New Business
Overall Better Project Outcomes
Reduce Errors in Documents
Benefts_Q21_AEC
Variation by Player
There are a few benefts that appear to carry greater
weight with contractors than with A/E frms.
Over half (51%) of the contractors report overall better
project outcomes as a top internal beneft from using
BIM. This beneft allow respondents to assign an
internal value to the sum of all of the project-oriented
benefts they experience, which is of particular concern
to contractors.
Reducing rework is rated more highly by contractors
(44%) than A/E frms (31%), likely because they are
affected most directly by this issue.
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 22www.construction.com
As the entities ultimately responsible for project
outcomes, owners have their own unique perspective
on what constitutes an internal beneft of BIM on
infrastructure projects.
Tied for frst place at 44%, overall better project
outcomes and reduced rework are signifcant benefts
of BIM.
This is understandable because both are highly visible
on projects in an owner organization and refect directly
on the individuals responsible. This is especially the
case with reduced rework because unbudgeted changes
on projects that result in rework are, in many cases,
avoidable and indicate gaps in the project delivery
process. A process enhancement, such as BIM, that can
positively impact this perennial problem will be highly
valued. Not surprisingly, a large percentage of owners
of vertical projects in MHCs 2009 Business Value of BIM
SmartMarket Report also fnd these benefts important.
Fewer claims/litigation is owners next most important
internal beneft.
Claims and litigation may rank highly with owners
because of their visibility and the potential fnancial risk
they involve.
Tied for third place at 33% are reduced errors in
documents, reduced workfow cycle time and reduced
project duration.
These specifc benefts are critical because they impact
aspects of project processes that owners believe
contribute to better project outcomes.
Reduced construction cost rates least important of
these benefts.
As with several other low-ranking factors, the challenge
of attributing this beneft reliably to BIM use is more likely
the cause of its low rank than its lack of importance.
Top Business Benefts for Owners
Top Internal Business Benefts of Using BIM
for Infrastructure Projects for Owners
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Reduce Rework
Overall Better Project Outcomes
44%
Fewer Claims / Litigation
44%
Reduce Errors in Documents
38%
Reduce Workfow Cycle Time
33%
33%
Reduce Construction Cost
Reduce Project Duration
33%
22%
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BIM Capabilities that Beneft
Infrastructure Projects
McGraw-Hill Construction 23 www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Sidebar: Business Benets
T
he specialized nature of
infrastructure projects
creates the opportunity
for a number of benefts
resulting from BIM technologies and
processes. Even clash detection, a
staple of vertical BIM, has special
signifcance on infrastructure
projects. According to Dan Klancnik,
VDC manager at the Walsh Group
in Chicago, Conficts tend to be
much more expensive in treatment
plants and heavy construction than in
commercial work, so the benefts [of
BIM] are easily realized.
Civil Conditions
A building has a defned footprint
where it touches the earth, and
once the foundation is in place, the
complex realities of the geophysical
environment that surrounds it have
minimal impact on construction.
Horizontal projects, by contrast,
are subject to every nuance of the
extensive amount of terra frma with
which they engage. No two feet of
a roadway is like any other two feet,
says Eric Cylwik, BIM engineer for
the Heavy and Civil Group of Sundt
Construction in Tempe, Ariz.
Many frms putting BIM to work
on civil projects believe in using a
variety of inputs including GIS data,
underground radar, laser scanning,
test borings, and any other source
of reliable information to develop a
complete-as-possible model of the
existing civil conditions with which
they will be working. Once that model
is in place, engineers can leverage it
for nearly endless types of analysis,
simulation and visualization to
optimize design solutions. Says Jay
Mezher, VDC Manager for Parsons
Brinckerhoff (PB), You can model and
analyze as many issues in horizontal
projects as you can in buildings.
Simulation
Once surface and subsurface
conditions are modeled, engineers
can simulate the impact of their
proposed design solutions. For
example, by using computational
fow analysis, an engineer can assess
the downstream impact of a dam on
the existing natural water system.
It is also possible to simulate the
effect of a natural disaster on the
built environment. This was done
in Seattle to assess the impact
of an earthquake to an elevated
highway and the surrounding
grade level improvements. To see
the video, go to <youtube.com/
watch?v=hos_uIKwC-c>.
Engaging Community
Stakeholders
Large roadway and tunnel projects
in urban areas are complex and
can require choices between many
alternative approaches before
the fnal engineering solution is
approved for implementation. This
process is further complicated
by required involvement from
numerous stakeholder groups whose
members are often non-technical
and have diffculty understanding the
differences between options based
on the handful of design documents
and renderings that are typically
produced for these purposes.
The Alaskan Way Viaduct and
Seawall Replacement project in
Seattle, Wash., is just such a project.
Coursing through the heart of the
citys downtown business area, its
impact is enormous. The projects
engineering frm, PB, developed 98
different alternatives, from elevated
highways to tunnels, which had to be
comparatively evaluated and then
narrowed down to a fnal plan with
the involvement of a large array of
parties. By modeling the existing
surface and subsurface conditions
of the entire downtown, PB could
produce numerous highly descriptive
and compelling animations that
defnitely accelerated the complex
evaluation and approval process.
See an example at <youtube.com/
watch?v=mWfwnkEbc4Q>.
Visualization for
Business Development
Marketing BIM capability is one of the
top internal business benefts of BIM
for infrastructure reported by current
users in this SmartMarket Report (see
page 21). Combining that goal with
the power of visualization for highly
complex engineering solutions,
many frms are modeling proposed
approaches to projects during the
marketing phase. This allows them
to demonstrate their BIM prowess at
the same time they impress the client
with their understanding of the unique
aspects of the project.
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 24www.construction.com
BIM is still maturing in its applicability throughout the
lifecycle of a project. As a result, benefts are not being
experienced at equal levels across all phases by every
player type. Respondents were asked to report on the
level of value they are currently receiving, by phase, from
the use of BIM on infrastructure projects.
Design and construction documentation are
assigned the highest values by the most respondents
(53% and 51%, respectively). Predictably strong rating
from A/E frms (59% and 53%, respectively) contribute to
this high valuation, which align with the results of MHCs
2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report on
vertical construction.
However, design and construction documentation
also have high value to contractors and owners. In fact,
the strong recognition of this beneft by contractors
highlights broad acknowledgement of the growing
importance of collaboration between A/E frms and
contractors during these phases. These are also the
phases for which BIM has been implemented the longest
and on the most projects, so it is not surprising that more
people are familiar with those benefts.
The high levels of importance assigned to other
phases point to a few emerging trends.
44% of the owners assign high value to the use of
BIM for the planning phase, where its ability to
visually convey complex engineering solutions is
proving increasingly valuable for review and approval
processes with nontechnical stakeholder groups.
29% of the owners also assign high value to BIMs
contribution to the maintenance phase, an aspect
of rapidly growing interest in operations and
maintenance throughout the industry.
There is increased interest in using BIM for closeout
and operations throughout the industry. This is
supported by comparison with the results of MHCs
2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report,
which examined BIM adoption in building construction.
While a comparable percentage perceived the value of
BIM during the design and construction phases, only
16% from the earlier survey found BIM added value in
project closeout and 15% during the operations and
maintenance phase, compared to roughly one quarter
of the current respondents.
Top Benefts by Phase
Programming
Planning
24%
19%
25%
Design
44%
32%
34%
Construction Documentation
44%
45%
59%
Bid Letting
47%
46%
53%
Construction
6%
26%
21%
Project Closeout
41%
55%
37%
Maintenance
24%
25%
25%
29%
17%
24%
High/Very High BIM Value for
Infrastructure by Project Phase
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
Owners
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McGraw-Hill Construction 25www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
BIM generates varying degrees of value for each player
type across different project processes:
Spatial coordination is identifed by the largest number
of contractors (65%) and A/E frms (56%) as a process
where BIM provides high value.
Owners view it with less enthusiasm (25%), probably
because the process is not as visible to them, and in most
cases they already expect a fully coordinated project.
Structural analysis is valued at the second highest for
A/E frms (41%).
Not surprisingly, it lags with contractors (23%) and
owners (25%), again likely because of their relative lack of
direct involvement with that activity.
Surprisingly, more A/E frms cite the high contribution
of BIM to quantity takeoff (38%) and cost estimating
(31%) than contractors (22% and 17%, respectively).
This is likely a result of contractors long-standing
reliance on traditional methods and the fact that reliable,
detailed quantity takeoff and estimating directly from
BIM is still an emerging practice, whereas it provides a
newfound capability for design frms.
35% of A/E frms consider BIMs ability to foster greater
client engagement important.
This result spotlights the important contribution of
enhanced visualization to that process. Almost as many A/E
frms (33%) value spending less time on documentation,
a beneft of the front-end loaded BIM process.
Lower-scoring processes include submittals,
4D scheduling, automated machine guidance,
environmental impact/feasibility studies, and operation
and maintenance of an asset (which no player rate as
high or very high). As BIM usage matures and technology
advances, the value of BIM to each of these important, but
currently low-scoring, processes is expected to increase.
Certainly, the importance that 29% of the owners and
24% of the A/E frms place on the value of BIM during the
maintenance phase of a project (see page 24 for more
information) indicates that the industry believes that BIM
offers great potential in these areas.
Top Benefts by Project Process
Spatial Coordination
Structural Analysis
25%
65%
56%
Greater Client Engagement
25%
23%
41%
Quantity Take-Off
0%
28%
35%
Less Time Documenting
0%
22%
38%
Cost Estimation
0%
23%
33%
Submittals Process
25%
17%
31%
38%
31%
21%
High/Very High BIM Value for
Infrastructure by Project Process
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
Owners
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 26www.construction.com
While there is much variability among the value of project
factors by player, one factor, project complexity, rates
equally high (total of 61%) among all respondent types.
This strong result for infrastructure projects emphasizes
the perceived value of BIM for managing large amounts
of information among multiple participants more
effectively than traditional approaches, a beneft that
impacts all users equally.
Project complexity is also one of the few top factors
for which an equivalent percentage (63%) found value in
vertical construction in MHCs 2009 Business Value of BIM
SmartMarket Report; however, for buildings, this was the
third highest rated factor rather than the frst. In fact, all the
other top fve factors were selected by a larger percentage
of organizations using BIM in buildings in 2009 compared
to those using it for infrastruture in 2011. One of the few
exceptions is project size, which was only selected by 41%
of the 2009 respondents. This combination of size and
complexity reveals that it is the complexity of large projects
that is perceived to offer the greatest opportunity in the
infrastructure sector.
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS
A surprising 64% of A/E frms place high importance on
having BIM-knowledgeable design professionals on the
project. This result is particularly striking when compared
to the 41% who cite previous experience working with
the other companies on a project as critical. In an industry
known for valuing long-term relationships, this signals a
very important cultural change driven by the perception of
tangible value.
CONTRACTORS
Interestingly, a relatively small number (27%) of contractors
assign a similarly high importance to project budget. This
may indicate a belief that projects of any budget can beneft
from BIM, not just the most expensive ones.
OWNERS
The most popular choice (75%) among owners is project
budget, probably closely linked in their minds to project
complexity, to which 63% of them assign top importance.
Owners also place strong value on working with
frms with BIM experience. 63% consider the number
of BIM-knowledgeable frms on a project important,
the same percentage that recognize the importance of
project complexity.
Impact of Project Factors on Benefts
Project Complexity
BIM-Knowledgeable Design Professionals on the Project
63%
63%
61%
Interoperability between Team Members' Softwares
50%
54%
64%
Number of BIM-Knowledgeable Firms on the Project
57%
48%
56%
BIM-Knowledgeable Construction Firms on the Project
63%
44%
49%
Project Size
38%
51%
45%
50%
44%
46%
Contract Form that Supports BIM/Collaboration
25%
43%
47%
BIM-Knowledgeable Client
Project Budget
0%
39%
44%
75%
27%
49%
Most Important Infrastructure Project Factors
that Add Value to BIM Use
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
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Owners
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McGraw-Hill Construction 27www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Not surprisingly, each player has a very different view of
the top current benefts of using BIM for infrastructure.
