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Prabal Talukdar
Associate Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Delhi E-mail: p


Convection Boundary Condition

Heat conduction at the surface in a selected direction = Heat convection at the surface in the same direction

In writing the equations for convection boundary conditions, we have selected the direction of heat transfer to be the positive x-direction at both surfaces. But those expressions are equally applicable when h h heat tt transfer f is i i in th the opposite it direction

Radiative Boundary Condition

Heat conduction Radiation exchange at the surface in a = at the surface in the selected direction same direction


Interface Boundary Conditions

The boundary conditions at an interface are based on the requirements that (1) two bodies in contact must have the same temperature at the h area of f contact and (2) an interface (which is a surface) cannot store any y energy, gy, and thus the heat flux on the two sides of an interface must be the same


Generalized Boundary Conditions

Heattransfer tothesurface inallmodes

Heattransfer fromthesurface inallmodes


Solution of steady heat conduction equation 1D Cartesian

Differential Equation: Boundary Condition:



= 0

T (0 ) = T 1
Applying the boundary condition to the general solution:
T(x ) = C1x + C 2

dT = C1 dx

Integrate again:

T (x ) = C 1 x + C 2
G General lS Solution l ti A bit Arbitrary C Constants t t

T1 = C1.0 + C 2

C 2 = T1


It cannot involve x or T(x) after the boundary condition is applied.

Differential Equation:
dT d ) = 0 (r dr dr

Differential Equation:
d dT (r 2 ) = 0 dr dr

r dT = C1 dr

r2 dT = C1 dr

Divide by r (r 0) :
C dT = 1 dr r

Divide by r2 (r 0) :
C dT = 1 dr r2

Integrate again:
T (r ) = C 1 ln r + C 2

Integrate again:
T (r ) = C1 + C2 r

which is the general solution.

During steady one-dimensional heat conduction in a spherical (or cylindrical) container, the total rate of heat transfer remains constant, but the heat flux decreases with i increasing i radius. di


Heat Generation
Under steady conditions, the energy balance for this solid can be expressed as

Rateofheat transfer fromsolid (TsT) hAs(

Vg hA s

Rateofenergy generationwithin thesolid &V g

Ts = T +

A large plane wall of thickness 2L (As = 2Awall and V = 2LAwall), ) A long solid cylinder of radius ro (As = 2ro L and V= r2o L), A solid sphere of radius r0 (As = 4r2o L and V= 4/3r3o )

Ts = T +

Vg hA s


Under steady y conditions, , the entire heat generated within the medium is conducted through the outer surface of the cylinder. cylinder
The heat g generated within this inner cylinder y must be equal to the heat conducted through the outer surface of this inner cylinder

Integrating from r = 0 where T(0) = T0 to r = ro where T(ro) = Ts yields


The maximum temperature in a symmetrical solid with uniform heat generation occurs at its center


1-D 1 D plane wall


Energy balance
Rate of heat transfer into the wall Rate of heat transfer out of the wall
Q in Q out =

Rate of change of energy gy of the wall

dE wall dt

dEwall =0 dt

for steady operation

Therefore, the rate of heat transfer into the wall must be equal to the rate of heat transfer out of it. In other words, the rate of heat transfer through the wall must be constant, Qcond, wall constant. Fouriers law of heat conduction for the wall
L x=0

Q cond, wall = kA

dT dx

Qcond,wall dx d = kAdT


constant t t

Temp profile
Q cond , wall = kA

T1 T2 L


The rate of heat conduction through a plane wall is proportional to the average thermal conductivity, conductivity the wall area, and the temperature difference, but is inversely proportional i l to the h wall ll thickness hi k


Temp profile
1 D steady state heat conduction equation Integrate the above equation twice
Boundary conditions

T (x ) = C 1 x + C 2

d dT (k )=0 dx dx

T(0) = Ts,1


T ( L) = Ts, 2

Apply the condition at x = 0 and L

Ts,1 = C2
Ts,2 = C1L + C2 = C1L + Ts,1
Ts,2 Ts,1 L = C1

T(x) =

Ts,2 Ts,1 L

x + Ts,1

Thermal Resistance Concept

Analogy between thermal and electrical resistance concepts

T1 T2 & Q cond, wall = R wall

R wall =


L kA


Convection Resistance
Q convection
Q convection i

= hA s ( T s T )
= Ts T R convection

1 R convection = hA s



Radiation Resistance
4 Q rad = A s ( T s4 T surr ) = h rad A s ( T s T surr ) =

T s T surr R rad



1 h rad A s


Combined convection and radiation

h rad = Q rad 2 = ( T s2 + T surr )( T s + T surr ) A s ( T s T surr )
= h conv + h rad


h combined


Possible when T = Tsurr

The thermal resistance network for heat transfer through a plane wall subjected to convection on both sides, and the electrical analogy


Network subjected to convection on both sides

Rate of heat convection into = the wall

Rate of heat conduction through the wall

Rate of heat convection from the wall

T1 T2 = h2 A(T2 T 2 ) Q = h1 A(T1 T1 ) = kA L

T 1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T 2 = = 1 h1 A L kA 1 h2 A

T 1 T1 T1 T2 T2 T 2 = = R conv ,1 R wall R conv , 2

Adding g the numerators and denominators yields y


T 1 T 2 R total


R total = R conv ,1 + R wall + R conv , 2 =


L 1 1 + + h1 A kA h2 A


T1 T 2 Rtotal


The ratio of the temperature drop to the thermal resistance across any layer is constant, and thus the temperature drop across any layer l i is proportional ti lt to th the thermal resistance of the layer. The larger the resistance, the larger the temperature drop. p

T = Q R


This indicates that the temperature drop across any layer is equal to the rate of heat transfer times the thermal resistance across that layer

It is sometimes convenient to express heat transfer through a medium in an analogous manner to Newtons law of cooling as

& = T Q R total


UA =
The surface temperature of the wall can be determined using the thermal resistance concept, but by taking the surface at which the temperature is to be determined as one of the terminal surfaces.

1 R total

T1 T1 T1 T1 Q= = 1 Rconv,1 h1 A