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS
The A/E responses are largely in agreement with the owners
responses. The only area selected by signifcantly more A/E
respondents than owners is reduced conficts and changes
during construction. One factor that may make this beneft
particularly appealing to A/E frms is BIMs ability to convey
design intent, which reduces the likelihood that the contractor
will make major changes to the project during construction.
CONTRACTORS
69% of contractors cite reduced conficts and changes
during construction as important, the highest percentage
of any group for any of the benefts. It also has the highest
combined total percentage (58%) across all player types.
46% of contractors also give high marks to prefabrication
of larger and more complex parts of projects, a BIM trend
that is well established and growing. Among the company
types that comprise the contractor category, specialty
contractors are especially enthusiastic regarding this beneft,
with 38% reporting it as having very high importance and
none rating it with low or no importance.
OWNERS
The highest percentage of owners (59%) select improved
overall project quality as an important BIM beneft, making
this the second most important beneft overall, with a
combined total of 48%.
The benefts of reduced total project cost and reduced
overall project schedule are also selected by a signifcant
percentage of owners (44% and 38%, respectively), but their
relatively low level of selection by design and construction
respondents keep them out of the top group of BIM benefts
as shown in the chart at right.
Other Benefts
Falling short of the top group of current BIM benefts are
improved individual participant productivity and improved
proftability of participating companies. While certainly
desirable outcomes, these benefts are likely selected by
fewer respondents as important due to a lack of reliable track
record of achieving them, a persistent trend throughout all
the lower-ranked data. As more data are collected from BIM
teams across the industry, these benefts are sure to rise
in perceived value.
Top Current Benefts
Reduced Conficts & Changes During Construction
Improved Overall Project Quality
Lower Risk & Better Predictability of Outcomes
Prefabrication of Larger, More Complex Parts
Better-Performing Completed Infrastructure
Improved Review & Approval Cycles
47%
65%
55%
59%
50%
44%
35%
43%
37%
31%
46%
35%
40%
34%
38%
38%
32%
36%
Most Important BIM Benefts that Contribute
Value to Infrastructure Projects
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
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Owners
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 28www.construction.com
All players believe that reduced conficts and changes
during construction will be their top future beneft of
using BIM for infrastructure. This fnding corresponds
to the top current beneft of using BIM (see page 27).
Reducing conficts and changes during construction can
have the greatest impact on improving project schedule
and productivity and reducing the risk of cost and
schedule overruns.
Lower risks and better predictability of outcomes is
also an important beneft for all of the players. A similar
percentage (64%) considered this to be an important
beneft of BIM for buildings in the future in MHCs 2009
Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report, which
demonstrates how valuable it is across project sectors.
Variation by Player
The owners outpace the A/E frms and contractors in
their selection of improved productivity (71%) as a highly
valued future beneft of using BIM for infrastructure. This
result is striking because it indicates an understanding
that although this beneft accrues frst to the companies
providing the labor, it ultimately controls cost on a
projectalways a critical concern for owners.
Refecting their unique perspective on what
constitutes a beneft of BIM, the group also shows the
strongest level of support for:
Improved review and approval cycles (63%)
This result demonstrates an awareness of the value that
streamlining decision making provides for everyone.
Lower risk and better predictability of outcomes (61%)
and reduced total project cost (59%)
The importance of these areas reinforces the owners
focus on the elements by which their performance
ultimately will be measured.
Interestingly, the fewest owners place high value on
the future beneft of higher-quality, better-performing
completed infrastructure, which should accrue the most
relative beneft to them. This may be because there
currently is not enough evidence of the ability to achieve
that result, and their opinion may shift once data are
collected to establish that potential.
Top Benefts in Five Years
Reduced Conficts & Changes during Construction
Lower Risk & Better Predictability of Outcomes
Higher Quality, Better-Performing Completed Infrastructure
Improved Productivity
Improved Review & Approval Cycles
Reduced Total Project Cost
76%
69%
75%
61%
60%
60%
50%
59%
61%
71%
54%
58%
63%
50%
52%
59%
47%
52%
Areas of Greatest Value to BIM Practitioners for
Infrastructure Projects in 5 Years
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
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Owners
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B
uilding information modeling
(BIM) is beginning to pique the
interest of public entities that
own, operate and maintain
dams, canals and levees. Such critical
infrastructure is generally expected to
remain in operation for many decades,
and some owners recognize the long-
term benefts of creating models for
ongoing analysis and improvement
of facilities.
U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
released its BIM Roadmap in 2006, and
since then it has made great strides by
requiring use of the technology on its
vertical building projects. Recently, the
Corps started implementing 3D modeling
and BIM on civil works projects as well.
Van Woods, CAD/BIM manager
in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Seattle District, says that unlike the
top-down approach that the Corps
used to implement BIM on vertical
building projects, the adoption of
BIM on civil projects is starting in
the trenches. We have engineers
interested in trying to get [BIM] into
the workfow, and we are helping to
support that, he says.
Woods says that a handful of
districts are starting to test the
technologys applications in civil
projects, including recent work on
the Howard Hanson Dam through its
Seattle District. Initially, engineers
chose to model the dam as a way to
monitor a depression that appeared on
an abutment. The team used terrestrial
and aerial LIDAR data to build a 3D
site model.
The team has since built models on
top of that data, including a BIM model
of a new fsh passage facility at the
dam. Woods notes that the facility had
relatively complex geometries, such as
a horn modeled as an elliptical curve,
traction water conduit modeled as
an ogee parabolic curve, and a food
control tunnel modeled as a helical
horseshoe. Additionally, a pedestrian
bridge comes in on an angle and has
a slope.
Multiple disciplines worked on the
model, including structural, mechanical,
civil and geotechnical. Through its
coordination efforts, the team discovered
that a planned drilling location for
reinforcement of the fsh ladder would
have clipped the existing structure.
That was an interesting exercise in cost
avoidance, Woods says.
The team was also able to pull
quantities from the model, such as
volume of concrete, rebar and structural
steel; volume of rock and soil excavation;
and vertical and horizontal surface areas.
The Panama Canal Authority added BIM to the workow at its ongoing $6 billion expansion project, primarily for use by the
design team; however future plans call for use of BIM in other tasks, including scheduling.
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Use of BIM on Dams, Canals and Levees
McGraw-Hill Construction 29www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 30www.construction.com
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Pansic notes that the biggest
challenge has been getting up to speed
on how BIM can be applied in civil
projects while sticking to the projects
aggressive schedule. We are coming
up the learning curve, so there have
been situations where we had to go
back to the conventional approach and
then come back later to catch up in the
BIM model. It hasnt been 100 percent
according to the grand plan.
Although the project is designed in
BIM, the build team is not required to
use BIM. All construction documents
will be provided in 2D. Still, Pansic sees
greater use of BIM on the project in the
future. He says the authority plans to
contract a BIM consultant to develop
a 4D schedule for the project. The
authority may also consider using the
model for facilities management in the
future, but those plans have not been
fnalized, he says.
Beyond the benefts for the project,
Pansic says MWH is gaining a critical
understanding of the technology.
They have been looking for ways
to introduce this technology and
understand what is needed to make this
a standard approach going forward,
he says. Having a real project with real
challenges and lessons learned will
help with other projects in the future.
Although the Corps use of BIM on
civil projects is years behind its efforts
in vertical building, Steve Hutsell,
geospatial section chief in the Seattle
District, says it will be part of the Corps
future workfows. Youll see more
civil projects with 3D as a requirement
for design and construction, he adds.
Within the Corps, theres recognition
of its value in the vertical world. The
question were trying to answer is: Can
we not achieve those same results in
civil works?
The Panama Canal
In recent years, the Panama Canal
Authority added BIM to the workfow at
its ongoing $6 billion expansion project.
Nick Pansic, deputy design manager for
the project with MWH Global, has been
involved with the project for more than
a decade, and recently was asked by the
authority to implement BIM.
Pansic says the initiative provided
MWH with an entre into BIM for
civil works. I was excited to see
it requested, he says. I knew it
would challenge us to up our game
and fgure out a new way to design
projects versus traditional delivery of
something like this.
The master plan includes several
dredging projects, but the BIM initiative
is focused on the Third Set of Locks
project. MWH is part of a design
joint venture with Tetra Tech and the
Dutch frm Iv-Infra. The joint venture is
subcontracted under the design-build
consortium Grupo Unidos por el Canal.
The authority specifed the BIM
platform that would be used for the
project, but left the implementation plan
largely up to the design consortium,
Pansic says.
The teams primary focus for modeling
is the reinforced concrete structures
that retain the water, as well as some
earth dam components. Other modeled
elements include flling and emptying
components, large fxed-wheel gate
valves, and 60 control buildings per lock
complex. All mechanical systems and
electrical controls for the complex are
also modeled, as well as supporting
utilities. Additional civil works and
earthwork models were created by
outside consultants.
Although the authority left the
implementation plan up to the
consortium, Pansic says having all
parties on the same platforms aided with
coordination of models from the different
disciplines. We had to resolve a confict
recently with the high-mast lighting
required for operation of the locks,
he says. The locations of those light
poles are interfering with some access
roadways needed for equipment. The
BIM tool is an easy way to quickly identify
where we have those conficts and
present that to the contractor and owner.
The team designed the project to
Level of Development 300 standards,
which enables the team to create
construction documents and provide
rough quantity takeoffs for estimating.
Pansic says the team didnt link structural
or hydraulic intelligence for analysis
purposes to the model, since that would
require a higher level of development.
Use of BIM on Dams, Canals and Levees
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projects, including a new sh ladder at Howard Hanson Dam in Washington State.
McGraw-Hill Construction 31www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Data:
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AMarketing BIM capability is the leading focus for both
current (38%) and future (51%) investment across all
respondents. This result is not surprising because A/E
frms and contractors report that the ability to market new
capabilities is currently one of the top benefts from BIM
for infrastructure (see page 21). This also contributes to
why few owners indicate that this is a focus for their BIM
investments. Among the different player types, architects
show a slightly greater degree of current (40%) and
signifcantly more future (62%) commitment to a high or
very high level of investment.
The next most important current and future
investment for all respondents is software that supports
BIM. Among the players, architects (subset of the A/E
frms) have the lowest current percentage (29%) of frms
investing at high or very high levels, but they appear
to be the most aggressive future investors, with 57%
forecasting that level fve years out. Owners also predict
strong growth over the period.
New or upgraded hardware required to operate BIM
software scored third highest, but its importance does
not increase quite as much over fve years as other top
investment types. This perhaps refects a belief that
near-term upgrades will suffce. In general, architects
and engineers focus on this more than contractors, likely
due to their high level of involvement in authoring and
analyzing large model fles.
Investments with a High Percentage
of Increase Expected
Developing collaborative BIM processes shows the
greatest percentage increase, with the number of high
and very high investors increasing dramatically during
this periodfrom 33% in 2011 to 49% in 2016. This
refects the increasing awareness that while hardware
and software are prerequisites, enhanced inter-company
processes will generate the greatest value.
The numbers of organizations placing high priority
on investments in training on BIM and customization/
interoperability solutions, while somewhat lower
currently than other categories, are expected to increase
signifcantly. By contrast, developing custom libraries
shows the least predicted growth in importance, perhaps
refecting a belief that, similar to hardware, near-term
investments will reduce future needs.
Top Investments in BIM for Infrastructure
Investment and ROI
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Focus of BIM Infrastructure Investments
(Current and Future)
2016
2011
51%
38%
50%
35%
46%
33%
49%
33%
37%
31%
42%
30%
43%
29%
Marketing BIM Capability
Software that Supports BIM
New/Upgraded Hardware
Developing Collaborative BIM Processes
Developing Custom Libraries
Training on BIM
Customization/Interoperability Solutions
Invest_Q18
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Investment and ROI CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 32www.construction.com
Because currently there is no widely accepted way
to calculate ROI on BIM, respondents were asked to
estimate their ROI in seven broad categories. The
fndings demonstrate that the majority of respondents
are fnding that using BIM for infrastructure has value,
and a signifcant percentage fnd that they are gaining
signifcant returns from their investments in BIM.
One third of respondents currently using BIM for
infrastructure work show negative or break-even ROI.
Almost half (47%) of owners fall into this category,
followed by A/E frms at 37%.
More than one quarter of all respondents report ROI of
25% or better, with nearly one third of the contractors
reporting that attractive level.
Comparisons with the results reported in MHCs 2009
Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report are striking.
That report examined the ROI of BIM used for buildings,
and the fndings again are quite similar, demonstrating
that BIM adoption for infrastructure is lagging behind its
adoption for buildings by a few years.
In 2011, 67% report a positive ROI for BIM use on
infrastructure, compared to 63% for buildings. The
percentage experiencing a high ROI of more than 50%
Return on Investments of BIM for Infrastructure
Perceived ROI on Infrastructure BIM Investment
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
Invest_Q20
Owners
Negative Break-Even Less than 10% 10%-25% 26%-50% 51%-100% Over 100%
Negative/Break-Even 33%
21%
10%
21%
16%
13%
26%
19%
17%
15%
20%
29%
16%
10%
11%11%
12%
10%
2%
10%
11%
More than 25% ROI: 26%
Perceived ROI on Infrastructure BIM
Investment by Expertise Level
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
50% or Greater ROI Negative/Break-Even ROI
Invest_ROIExpertise
Beginner Moderate Advanced Expert
47%
2%
38%
5%
30%
21%
14%
43%
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Return on Investments of BIM for Infrastructure CONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 33www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
56% of all respondents engage in formal measurement of
ROI for BIM on at least some portion of their infrastructure
projects, compared to 46% of BIM users on buildings in
MHCs 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report.
This increase may be due to greater overall familiarity with
BIM in the industry since 2009.
Among all the organizations that measure ROI on some
portion of their projects, the largest group (28%) do so on
less than 25% of them. Most of these are A/E frms and
contractors, who are typically not highly experienced with
calculating ROI and thus only do so on a relatively small
percentage of their projects. Also, many organizations
are probably assuming that the metrics for a few projects
reasonably apply across all of them, and thus measuring ROI
on a sample of their portfolio is adequate.
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS AND CONTRACTORS
58% of A/E frms conduct ROI measurement on at least some
of their projects, followed closely by contractors at 54%.
OWNERS
Taking the lead at both extremes, 53% of owners conduct
no ROI measurement, while another 16% of them are
measuring ROI on half or more of their projects.
In both cases, this is probably a refection of organization-
wide policies. Organizations committed to measuring
ROI as a standard practice will also do so for investments
Measuring ROI of BIM for Infrastructure
Formal Measurement of ROI on BIM
for Infrastructure Projects
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
Invest_Q22
Owners
42%
46%
53%
28%28%
26%
15%
13%
5%
15%
13%
16%
None Less than 25% 25%-50% Greater than 50%
56% Formally Measure ROI
related to their construction programs. But if ROI is not
being measured as a standard practice, it is unlikely that
the introduction of BIM, in and of itself, would instigate this
major process change.
is the same in both surveys15%. The overall greater
experience with BIM by the players in this survey
combined with their relative lack of experience with using
it for infrastructure may account for these results.
ROI Investments by Level of Expertise
There is a strong correlation between respondents
reported ROI on BIM for infrastructure and their BIM
expertise level.
Nearly half (47%) of BIM beginners are experiencing
negative or break-even ROI in BIM for infrastructure.
At the other extreme, 43% of BIM experts claim high
positive ROI (50% or greater). Only 2% of beginners
believe they are receiving that level of ROI.
Comparing the results by level of expertise to the 2009
report reveals a similar pattern. Far more beginners (62%)
reported negative/break-even ROI in 2009, but among
the experts, the percentage in 2009 who experienced
50% or greater ROI is 39%, slightly lower than the 2011
infrastructure results. Again, this suggests that their
greater overall knowledge of BIM from building projects
may be impacting the ROI of those who consider
themselves beginners in BIM for infrastructure.
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Investment and ROI CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 34www.construction.com
About one quarter of all respondents that measure ROI
for BIM on infrastructure projects report having done
so for a long time (more than two years), with roughly
equal proportions of the three player types falling into
this category.
Variation by Player
44% of owners have been formally measuring ROI for a
moderate length of time (one to two years), leading that
category by a signifcant margin. Thus, even though a
relatively smaller portion of the owners engage in formal
measurement, those that do have been conducting such
measurements for a longer time.
This is likely due to long-standing organizational
policies that require ROI measurement on a wide range
of technology investments across the organization,
therefore establishing it as an expectation of construction
activity as well.
Almost half (47%) of the A/E frms and contractors
that report measuring ROI are new to it, having done so
for less than one year.
Length of Time Measuring ROI
Length of Time ROI Has Been Formally
Measured on BIM for Infrastructure Projects
(Among those Doing Formal Measurements)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
Invest_Q25
47%47%
34%
30%
Less than
1 Year
Owners
1-2 Years
More than
2 Years
29%
44%
23%
24%
22%
For the respondents that report using BIM for
infrastructure projects but not measuring its ROI, a
signifcant percentage are interested in measuring ROI
eventually, but the data also demonstrate that they are
unlikely to begin any time soon.
Overall, 35% indicate they are likely to engage in formal
measurement of ROI at some point in the future, and
over 20% are not sure. This is similar to the responses
in 2009 from frms using BIM for buildings, highlighting
an industry-wide need that technology companies and
industry organizations can address to help create more
universally accepted methods for measurement.
At just over 7%, those predicting they probably will
begin formally measuring ROI within the next 12
months are the smallest group overall.
This low level of near-term commitment is likely due to
the lack of well-established methods for measuring ROI,
especially among A/E frms and contractors, where the
practice is not widespread to begin with.
Future Plans to Measure ROI
Measurement of ROI on BIM for
Infrastructure Projects in the Future
(Among those Not Measuring ROI)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
Invest_Q23
Probably
Never
Probably Not
for at Least
Another Year
Probably within
the Next
12 Months
Not
Sure
Owners
46%
44%
30%
27%
31%
20%
6%
9%
10%
21%
16%
40%
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Investment and ROI CONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 35www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
For players that measure the ROI of BIM, the top two
factors that can raise their perception of ROI are project-
oriented benefts, not internally focused ones.
At 66%, the leading factor is improved project process
outcomes (such as fewer RFIs and feld coordination
problems). This represents an enlightened understanding
that all participants beneft from smoother, more
trouble-free projects. This was especially strongly felt by
contractors (71%).
Better multi-party communication, a close second at
63%, refects the belief that the use of modeling can
improve information exchange so effectively that each
company will directly beneft.
These were also the top two factors selected by
organizations using BIM for buildings in MHCs 2009 survey.
Six other factors considered the most important means
of improving ROI by 30% to 52% of the respondents are
project-based benefts, including reduced cycle time, lower
project cost, positive impact of sustainability, increased
prefabrication, faster plan approvals and permits, and
improved job safety.
These fnding support the conclusion that better
project processes generate notable benefts for individual
participants, benefts they believe are demonstrable in
their ROI.
However, internally focused benefts are still important
to the respondents, with improved productivity and
positive impact on marketing scoring third and fourth in
the rankingat 60% and 56% respectively. In addition, one
third fnd great value in the impact of BIM on recruiting and
retaining staff.
How to Improve ROI
Most Important Means of Improving ROI on
BIM for Infrastructure Projects
(Among those Doing Formal Measurements)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Improved Project Process Outcomes
Better Multi-Party Communication
Improved Productivity
Positive Impact on Marketing
Reduced Cycle Time for Activities
Lower Project Cost
Positive Impact on Sustainability
Increased Prefabrication
Faster Plan Approval & Permits
Positive Impact on Recruiting/Retaining Staff
Improved Jobsite Safety
63%
60%
56%
52%
44%
38%
37%
36%
34%
32%
66%
Invest_Q26
38% of the rms that measure
the ROI of BIM in infrastruc-
ture consider improved sustain-
ability an important means to
improve ROI. This result is con-
sistent with rising industry
interest in green infrastructure.
One major milestone for the
pursuit of green infrastruc-
ture in the U.S. is the launch
of the Institute for Sustain-
able Infrastructures (ISI) Envi-
sion standard. This system is
the rst in the U.S. to rate the
sustainability level of all types
of infrastructure across three
dimensions: economic, social
and environmental.
The Envision standard may
have a broad reach since it is
supported by leading infra-
structure industry associations
in the U.S. The founding organi-
zations of the ISI are the Amer-
ican Society of Civil Engineers
(ASCE), the American Council of
Engineering Companies (ACEC)
and the American Public Works
Association (APWA).
Government at all levels is
also engaged in pursuing green
infrastructure. Cities like Chi-
cago and Philadelphia have
launched major initiatives, and
the federal government has
begun to look at how to green
the procurement of infrastruc-
ture across all agencies.
Green Infrastructure
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Investment and ROI CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 36www.construction.com
The factors expected to improve the value of BIM by
organizations that are using BIM for infrastructure but are
not measuring ROI correlate with the benefts considered
important by those that already measure the ROI of BIM.
63% of both groups cite better multi-party
communication as being of high or very high
importance, which indicates widespread support for
the value of this collaborative project beneft.
Internally focused benefts of positive impact on
marketing (46%) and improved productivity (42%),
rank in the top four for this group, but at distinctly
lower percentages than with the group that measures
ROI56% and 60% respectively (see page 35).
A major difference between those who measure BIM ROI
and those who do not involves the level of importance
assigned to improved project process outcomes. 43% of
those that do not measure ROI assign top importance to
this factor, versus 66% of those that do (see page 35).
The differential between the two groups again
reinforces the trend found throughout the data that
benefts that are more diffcult to measure are less valued
than those that can be more easily gauged. Thus, the
respondents who measure ROI may be more willing to
assign importance to elements that have established
methods of measurement.
Comparison to BIM Users for Buildings
in the 2009 Survey
The results of the importance of BIM benefts that improve
ROI on building projects from MHCs 2009 Business Value
of BIM SmartMarket Report were not divided between
those who measure ROI and those who do not, but they
still offer useful comparisons to the current results on
the factors that can improve BIMs contribution to ROI on
infrastructure projects.
The most striking differential is that the percentage
who consider all of these factors important is signifcantly
higher on all of the top measures, with the top fve
measures selected by over 70%. While the ROI benefts
reported by BIM users for infrastructure in the current
survey are a little stronger than those from the frms
using it for buildings in 2009, there is less of a clear
sense in the industry about how to continue to improve
their ROI. This suggests an opportunity for further
education and engagement, both by experienced BIM
for infrastructure users and by software companies
promoting BIM for infrastructure.
Some interesting points of comparison include:
Better multi-party communication, improved project
process outcomes and improved productivity are
the top three factors contributing to BIMs value for
buildings in 2009. These factors all clearly contribute
to value regardless of project type and are central to
what BIM offers its users.
Positive impact on marketing ranks much higher
in the overall infrastructure responses than in the
building responses.
Increased prefabrication ranks much lower in
infrastructure, while 71% considered it important in
2009 to improve ROI on buildings. This may suggest
that prefabrication companies in infrastructure need to
promote the value of BIM use.
How to Improve the Value of BIM
Factors Most Important to Overall Experience of
Value from BIM on Infrastructure Projects
(Among those Not Measuring ROI)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Better Multi-Party Communication
Positive Impact on Marketing
Improved Project Process Outcomes
Improved Productivity
Reduced Cycle Time for Activities
Lower Project Cost
Increased Prefabrication
Faster Plan Approval & Permits
46%
43%
42%
35%
31%
27%
24%
63%
Invest_Q24
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ajor design and
construction frms
are exploring ways
to maximize models
within the design-bid-build delivery
system typical on water and
wastewater projects. However, many
see far greater benefts to using BIM
in a more integrated environment.
We can model effectively on our
own, but clearly BIM works best with
a collaborative approach, says John
Bowen, national BIM integration
manager at HDR Engineering.
Des Moines Combined
Sewer Solids Separation
Facility
HDR was selected by the Des Moines
Wastewater Reclamation Authority
for design services on a combined
sewer solids separation facility in
2008. It was the authoritys frst
project designed in BIM. Bowen says
the client was hesitant at frst about
the process, which involved ongoing
model reviewsrather than printed
documentsuntil around the 60%
design stage.
Early on, we showed them both
2D sketches and a 3D model and
found that a few engineers couldnt
read the 2D blueprints well, but they
could read the 3D model, he says.
They could visualize it better to tell
us what changes were needed.
Bowen says the team saved
time by identifying conficts early
and being able to react quickly to
changes. For example, when the
design reached 90%, the team
identifed a change in the foodplain
that resulted in a need to raise the
facility by one foot. We were able to
update our construction documents
and the model in less than 40 hours,
he says. In 2D, wed be talking 300
to 400 hours to do that.
However, the BIM benefts ended
after the design process since the
contractor is not using BIM. Bowen
says it is a function of the design-
bid-build process that is common in
public sector infrastructure work.
By comparison, on a biosolids
processing facility for an industrial
client in California, HDR is part of
an integrated design-build team
that is using BIM throughout design
and construction. Well see some
savings on the design side, but the
big savings will be in construction
because of the amount of time
saved, he adds.
Arbennie Pritchett Water
Reclamation Facility
Some public authorities are embracing
an integrated BIM approach. The
Okaloosa County Water and Sewer
Department in Florida selected CDM
Smith to design, construct, outft,
start up, performance test and obtain
permits for the new 10 mgd Arbennie
Pritchett Water Reclamation Facility. The
team used BIM throughout the project
lifecycle, including delivery of a model
for operations and maintenance (O&M).
Through a design-build process,
the team used BIM to help compress
the design schedule to just over fve
months, reviewing models with the
client throughout. The construction
team was provided with an early start
package generated from the model,
which consisted of building foundations,
plumbing and electrical underground
utilities. This enabled the team to start
site work 2.5 months before construction
documents were complete.
The model was used to create bid
packages for subcontractors, who also
used it in the feld to aid in construction
and coordination efforts.
Upon completion, the model was
connected to an electronic O&M system
that helps manage data equipment,
datasheets and manuals. It was also
used for training staff at the new plant.
Although CDM makes effective use
of BIM, William Nelson, senior vice
president at CDM, says the technology
has signifcant room for improvement.
For example, he says, engineers do little
to no analysis within its models, instead
pulling data from the models, analyzing
it and then re-inputting it.
CDM is also unable to do its process
modeling, which simulates wastewater
treatment behavior, within its models.
That is a major part of the puzzle that is
missing, he adds.
On the Arbennie Pritchett Water Reclamation Facility, CDM Smith connected its
models to an O&M system that manages equipment, datasheets and manuals.
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IM is yielding powerful
results on energy projects.
Mortenson Construction,
which was an early adopter
of BIM in vertical building construction,
extended that commitment into its
Renewable Energy Group. We wanted
to push its limits to see what it could
do, says Sera Maloney, the groups
integrated construction manager.
Wind Farms
On its wind farm projects,
Mortensons teams construct
numerous turbines on vast sites
that often have varying conditions.
Heavy equipment and materials may
need to cross small rural bridges,
open streams or railroad tracks.
Underground and overhead utilities
must also be considered. Many
farms are built on mountaintops,
another challenge. A blade
transport truck could be up to 190
feet long with 19 axles, she adds.
Driving that over a rural road will
probably cause issues.
Speed of construction is critical,
as most farms must be delivered
within one season, so Maloney says
preplanning is where BIM offers
the greatest beneft. The team
investigates all site issues; considers
where dirt needs to be moved;
determines lay-down areas; and
maps how equipment and materials
will be moved around.
On one of its projects, about 70
towers were constructed on a U.S.
Bureau of Land Management site.
The team was given up to a three-
acre radius per tower to work in. After
modeling each stage of the process,
Mortenson found it only needed
to use two acres per tower. On
environmentally sensitive land, thats
a huge savings, she adds.
Scheduling is a major component
of its modeling effort. Deliveries must
be carefully planned so that materials
are placed in the right location and
in the proper sequence. With solid
planning, construction follows almost
an assembly line process, as crews
move from pad to pad, ideally in a near-
repetitive pattern.
We model every piece of the
construction process, she adds. We
have plan room computers located on
each site, and the 4D schedule is used in
our daily meetings.
Models are also used for quantity
takeoffs and systems coordination.
For example, the electrical conduit
for a tower, which can be 100 feet tall,
typically conficts with the signifcant
structural rebar required in the
foundations, she says.
Mortenson has also leveraged its
preplanning modeling to create better
proposals. We won a recent project
based on the modeling we did [as part of
our proposal] because we showed that
we knew the project better, she says.
Electrical Substations
Some owners in the energy sector
are also adding BIM to their workfow.
Engineers at Enmax Power
Corporation, which owns and
operates an electricity distribution
and transmission network around
Calgary, started modeling new
substations in mid-2010.
We build 3D models with
intelligence, says Lindsey Porteous,
electrical construction planner at
Enmax. We create a single-line
diagram of the substation that shows
the equipment. Then, we can click on
a device, such as a circuit breaker, and
navigate to that on the 3D model of that
station. You can click on it and get the
part number, the manufacturer and
the cost. You can also create accessory
parts for each device, so you can
include things like the connector bolts.
Porteous says modeling saved time
and reduced errors. The software
automatically creates wiring diagrams,
which he notes are prone to errors
using traditional design methods. The
team also generates bills of materials
and estimates costs from its models.
Some suppliers provide his team
with models of devices. Instead of
taking a week to build a model of a
circuit breaker, it takes 10 minutes,
he adds.
Mortenson Construction uses BIM models to resolve potential conicts between a
wind towers electrical conduit and the structural rebar in its foundation.
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Data:
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A54% of respondents report that they do not currently use BIM
on infrastructure projects.
The player type data reveal a trend that runs through
the non-user profleexposure to BIM use on vertical
projects increases the likelihood of using BIM for
infrastructure as well.
Owners have the highest percentage of non-users
(74%), probably due to the slower pace of BIM adoption
in the infrastructure sector compared to the vertical
(building) market. Infrastructure owners are less likely to
do a large number of vertical projects that might expose
them to using BIM. 14% of owners also indicate that they
do not understand what BIM is, compared to only 2% of
architects and 4% of engineers.
In contrast, architects have the lowest percentage of
non-users (35%). Many architects may also practice in a
variety of vertical project types. Thus, they are more likely
to use BIM elsewhere in their frms and can apply the
knowledge of its benefts to their infrastructure work.
The involvement of different types of engineers with
BIM for infrastructure also supports this correlation:
Nearly two-thirds of MEP engineers (represented in
the Other Engineers pie chart below) use BIM on
infrastructure projects.
Structural engineers are evenly divided.
Two thirds of civil engineers are non-users. These
engineers are less likely to be involved with vertical
projects compared with the other disciplines.
Non-User Profle: Organization Type
Non-Users
Non-User Profle: Company Type
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Architect Engineer CM/GC
Trade/
Fabricator Owner Other
35%
54%
61%
55%
74%
55%
NU_QS1
Non-User Profle: Engineers by Discipline
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Users Non-Users
68%
52%
48%
32%
Civil Engineer
Structural Engineer
Other Engineers
40%
60%
NU_QS3
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 40 www.construction.com
Comments by Users:
Converting Non-Users to Adopt BIM for Infrastructure
Every organization currently using BIM on its infrastructure projects
was, at some point, a non-user and made the transition to become
a user. Although the specifc triggers for how this happens at each
organization are unique, there are three general paths to conversion.
Sidebar: Non-Users
Starting With
Vertical BIM
I
n some cases the organization
was already successfully
engaged with BIM on its vertical
work, then discovered some
specifc, tangible application of it to
a unique aspect of an infrastructure
project, and subsequently started the
adoption process.
This happened with Sundt
Construction of Tempe AZ, where
president Doug Pruitt championed
the frms adoption of BIM in 2006
by forming an internal group called
SIMCON, which provides BIM
services to its project teams. From
there its use grew steadily on Sundts
vertical projects, especially with the
self-perform concrete group.
In 2009 the frm found the right
opportunity to apply BIM to Phase II
of a light rail project, the frst phase of
which Sundt had built conventionally.
Coordination of underground utilities
had been a major challenge on Phase
I, and by modeling underground data
from 700 locations on Phase II, they
discovered over 1,000 issues that
would have created feld problems.
This successful proof-of-concept
led to a more ambitious application
of BIM involving laser scanning
and modeling of dangerously
deteriorating civil and structural
conditions on a complex and
time-critical bridge replacement.
Establishing BIMs clear value in
that instance, SIMCON placed
a permanent BIM engineer in
Sundts self-performing heavy
civil group in 2010, where the frm
continues to innovate in applying
BIM technologies and processes to
infrastructure projects.
Growing BIM
Organically
Organizations that specialize in
infrastructure typically have not
had the chance to build BIM
expertise on vertical work and have
had to adopt BIM for infrastructure
more organically.
Infrastructure engineering
powerhouse Parsons Brinckerhoff
(PB) provides an example of this
approach, where some business
units started leveraging 3D for
visualization in the early 1990s,
including detailed rebar models
and computational fuid dynamics
in addition to 3D representations
of proposed dams, bridges and
highways for client presentations.
Our culture at PB has always been
very supportive of innovation,
says Jay Mezher, manager of virtual
design and construction in PBs
New York City offce and part of the
global technology team of parent
company Balfour Beatty, which
has mandated an all-BIM policy
by 2014. Visualization of complex
engineering solutions is so critical,
he continues, that at this point every
group in PB is modeling.
Owner-Driven Adoption
Much infrastructure work is
government related, and many
organizations are brought into using
BIM by an owner requirement. This
is taking place at all levels from
local airport authorities, to state
departments of transportation,
to large federal agencies such as
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Robert Bank, Chief of the Civil
Works Branch, Engineering &
Construction of the Corps sees
BIM as a fundamental part of the
Corps approach of solutioneering,
basically fnding creative and
collaborative solutions to problems.
As the projects get more complex,
our smart A/E industry partners are
going to respond to the challenge.
It is most effective when an owner
is committed to BIM from the very
beginning of a project and will, as
George Pontikes, CEO of contractor
Satterfeld & Pontikes, puts it,
drive the BIM train, ensuring that
all team members understand the
importance of compliance. Such
committed owners are critical for
driving industry-wide adoption.
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Non-Users CONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 41www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
The size of an organization has a clear correlation
with BIM usage for infrastructure projects. Of the
organizations that are not using BIM for infrastructure
projects, almost three quarters (73%) are small or small
to medium sized. (Refer to Methodology on page 60 for
organization size defnitions.) Only 16% of the non-users
are large organizations.
This may be due in part to the resources available for
larger organizations that make the original investment in
BIM technology and training more manageable. However,
fndings from the organizations that use BIM suggest
that once small organizations adopt it, they more quickly
achieve a high level of BIM implementation than larger
organizations, demonstrating BIMs applicability for
these groups. (See page 13 for more information on BIM
implementation by organization size.)
Variation by Region
An organizations location within North America
seems to infuence whether they have adopted BIM
for infrastructure.
The highest percentage (30%) of non-users are located
the Southern U.S.
The Northeastern U.S. (17%) and Canada (9%) have the
lowest percentages of non-users.
Non-User Profle:
Organization Size and Location
Non-User Profle: Organization Size
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Small
37%
36%
11%
16%
Small to
Medium
Medium
to Large Large
NU_QS8-9
Non-User Profle: Location
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Northeast Midwest South West
Outside
USA
17%
21%
30%
23%
9%
NU_QS12
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Non-Users CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 42www.construction.com
There are clear correlations between the types of
infrastructure projects undertaken by organizations and
the percentage of those organizations that have begun
using BIM. Again, these results support the general trend
that organizations that do a combination of infrastructure
and vertical (building) construction are more likely to use
BIM for infrastructure than organizations that do little
vertical construction.
Water Projects
Projects involving water supply, treatment and recovery
are the most commonly reported infrastructure project
type. They are almost equally divided between users
and non-users. Water treatment and recovery projects
typically involve some minor building work in addition to
horizontal infrastructure work.
Roads, Highways and Bridges
These projects were also done by a large percentage of
respondents, but they have the greatest proportion of
non-users. A/E frms and contractors that specialize in
this type of construction typically do not do very much
vertical work.
Other Project Types
Energy, aviation and rail/transit projects show the largest
proportion of BIM users, and again, these projects are
more typically handled by organizations that also do
vertical construction.
Non-User Profle: Project Type
52%
50%
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Non-User Profle: Project Type
Non-User
User
48%
39%
36%
37%
24%
39%
22%
30%
19%
23%
29%
33%
Water
Roads, Highways & Bridges
Public Parks & Recreation
Energy
Rail, Transit & Aviation
Waste
Other
Nu_QS14
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Non-Users CONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 43www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Despite not currently using BIM for infrastructure,
non-users attitudes towards BIM are predominantly
positive (79%). Firms that have rejected BIM after
experience with comprise a very small fraction of the
total (5% of A/E frms and 3% of contractors). A few more
have not tried it and are just not interested in using it, but
by far the majority indicate that they are interested in
exploring BIM adoption in the future, with well over 10%
currently in the process of actively evaluating it.
These results are roughly equivalent, if slightly less
positive, than those of the non-users of BIM for buildings
in MHCs 2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket
Report, where almost one quarter of respondents were
already evaluating it and 11% reported having no interest
in using it. Infrastructure has historically been a very
traditional segment of the construction industry, and
slightly more skepticism is not surprising.
Non-User Attitude Toward BIM for Infrastructure
Non-User Attitude Toward BIM for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
NU_Q1
Owners
5%
3%
24%
We have
used it but
decided
not to use
it any more
We have not
used it and
have no
interest
in using it
We have not
used it but are
open to
exploring
its potential
We have not
used it and
believe it will
be valuable
for us
We have not
used it but are
actively
evaluating it
Negative 21%
Positive 79%
13%
14%
43%
51%
58%
14%
22%
14% 14%
11%
14%
Variation by Player
Among non-users, contractors and owners are the most
engaged with the possibility of using BIM, with A/E frms
comprising the largest percentage of non-users that are
simply not interested in using it.
This may be because many of the top benefts
reported by contractors and owners, such as reduced
conficts and changes during construction and
prefabrication of larger, complex parts, are typically more
tangible, measurable and visible than those enjoyed by
A/E frms during the design phase, such as improved
review and approval cycles.
Also, the majority of North American A/E frms are
small, and their resource limitations may reduce their
interest in adoption. This conclusion is supported by
two of the top reasons that A/E frms cite for delaying
adoptionthe cost required and the view that BIM is less
effcient for smaller projects (see page 48).
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 44www.construction.com
The generally positive forecast of the importance of BIM
to the infrastructure industry in fve years by current
non-users is another leading indicator of increased
adoption of BIM for infrastructure projects. Only 4% of all
non-users believe it will have no importance in fve years.
Even more promising, 25% believe it will have high or
very high importance.
Even with this optimistic forecast, infrastructure
respondents are more conservative than their building
counterparts in the 2009 survey, where 81% expected
BIM to be very important in the next fve years. Again, this
may be a cultural difference between infrastructure and
building organizations.
Variation by Player
OWNERS
Owner non-users place the highest value on the
importance of BIM in the future, with 43% of the
owners indicating that BIM will have high or very
high importance and 78% expecting it to have at least
moderate importance.
Non-User Forecast:
Importance of BIM to the Infrastructure Industry in Five Years
Non-User Forecast: Importance of BIM to
Infrastructure Industry in 5 Years
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
NU_Q9
Owners
Low/No Importance 30% Moderate-Very High Importance 70%
5%
3%
2%
27%
27%
20%
54%
42%
35%
9%
21%
34%
5%
7%
9%
None Low Importance
Moderate
Importance
High
Importance
Very High
Importance
The positive perception of the future importance of
BIM for infrastructure by owner non-users signals an
impending increase in demand from that sector, which will
have a major impact on driving adoption by other players.
Other fndings in this study bear out the importance
of owner demand in increasing adoption, including the
fact that nearly half of the A/E and contractor non-users
believe that owner demand for BIM will drive non-user
adoption, and that well over half of the A/E and contractor
non-users (67% of A/E frms and 57% of contractors)
believe that lack of demand is the biggest factor
infuencing the decision to not use BIM. (See pages 50
and 49 for more information.)
A/E FIRMS
In contrast, A/E frms appear to be the most skeptical of
BIMs value for infrastructure. They represent the highest
proportion of those who expect that BIM will have no or
low importance and the lowest proportion of those who
believe it will have high or very high importance.
When asked about their awareness of BIM usage in
their markets, 71% of the A/E and contractor non-users
indicate that they believe their competitors are using
BIM. Strong perception of use by competitors could be
a factor in the high level of interest in BIM adoption (see
page 43 for the breakdown of non-users that express
interest in BIM).
Even though most of these non-users believe BIM is
being used by their competitors, they do not think that
the level of implementation is very high. Most non-users
(55% on average) perceive that a low level (<15% of
projects) of BIM use for infrastructure is taking place.
These results are strikingly similar to the perception
of competitor use of BIM for buildings reported in MHCs
2009 Business Value of BIM SmartMarket Report, with
almost every category within a few percentage points
of the 2009 non-users. This suggests that, despite their
more conservative estimates about the importance of
BIM, non-users may feel competitive pressure to begin
exploring it, which will expose them to the benefts
already reported by those using BIM for infrastructure.
Variation by Player
While 28% of the A/E frms perceive no competitive BIM
use, that percentage shrinks to 11% when considering
architects alone. In addition, while the percentage is small
(3%), architects are the only frm type that believes that
competitors are using BIM on more than 30% of their
projects. Given the higher adoption levels by A/E frms
involved in infrastructure evident in this survey, this
estimation is consistent with the industry.
In contrast, 37% of specialty contractors and 31%
of engineers do not perceive any BIM use by their
competitors, far more than the architect respondents.
AEC Perception:
BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Competitors
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McGraw-Hill Construction 45www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Non-User Perception of Competitors' Use of BIM
(A/E Firms and Contractors)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
NU_Q4
Not at All
<15% of
Projects
15%-30%
of Projects
31% + of
Projects
30%
57%
17%
10%
3%
3%
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Perceive 29%
Perceive
Competitors
Use BIM 71%
28%
52%
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Non-Users CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 46www.construction.com
78% of A/E and contractor non-users believe that their
clients use BIM. While the overall pattern echoes the
perceptions of competitor use (see page 45), there are
some important variations, both in the expectations of
overall use and by frm type.
One critical difference is that client use is perceived to be
more widespread and more intensive than competitor use.
A higher percentage of non-users believe that their clients
are using BIM than believe that their competitors are.
20% of non-users believe their clients are using BIM
on more than 15% of their projects, compared to 16%
who perceive a similarly high level of use among their
competitors.
These results are in striking contrast the level of client
usage expected by non-users of BIM for buildings in the
2009 survey. Only 66% of them believed their clients were
using BIM, and only 13% believed that the owners were
using BIM on 15% or more of their projects. This suggests
that in infrastructure, the expectation that owners
are using BIM may be a more signifcant factor in BIM
adoption rates than it was for buildings in 2009.
Variation by Player
Like their perception of competitor use, more speciality
contractors and engineers believe that clients are using
no BIM compared to architects. However, the percentage
that think there is no use is much lower.
Engineers: 23% perceive no BIM use by their clients,
compared to 31% by their competitors.
Contractors: 26% perceive no BIM use by their clients,
compared to 37% by their competitors.
Only a small fraction (5%) of frms believe that clients
are using BIM on more than 30% of their projects, a
similar result to the evaluation of competitors BIM use.
However, in this case, the few non-users perceiving
these high levels of BIM implementation include
architects, engineers and contractors, whereas only
architects perceived high implementation levels among
their competitors.
The percentage of architects that expect a high level
of implementation among their clients is also greater
than those that have similar expectations of their
competitors11% compared to only 3%.
AEC Perception:
BIM Usage for Infrastructure by Clients
Non-User Perception of Clients' Use of BIM
(A/E Firms and Contractors)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors A/E Firms
NU_Q5
Not at All
<15% of
Projects
15%-30%
of Projects
31% of
Projects
23%
22%
58%
57%
17%
6%
4%
Perceive
No Client
BIM Use 22%
Perceive
Clients Use
BIM 78%
13%
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Non-Users CONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 47www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
BIM Use by Design
and Construction Firms
73% of non-user owners believe that A/E frms and
contractors are using BIM. This is very similar to the
estimation the non-user A/E frms and contractors have
for BIM use for infrastructure among their competitors.
In addition, non-user owners perceive the levels of
implementation comparable to those reported by the
other player types.
54% believe that A/E frms and contractors use BIM on
less than 15% of infrastructure projects.
19% believe that A/E frms and contractors use BIM
on 15% or more of infrastructure projects, with a very
small percentage believing BIM use on more than 30%
of projects.
BIM Usage by Other Owners
Owners that do not use BIM for infrastructure are also
similar in the estimation of the overall use of BIM by
their peers to non-user A/E frms and contractor23%
perceive no BIM use by other owners.
On the other hand, the owners that do expect some
level of BIM use in their peers perceive a much higher
level of used compared to the perceptions of the other
players35% believe that other owners are using BIM on
15% or more of their projects.
The level of BIM use that infrastructure owners
perceive among their peers is notably higher than the
level of use that building owners perceived among their
peers in the 2009 BIM study, in which only 23% believed
that other owners were using BIM on 15% or more of
their projects.
This more optimistic view of other owners use of
BIM is interesting, especially since owners currently are
the lowest-usage group. The perception may stem from
broad publicity related to comprehensive BIM programs
being undertaken by large infrastructure owners such as
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
Owner Perceptions of BIM Usage for Infrastructure
Perception of Industry Use of BIM
(According to Owners)
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Low (less than 15% of Projects)
None
Medium (15%-30% of Projects)
High (31% or More of Projects)
23%
42%
35%
27%
54%
15%
4%
Perceived A/E Firm and Contractor Use of BIM
Perceived Use of BIM by Other Owners
NU_Q6Q7
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Non-Users CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 48www.construction.com
All of the top fve reasons for delaying the adoption of
BIM for infrastructure were selected by over 40% of the
non-user respondents. This demonstrates that several
issues may need to be addressed to encourage non-users
to begin using BIM.
The leading reason for delaying adoption among all
three types of non-user respondents is the belief that
it is less effcient for smaller projects. This correlates
with the lower rate of adoption among small and small
to medium sized organizations, whose projects would
generally be smaller. (See the Methodology section on
page 60 for a breakdown of the size of the participants.)
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS
While important to all three groups, A/E frms are
especially concerned about training time for BIM. This is
not surprising considering that dedicated time for staff
training is not generally as high a priority in A/E frms as
in construction companies and owner organizations.
OWNERS
Owners fnd a lack of internal understanding of BIM to be
the second most important reason to delay adoption, and
signifcantly more of them are concerned about this issue
compared to other players.
Given the critical role that owner adoption can play
in encouraging the industry at large to adopt BIM,
this fnding indicates an important gap that software
companies and industry organizations should address.
Why BIM is Not Being Adopted for Infrastructure
64%
59%
64%
50%
51%
50%
43%
42%
53%
41%
45%
46%
Top Reasons for Delaying the Adoption of
BIM for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
Owners
Less Effcient for Smaller Projects
Cost Required
Training Time Required
Software Cost
NU_Q10
55%
44%
41%
Lack of Internal Understanding of BIM

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Non-Users CONTINUED
McGraw-Hill Construction 49www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
When non-users were asked to rate the importance of
factors that impact their decisions not to use BIM for
infrastructure projects, the overwhelmingly dominant
infuence against adoption for A/E frms and contractors
is the lack of demand by customers. This is most keenly
felt by A/E frms. This fnding also echoes the fndings
of MHCs 2009 SmartMarket Report on BIM adoption for
buildings, revealing the importance of owner infuence in
all project sectors to encourage BIM adoption.
The impact of most other infuences varied by player
type, which demonstrates the importance of targeting the
approach for BIM adoption to specifc players. However,
a couple of categories have roughly equal impact across
all respondents. Insuffcient time to evaluate the adoption
of BIM appears to be a problem for all involved. This
indicates a need that software companies and industry
organizations should address.
On the other hand, few of the respondents from all
three players cite insurance or liability concerns as having
an infuence on their not adopting BIM for infrastructure.
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS
While the cost for both software and hardware is an
important issue across the board, more A/E frms
report it as important.
More A/E frms, compared to other players, feel that
BIM processes do not apply well to what they do and
that their current methods are better. This probably
relates directly to the concern among this group that
BIM is less effcient for smaller projects.
Because they are responsible for authoring design
models and documents, more A/E frms are concerned
about poor interoperability with CAD and the diffculty
of using BIM compared to contractors or owners.
CONTRACTORS
Contractors show the least concern with interoperability
issues related to existing authoring tools.
OWNERS
Lack of suffcient training is a particular concern of
owners (36%), which aligns with their reported lack of
internal understanding of BIM.
Factors Infuencing Lack of BIM
Adoption for Infrastructure
Not Enough Demand
Software Too Expensive
Insuffcient Time to Evaluate
Processes Don't Apply Well to What We Do
Hardware Upgrades Too Expensive
Insuffcient Training Available
Poor Interoperability with CAD Applications
Current Methods Are Better
0%
57%
67%
36%
33%
52%
43%
40%
42%
36%
31%
44%
30%
30%
36%
36%
30%
27%
25%
22%
35%
27%
20%
35%
Top Infuences on the Decision to Not Use
BIM for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
Owners
NU_Q3
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Non-Users CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 50www.construction.com
Even more than the factors that prevent BIM adoption,
the top factors that drive BIM adoption vary strongly
by player type. This is due to the different ways that
these organizations typically use BIM, and again
strongly suggests that the approach to encouraging BIM
adoption needs to vary strongly by player. In particular,
the greatest differences are between owners and the
other two groups.
More accurate construction documents and improved
communications were considered important factors to
drive non-user adoption for buildings in the 2009 BIM
SmartMarket Report. However, reduced construction
costs and schedule is selected as important by more
infrastructure respondents in the current survey than
building respondents in 2009.
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS AND CONTRACTORS
Since not enough demand is the top reason infuencing
non-adoption among A/E frms and contractors, it is not
surprising that they name owner demand as a top factor
encouraging BIM adoption.
Another important beneft to these frm types is the
ability to offer new services.
A/E Firms
A/E frms want proof that BIM will lead to less time
drafting and more time designing.
Contractors
Contractors fnd the improved ability to do digital
fabrication to be a compelling beneft. MHCs 2011
Prefabrication and Modularization SmartMarket
Report revealed the importance of BIM to encourage
prefabrication in vertical construction, and the same
principle clearly applies in infrastructure for contractors.
OWNERS
Owners feel most strongly about benefts that would
accrue directly to projects, likely due to the fact that
project outcomes are the main way that they measure
performance.
More Accurate Construction Documents: 73%
Reduced Construction Cost and Schedule: 61%
Reduced Number of RFIs and Change Orders: 57%
Owners are also interested in seeing evidence that BIM
will improve operations and maintenance (O&M), as
well as their ability to do sustainable construction. In
Benefts that Would Encourage BIM
Adoption for Infrastructure
73%
59%
49%
61%
59%
46%
52%
56%
41%
0%
0%
49%
0%
47%
44%
57%
44%
40%
Top Factors That Can Drive Non-User Adoption
of BIM for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
Owners
More Accurate Construction Documents
Reduced Construction Costs & Schedule
Improved Communication
Less Time Drafting & More Time Designing*
Owner Demand**
Reduced Number of RFIs & Change Orders
* Asked of A/E Firms Only
** Asked of A/E Firms and Contractors Only
Nu_Q8
MHCs 2010 Green BIM SmartMarket Report, industry
practitioners who use BIM for green projects reported
signifcant benefts in conducting energy modeling and
improving building performance, and they indicated
the value that greater use of BIM to monitor building
performance for greener O&M would provide.
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omplex park projects,
particularly those in urban
areas, can face a myriad
of civil, structural and
hydrological challenges. As with
vertical buildings, multiple overlapping
systems create ample reasons for some
designers and contractors to model
park projects .
Scioto Riverfront
A $44 million transformation of the
Scioto Riverfront in Columbus, Ohio,
into grand public spaces spurred
the frst use of BIM for underground
modeling on a public project in Ohio.
The fve-acre project, which broke
ground in 2009, features a promenade,
a plaza, numerous green spaces
and the 15,000 square foot signature
Scioto Mile Fountain. The fountain
features fve stainless steel halos
that reach up to 24 feet in height and
support more than 1,000 nozzles. An
additional 1,000 ground-level jets can
propel water up to 70 feet in the air.
Due to the complexity of the
fountain, the team chose to model the
projects fve miles of underground
plumbing and electrical conduit.
Piping was as large as 14 inches in
diameter and was stacked up to 7
pipes deep.
The fountain work was the
most complicated part, says Jeff
Ruschau, project executive at Messer
Construction. We didnt have any
opportunities to make mistakes.
Seven different entities on the project,
including the fountain contractor,
were involved in modeling the site.
The architect provided the team with
DWG [drawing] fles. Messer modeled
some architectural features, structural,
topography, some civil elements and
the existing utilities in-house. The
electrical contractor modeled its own
elements, and the civil contractor
modeled storm-sewer and water lines.
We knew we had a one-time shot
at this, Ruschau says. We needed
everyone to weigh in about everything
going into the ground.
Large concrete and stone architectural
features were built above much of
the piping on the site. The granite was
prefabricated and shipped to the site,
so piping had to align perfectly with
the nozzle openings. The stainless
steel features were also in the model,
including how they were bolted down.
Among the teams early discoveries
was a 12-foot-wide by 7-foot-high
stormwater outfall that would have
interfered with the fountains foundation
and piping design.
Undulation on the site created
challenges with grade changes. We
modeled the [topography] and found
that some of the pipe came up into the
frost line, so we had to move that,
says Mike Kaiser, virtual construction
modeler at Messer.
The team also held regular model
reviews with the owner. They were
able to visualize the piping, Kaiser
says. They had concerns about
access around the pumps and head
clearance, which they were able to
identify in the model.
Additional design changes were
made to the fountains while the project
was underway, which caused changes
in the piping. Without a model, it would
have been a real challenge to fgure
out if we could accommodate these
changes, Ruschau says.
The coordination effort paid off. No
underground rework was required.
Kaiser estimates that between the
model coordination and streamlined
redesign process, the team saved
roughly half the time that would have
been required for those tasks on a
traditional project. Overall, the project
came in fve months ahead of schedule
and under budget.
The owner was also provided
with a 3D model for future facilities
management.
Rory Meyers Childrens
Adventure Garden
A myriad of potential underground
conficts led the team on the $50
million Rory Meyers Childrens
Adventure Garden addition to the
Dallas Arboretum to create detailed
3D models.
Subgrade utilities run throughout the
seven-acre site, which is being topped
with numerous landscape features
that will require hundreds of piers. In
At the Dallas Arboretum, subgrade utilities, structural piers and setbacks around
each of the parks hundreds of trees were modeled for coordination.
Use of BIM on Park and Recreation Projects
CONTINUED I
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addition, crews have to be cautious
because of the delicate root systems
around the hundreds of trees on site.
The project, which was in planning
for a decade, was designed in 2D. The
Beck Group brought in Ikerd Consulting
to model the site for coordination. This
was the most progressive use of BIM
for a public park and recreation area we
have seen, says Will Ikerd, principal of
Ikerd Consulting.
Ikerd says the projects numerous
man-made landscape features were
driven by the landscape architects
decisions, not the civil engineer, so all
dimensional control was very artistic.
Because of construction sequencing,
utilities were installed on the site frst.
The team then had to coordinate the
existing and newly placed utilities with
the landscape features. Ikerd modeled
subgrade utilities and structural piers,
as well as setbacks around each of the
parks hundreds of trees, using data
provided by the project arborist.
The utilities and the structural
piers supporting these landscape
features are scattered throughout like
a minefeld, Ikerd says. Based on the
original design, we found several piers
that were stabbing those utilities. Had
[crew members] gone and drilled piers,
they would have hit utilities that had
been installed.
In addition to saving time and
reducing errors through coordination,
the team used BIM to help make critical
value-engineering decisions. Ikerd
says the model was set up for quantity
takeoffs and that schedule could be tied
to the model for look-aheads. I dont
know how this job could have been
done effectively in 2D, he adds.
Saw Mill River
Modeling played a critical role in
restoring public access to the Saw
Mill River in Yonkers, New York. In
the 1920s, the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers diverted the river, which
was heavily polluted by local mills,
into a fume that carried it under
portions of the city. Offcials recently
restored the river, daylighting it and
creating inviting public spaces around
the citys Larkin Plaza.
However, the river experiences a
wide range of water fows that could
threaten to food portions of the city
once exposed. The river has a long-
reach watershed upstream and tidal
issues created downstream by the
Hudson River.
Understanding the fow regime
through modeling was critical,
says Joseph Fleming, executive
vice president at design frm Paulus,
Sokolowski & Sartor (PS&S).
Especially since this was not just
a straight-line Corps of Engineers-
type channel. We wanted to
undulate this thing and give it some
feel and some character.
The river was designed to curve
gently through the plaza, featuring a
new public park along its banks and a
pedestrian bridge crossing. Adjacent
water mains, sanitary sewer and
storm sewers were also improved as
part of the project.
Through the model, Fleming
says, PS&S was effectively able to
carry out hydraulic and storm-water
runoff analysis.
PS&S adjusted and validated the 100-
year food fows from 1,600 cubic feet
per second [as previously estimated]
to 2,000 cubic feet per second. Fleming
says its analysis also ensured that the
city wouldnt overbuild the system.
The city suggested raising everything
by a foot, he adds. By having accurate
models, it gave us confdence in
addressing the citys concerns. As a
consultant, you can expect to be second
guessed on every decision, so that
added confdence helped us through
the design process.
The team was able to test its analysis
in a 100-year food event when
Hurricane Irene hit the state in 2011. I
was able to stand over and watch at the
diversion chamber and see the force of
this system pouring in, Fleming recalls.
Our assumptions proved out, and
everything survived.
Use of BIM on Park and Recreation Projects
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Due to the complexity of the Scioto Mile Fountain, the projects ve miles of
underground plumbing and electrical conduit were modeled.
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 52www.construction.com
McGraw-Hill Construction 53www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Determining the most important drivers of value in the
future is important since these drivers will encourage
wider adoption, accelerate user implementation and
ultimately establish BIM as the industry standard
approach to infrastructure projects.
To determine these drivers, current users were asked
to rate the importance of thirteen factors based on how
much it will impact their organizations future ability to
experience business benefts from BIM on infrastructure
projects. Seven of the thirteen factors received high or
very high ratings from at least half of the respondents.
The most important driver overall is more owners
asking for BIM, with a total average of 64%. Interestingly,
more owners (71%) rate this as important compared
to other players. Owner adoption is clearly considered
critical across the industry to drive more value.
In addition, a relatively comparable number of A/E
frms, contractors and owners express a shared belief
that the willingness of authorities having jurisdiction to
accept models will increase BIM value.
Variation by Player
A/E FIRMS
A greater number of A/E frms (range of 60%70%)
consider six other top-rated factors important,
compared to the number of owners or contractors
reporting the same.
70% of A/E frms rate improved functionality of
software supporting BIM to be an important factor
increasing BIM value. This correlates with their focus
on authoring and analyzing models.
Over two thirds (67%) highly value having more internal
staff with BIM skills as a way to increase BIMs value for
infrastructure. Less than half of the other respondents
rate this as being important, again refecting A/E frms
need to generate models.
63% fnd improved interoperability between software
programs to be highly important. The relatively
comparable number of other players reporting the
same refects an industry-wide need.
67% of A/E frms assign value to more external
organizations with BIM skills, signifcantly higher than
the other players. This reinforces the importance A/E
frms place on working with BIM-knowledgeable frms
(see page 26).
OWNERS
Only 47% of owners forecast high impact from
improving contracts to aid collaboration and defne BIM
deliverables, which is surprising given the importance of
team formation for owners.
BIM Value for Infrastructure Projects in the Future
Looking Ahead Data:
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Improved Functionality of Software Supporting BIM
Improved Interoperability between Software
More Internal Staff with BIM Skills
Contracts to Aid Collaboration & Defne BIM Deliverables
Willingness of AHJs to Accept Models
More External Organizations with BIM Skills
71%
59%
66%
53%
55%
70%
59%
57%
63%
47%
49%
67%
47%
56%
62%
53%
52%
61%
41%
47%
61%
Most Important Factors for Increasing
BIM Value on Infrastructure Projects
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
Owners
Ahead_Q32
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where they need help in order to increase their
implementation of BIM for infrastructure, a signifcant
number request help with all the issues raised. This
fnding loudly signals the need for industry-wide
education, targeted consulting services, broadly
accepted standards for practices and procedures, and
active involvement by the full range of professional
associations that serve our industry.
Several individual issues were also considered
important by respondents.
The need for assistance with issues related to software
interoperability garnered the most unanimity among
all players.
Challenges related to project management on work
that involves BIM also attracted roughly equal
proportions of the three players, highlighting an
opportunity for industry associations to meet a broadly
held need.
Variation by Player
OWNERS
Owners are most concerned with basic BIM education,
reinforcing the fnding reported previously that the lack
of internal understanding of BIM is a top reason that
non-users in this group are delaying adoption (see page
48 for more information).
Although relatively fewer owners ascribe future
importance to contracts to aid collaboration and defne
BIM deliverables when predicting drivers of BIM value in
the future (see page 53), one third report the need for help
with legal/contractual issues. This may indicate a belief
that if these issues can be ironed out in the near term,
they will exert less infuence in the future.
Looking Ahead CONTINUED
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 54www.construction.com
Where Help Is Needed
Software Interoperability
Basic BIM Education
Legal/Contractual Issues
Project Management
All of the Above
26%
29%
29%
32%
23%
25%
32%
13%
24%
16%
20%
19%
21%
27%
30%
Areas Requiring Assistance in Implementing
BIM for Infrastructure
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Contractors
A/E Firms
Owners
Ahead_Q39
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Chief, Civil Works Branch, Engineering & Construction,
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Interview: Thought Leaders
McGraw-Hill Construction 55www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Bob Bank is responsible for policy
development and supervision
of agency technical leaders and
communities of practice in the
broad disciplines related to civil
works in USACE, engineering
and construction information
technology (IT) systems, and life-
safety programs.
BIM adoption for infrastructure
lags behind adoption on vertical
building projects. Whats your
perspective on that?
BANK: I think that a lot of it is
perception. People see buildings
as complex systems where BIM
is helpful because of advanced
mechanical, structural, energy
analysis and architecture tools.
Those tools have been out there so
people associate that with BIM. But
I think infrastructure BIM is getting
there, and as people continue to
see how BIM improves vertical
construction, I think its going to
keep expanding into horizontal
construction. We have to do it with
small steps, keeping it simple and
getting people to make incremental
moves in that direction.
Are there benefts of BIM that
are unique to infrastructure
projects?
BANK: Absolutely. The main reason
BIM has caught on for buildings
is because of systems. Well,
infrastructure is systems also. The
real opportunity is how infrastructure
is closely linked and connected to
the natural environment, which is
constantly changing. Infrastructure
is getting more and more complex
to adapt to those changes. More
complex tools can integrate all the
information and data analysis, to
better design, better plan and better
operate these projects.
What are the unique cultural
issues related to using BIM on
infrastructure work?
BANK: One of the challenges today
is attracting kids to engineering, so
we need to keep engineering fun
and relevant. Younger people were
raised on video games incorporating
virtual reality, basically virtual walk-
throughs of scenarios, towns and
buildings. So kids can relate to
horizontal construction and BIM;
theyre already there. The cultural
shift is for the older folks. We need
to partner older, more experienced
engineers and technical people with
younger technology-savvy people
who can adopt those technologies
more quickly and be comfortable in
them. Thats one of the big cultural
opportunities that we have.
How do you get companies on
a project team to use BIM in the
ways that you want them to?
BANK: We frst created [models] for
a series of standard facilities in our
military transformation program by
having a contractual requirement for
BIM deliverables. Several years ago,
when we talked about BIM, everyone
would say, How much does it cost?
And now, its How much does it
cost to not use BIM? The Corps
already pushed a little bit by having
some specifc requirements. Now
companies have caught on.
What are your thoughts
about the future of BIM for
infrastructure?
BANK: GIS [geographic information
systems] and BIM linked together. We
do a lot of environmental analysis of
conditions in the feld which is GIS-
based and need to pull that together
into an integrated design. Also [we
are incorporating] real-time data
from monitoring sensors linked to our
operating projects. We are prioritizing
our repair investments by risk.
Were doing that on our dam safety
program, analyzing which projects
present the most risk to public safety,
and dealing with those frst. Einstein
said that we cannot solve todays
problems at the same level of thinking
as when we created them. Thats
really what this is about.
Robert A. Bank, P.E., F.ASCE
The Owner Perspective on BIM Infrastructure
Several years ago, when we talked about BIM,
everyone would say, How much does it cost? And
now, its: How much does it cost to not use BIM?
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Richard Humphrey has worked
with leaders in the building and
infrastructure industries to drive
sustainable design, technology
innovation and BIM. He is
responsible for directing and driving
the success of Autodesks business
in the transportation, land, water, oil
and gas, mining, engineering and
heavy construction segments.
BIM adoption for infrastructure
lags behind adoption on vertical
building projects. Whats your
perspective on that?
HUMPHREY: Theres a lot of
evangelism around BIM with
building information modeling,
so it took a while for the rest of
the AEC industry, particularly
infrastructure and engineering,
to realize BIM wasnt just in the
context of buildings. They started to
understand that it was a process and
that they can leverage the learning
from the building industry and
the success that happened there.
Thats why we see adoption really
accelerating now.
Are there benefts of BIM that
are unique to infrastructure
projects?
HUMPHREY: Theyre very, very
large, complex public projects.
Owners and consultants have a
signifcant challenge to get through
the public approval process and
engage the public more. We see
BIM as a great process to help do
this. One of the outputs is realistic
Richard Humphrey, ASCE, LEED AP
The Technology Industry Perspective
Director, Industry Strategy & Development
Engineering, Natural Resources & Infrastructure Industry (ENI)
Autodesk, Inc.
Interview: Thought Leaders
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 56www.construction.com
3D visualization. [That visualization]
conveys the design intent of the
infrastructure asset in the context
of the real world in a much different
way than reviewing construction
plans, which I would say nine out of
10 people really dont understand.
Thats huge.
What are the unique cultural
issues related to using BIM on
infrastructure work?
HUMPHREY: BIM does require a
new way of thinking. In the past, a
civil road designer just carried out
the alignment in the road design.
When he got to a bridge, he just
let the bridge designer do their
thing. It would be more benefcial
to have the bridge engineer, the
civil, geotech and utilities people
all working together along the
same database. Once the rest of
the organization sees the success
and the benefts [of BIM], then it
becomes viral and everyone wants
to leverage the technology instead
of complaining that youre trying
to make them do something new.
Once they start getting used to
the new methods, new tools and
processes, then the question is,
How come you didnt give this to
me sooner?
How do you see the industry
adopting BIM for infrastructure?
HUMPHREY: Youre seeing pockets
of acceptance and mandates of
BIM policies, and I think thats
going to accelerate. Theres a lot of
awareness around BIM as a potential
tool and process to ensure that
the predictability and risk is well
understood for large projects. So
I would say that youre probably
going to see some policy setting
that includes BIM process or BIM
deliverables in the infrastructure
space. Youre already seeing it at the
state and local agency level, whether
its Caltrans [California Department
of Transportation], Wisconsin
[Department of Transportation]
or other state agencies that are
beginning to adopt BIM.
What are your thoughts
about the future of BIM for
infrastructure?
HUMPHREY: A lot of the work that
happens in the industry is out in
the feld. The more we can leverage
technology to bring feld-mobility-
type tools to the industry, the better
off we can be. We also need to
attract new engineers by putting
engineering back into a real-world
context through technology.
Once (engineers) start getting used to the new
methods, new tools and processes, then the question
is, How come you didnt give this to me sooner?
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Executive Director, Building Seismic Safety Council and
buildingSMART alliance, National Institute of Building Sciences
Interview: Thought Leaders
McGraw-Hill Construction 57www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Deke Smith was instrumental in the
beginnings of the NIBS Construction
Criteria Base, now the Whole Building
Design Guide (WBDG).
BIM adoption for infrastructure
is behind adoption on vertical
building projects. Whats your
perspective on that?
SMITH: I think the name, building
information modeling, has been
a big issue. People who are into
virtual design and construction
VDCdont even identify with BIM.
We spent a lot of time early in the
whole process trying to decide if
there was a better name, but there
was enough groundswell with
the use of the word BIM that it is
probably easier to go with it and
let people know that it has greater
meaning than just buildings. There
are all kinds of words that you can
substitute for [the] B [Building] to
include all the different pieces that
we see going into BIM.
Are there benefts of BIM that
are unique to infrastructure
projects?
SMITH: A lot of the benefts of BIM
for buildings are also true with
infrastructure. I think the bigger
issue is that we havent taken
advantage of a lot of them yet in
any project type. Were still so
much in the infancy of this whole
effort that most people probably
really havent grasped the full
opportunity thats out there.
What are the unique cultural
issues related to using BIM on
infrastructure work?
SMITH: It is very much a cultural
change issue. I remember the
transition to CAD and how
signifcant the impact was. It was
really only automating an existing
process, drafting, and only affected
design, but you would have thought
we were changing the world! BIM
affects every aspect of the industry
and every practitioner. Its more
disruptive than CAD ever was,
but Im not sure that most people
recognize that BIM even applies
to infrastructure yet. This report
should help that, but a lot of culture
change still has to occur.
What do you think is the key to
driving BIM adoption?
SMITH: Education. How do we gear
the next generation to come out and
really hit the ground at full speed?
At the buildingSMART alliance
weve been focusing on colleges and
universities. Last year we had 25 at
our event talking about how theyre
changing the curriculum to teach
BIM. But we cant just keep putting
more courses into the curriculum;
we have to come up with a whole
new way of teaching. We also are
working with TAP [Technology in
Architectural Practice] on the AIA
[American Institute of Architects]
side, with AGC [the Associated
General Contractors of America] and
with IFMA [the International Facility
Management Association] trying to
put together some programs.
What are your thoughts
about the future of BIM for
infrastructure?
SMITH: IFCs [Industry Foundation
Classes] have come of agethat is
our future. IFC for infrastructure is
a huge step in the right direction. It
started with CSTB [the Computer
Science and Telecommunications
Board] in France and were building
on what was already done. IFCs
enable Open BIM, which is about
how the vendors can all work
together in order for us to have basic
interoperability. Also, the growing
relationship between GIS [geographic
information system] and BIM will
help civil engineers to get engaged
because GIS is already widely
accepted with the infrastructure side
of the community.
Dana Kennish Deke Smith, FAIA
The Industry Association Perspective
on BIM Infrastructure
the growing relationship between GIS and
BIM will help civil engineers to get engaged
because GIS is already widely accepted with
the infrastructure side of the community .
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Cory Dippold has over ten years
of structural design and project
management experience. At HMM,
he championed the implementation
of BIM technology, and he now
serves as the BIM director for their
North American operations.
BIM adoption for infrastructure
lags behind adoption on vertical
building projects. Whats your
perspective on that?
DIPPOLD: BIM as most people
think of it was originally conceived
around the architectural feld as a
more effective and collaborative
way to produce project data for new
architectural projects. The building
environment is a fnite world that
computers deal with very well.
Working with existing conditions
on infrastructure projects, theres
a lot of interpolation that goes on.
You can set the center line elevation
and crossfall for a new road, but at
some point you need to tie it into
infrastructure that already exists
and work around things like utilities
or pipes in your way. Thats hard
for a computer to understand. That
interpolation or fddle factor, which
is traditionally handled in the feld, is
something we need to work through
as an industry.
Are there benefts of BIM that
are unique to infrastructure
projects?
DIPPOLD: Defnitely. Water
infrastructure is a good example
because there are a lot of fnite aspects
Cory Dippold
The Engineer Perspective on BIM Infrastructure
Professional Engineer and Associate, Hatch Mott MacDonald
Interview: Thought Leaders
SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 58www.construction.com
to it. We built an internal content library
of all the pipes, fttings, valves, pumps
and equipment that we need, to design
any wet infrastructure, and the benefts
were receiving are enormous. Now
our process engineers, structural
engineers and designers are in the
same room working on the same
model, and we can lay out a complete
facility, with better tolerances on lay
lengths and fttings, much more quickly
and accurately than ever before.
What are the unique cultural
issues related to using BIM on
infrastructure work?
DIPPOLD: The cultural challenges
are probably the most signifcant
part of moving from a traditional
project delivery approach to a BIM
project delivery approach. And
to be clear, we dont look at BIM
as a 3D model. We look at BIM as
the future of our project delivery
protocol. Its not Lets build a model
and create a drawing. It is about
using this integrated technology
to combine our analytical systems
with our production systems, with
our project context evaluation, with
our reporting systems, with our risk
identifcation and beyond. Getting
people to work in that integrated
environment can be a challenge, but
were fnding that our younger staff
are rapidly picking it up.
How do you get other frms on
a project team to use BIM in the
ways that you want them to?
DIPPOLD: Right now frms have
widely varying degrees of
profciency across project types.
One might be extremely profcient
in tunneling BIM work, but have no
ability to do bridge work. We are
trying to do our due diligence up
front to make sure we partner with
compatible frms on a given project
that can actively engage with us
and add value to the team.
What are your thoughts
about the future of BIM for
infrastructure?
DIPPOLD: The concept of the
drawingas weve come to know
itis going the way of the dodo. It is
only a matter of time. On some of our
design-build highway work, we dont
deliver drawings to the contractor;
they simply prefer electronic
deliverables. We still make record
drawings for the owner, but I see
the trend of model deliverables
getting stronger. We intend to deliver
digital models and stand behind the
data. Although infrastructure lags
behind commercial work, it is
absolutely coming.
we dont look at BIM as a 3-D model. We
look at BIM as the future of our project
delivery protocol We intend to deliver
digital models and stand behind the data.
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President, AGC of America and
Senior Vice President, Clark Construction Group LLC
Interview: Thought Leaders
McGraw-Hill Construction 59www.construction.com SmartMarket Report
Joe Jarboe has been with Clark
since 1982. He has headed corporate
estimating/preconstruction activities
and evaluated potential opportunities
nationwide for more than 20 years.
BIM adoption for infrastructure
is behind adoption on vertical
building projects. Whats your
perspective on that?
JARBOE: Its a somewhat natural
progression. With buildings, some
of the biggest benefts are clash
detection and spatial coordination
of very complex systems in close
proximity to each other, which are
very diffcult to accurately coordinate
with traditional 2D drawings. This
gave a lot of people very early
incentive to begin using BIM to
avoid problems. Then mechanical
and structural subcontractors found
they could fabricate directly from
the model, which improved their
quality and cost. It also expedited the
schedule. And now we have CIM, civil
information modeling.
Are there benefts of BIM that
are unique to infrastructure
projects?
JARBOE: Yes, there are several,
actually. CIM offers many of
the same confict identifcation
attributes, such as identifying and
resolving utility conficts or other
unknown underground conditions.
These are important because they
have a signifcant impact on traffc
movements helping resolve issues
once construction has begun. Its
also useful information downstream
for both quantity analysis and work
sequencing. And once you have
that, uploading that data into your
feld equipment will lend itself to
GPS surveying and automated
machine data systems to increase
your feld effciency and reduce
potential safety issues.
What are the unique cultural
issues related to using BIM on
infrastructure work?
JARBOE: One issue that has to be dealt
with is the willingness of the owners
and designers to share their electronic
designs. Liability concerns are the
biggest impediment in this area. We
went through that on the building side
too, but its an issue that needs to be
resolved. Also, contracts are design-
bid-build in many of these types of
projects, and they really havent started
to use alternative procurement. There
hasnt been the incentive yet. These are
cultural changes on the procurement
side. Once you do that, and people start
to use it and see the beneft of it, theyll
become adopters.
How do you get other companies
on a project team to use BIM in
the ways that you want them to?
JARBOE: Its a bit simpler on the
civil side because you dont have as
many trade contractors. Youve got
a lot of self-perform people who do
all of their own work with their own
equipment. Its not like the building
side where a signifcant portion is
subcontracted.
What are your thoughts
about the future of BIM
for infrastructure?
JARBOE: Ill give you an example.
A contractor I know is using state-
standard details theyve entered
into their computer. When a job
requires a retaining wall, they draw
two dots and a straight line, and the
computer generates that wall based
on the design criteria and the state
standard details. They add in the
grades, and it makes the wall smaller
or larger, whatever is required. It also
generates all the quantities. The same
thing is true with trenching. Theres
also modeling of bridges where you
locate the post-tension strands and
elevations for your embeds. In all
these areas, things will really start to
speed up.
Joseph H. Jarboe
The General Contractor Perspective
on BIM Infrastructure
One issue that has to be dealt with is the
willingness of the owners and designers
to share their electronic designs.
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SmartMarket Report McGraw-Hill Construction 60 www.construction.com
McGraw-Hill Construction (MHC)
conducted the 2011 Infrastructure
Building Information Modeling Study to
assess the overall incidence of the use of
BIM on infrastructure projects and gauge
the value that organizations perceive
they are receiving by implementing
BIM on such projects. The research was
conducted through an Internet survey
industry professionals between October
25 and November 22, 2011. The 466
respondents sample size benchmarks at
a 95% confdence interval with a margin
of error of less than 5%.
The sample for the study was
provided by fve associations plus
players in MHCs proprietary databases.
The respondents were screened based
on their involvement in infrastructure
projects. All respondents were required
to have worked on infrastructure projects
Infrastructure Building Information Modeling Research
Methodology:
in the past year to be considered valid.
The following are the types of
infrastructure projects conducted by
the respondents, by the percentage of
responses for each type:
Roads and Bridges: 24%
Water (Drinking / Waste / Stormwater):
21%
Other Transportation (Aviation, Rail,
Transit): 17%
Public Parks and Recreation: 10%
Energy: 9%
Dams, Levees, Inland Waterways:
8%
Hazardous / Solid Waste: 7%
Other: 4%
In the data analysis, respondents are
classifed as BIM users or non-users
based on their use of BIM on
infrastructure projects.
Non-Users: State that they
are not using BIM or dont
understand BIM.
Users: State that they are
creating models, using but not
creating models, or creating and
analyzing models.
In the analysis, the respondents were
grouped into three categories:
A/E Firms: All respondents who work
at architecture, engineering or A/E
frms (Note that at times responses
from architects and engineers are
analyzed individually.)
Contractors: Construction managers,
general contractors, speciality
contractors and fabricators
Owners: Owners and all remaining
respondents, such as consultants
and educators n
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Respondents by Firm Type
Meth_Chart
Specialty Contractor
Owner
Fabricator
GC
Architect
Engineering
Other (Includes A/E Firms and Owners
Allocated to the A/E and Owner
Categories in the Charts and Analysis)
8% 9%
35%
12%
22%
7%
7%
A/E Contractors Owners
Small
16%
40%
29%
44%
Small to Medium
33%
27%
Large
9%
42%
18% 18%
9%
16%
A/E Firm Billings Contractor/Owner Organization Revenue Organization Size
< $500,000
$500,000 to < $5 Million
$5 Million to < $10 Million
$10 Million and Over
< $25 Million
$25 Million to < $100 Million
$100 Million to < $500 Million
$500 Million and Over
Small Organization
Small to Medium
Medium to Large
Large Organization
Source: McGraw-Hill Construction, 2012
Distribution by Size of Organization
Meth_Table_Chart
Medium to Large
SmartMarket Report
Produced with support from
Resources
Organizations, websites and publications that can help you
get smarter about using BIM for infrastructure projects.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
The authors wish to thank our premier partners, Autodesk and the
American Society of Civil Engineers, for helping us bring this information
to the market. Specifcally, we would like to thank Phil Bernstein and
Catherine Palmer of Autodesk for their long-standing support of McGraw-
Hill Construction research. Additionally, we would like to thank Pat Natale
and Jim Rossberg at ASCE.
We would also like to thank Jay Mezher of Parsons Brinckerhoff and Eric
Cylwik of Sundt Construction for their insight and expertise. We appreciate
the participation of Robert Bank of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; Cory
Dippold of Hatch Mott MacDonald; Richard Humphrey of Autodesk; Joseph
Jarboe of Clark Construction; and Deke Smith of the National Institute of
Building Sciences who agreed to be interviewed and offered their insights.
Finally, we would also like to thank the frms that provided information
about their infrastructure projects and use of BIM in the case studies, as
well as for their assistance in helping us secure images to supplement their
project information.
Partners
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of America: agc.org
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U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: www.usace.army.mil
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Highway Administration: fhwa.dot.gov
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Main Website: construction.com
Research & Analytics:
construction.com/market_research
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