3.

B Employment and Earnings
Table 3.B2.—Total earnings and wages and salaries in employment covered by selected social insurance programs,
1946–96
[In billions]

Year

Total
earnings
includ- Wage and salary
ing disbursements
selfemploy
Total Civilian
ed

1946....... $148.7
1947....... 159.0
1948....... 176.4
1949....... 171.1

Wages and salaries in employment
covered by retirement programs

Total 1
Amount

Percent

OASDHI 2

Railroad 2

Federal
Civil
Service

Wages and salaries in civilian employment
covered by other programs
Net
earnings
State
of selfand employed
local
covered
governby
ment OASDHI

Workers’
compensation 3

Unemployment insurance
Total
Amount

Percent

State
programs 4

Railroad 2

Amount

Percent

$112.0
123.1
135.5
134.8

$104.2
118.9
131.4
130.3

$93.6
107.5
118.5
117.8

83.6
87.3
87.4
87.4

$79.0
92.1
101.9
99.6

$4.9
5.1
5.5
5.1

$5.2
4.8
4.5
5.7

$5.5
5.4
6.6
7.3

...
...
...
...

$78.3
91.7
101.6
99.0

75.2
77.2
77.4
76.0

$73.4
86.6
96.1
93.9

$4.9
5.1
5.5
5.1

$80.0
91.5
105.0
103.0

76.8
76.9
79.9
79.0

1950.......
1951.......
1952.......
1953.......
1954.......

185.7
214.5
228.7
240.4
238.0

147.0
171.3
185.4
198.6
196.8

141.7
162.3
174.6
188.0
186.5

128.9
152.6
164.7
177.4
176.7

87.6
89.1
88.9
89.3
89.8

109.4
131.2
135.2
154.0
153.2

5.3
6.1
6.2
6.1
5.6

6.1
6.4
6.9
7.0
7.0

8.0
8.9
9.8
10.7
11.6

...
16.3
16.3
16.9
16.7

108.4
123.8
134.7
145.3
142.7

76.5
76.3
77.2
77.3
76.6

103.1
118.7
127.8
139.2
137.1

5.3
6.1
6.9
6.1
5.6

113.5
131.5
141.5
153.5
153.0

80.1
81.0
81.0
81.6
82.0

1955.......
1956.......
1957.......
1958.......
1959.......

254.5
272.3
284.5
288.2
306.6

211.7
228.2
239.3
240.5
258.9

201.5
218.3
229.1
230.2
247.0

193.3
210.7
227.9
229.6
247.0

91.3
92.0
95.3
95.5
95.4

169.4
186.2
203.1
205.6
222.5

5.8
6.2
6.2
5.7
5.8

8.3
9.6
10.1
11.1
11.4

12.4
13.7
15.5
17.0
18.6

24.4
28.1
28.2
28.3
29.7

154.4
170.7
179.8
177.1
192.7

76.7
78.3
78.5
77.0
78.1

148.6
164.5
173.6
171.4
186.9

5.8
6.2
6.2
5.7
5.8

168.0
181.5
190.0
192.0
209.0

83.4
83.2
83.0
83.4
84.1

1960.......
1961.......
1962.......
1963.......
1964.......

319.1
328.0
357.9
363.9
388.6

271.9
279.5
298.0
313.4
336.1

261.5
268.9
286.8
301.9
323.7

260.6
266.9
284.8
298.8
321.1

95.8
95.5
95.6
95.3
95.5

234.3
238.8
255.7
268.2
288.4

5.6
5.3
5.4
5.3
5.4

12.0
13.2
13.6
14.6
15.8

20.3
22.2
24.1
26.1
28.5

29.1
29.9
31.3
31.6
33.5

200.6
204.3
218.0
228.4
244.6

76.8
76.0
76.1
75.7
75.6

195.0
199.0
212.6
223.0
239.2

5.6
5.3
5.4
5.4
5.4

220.0
226.5
241.0
254.0
272.0

84.1
84.2
84.0
84.1
84.0

1965.......
1966.......
1967.......
1968.......
1969.......

418.9
458.9
488.2
533.6
582.7

362.0
398.4
427.0
470.0
515.7

349.1
382.3
409.9
450.7
496.0

342.9
382.2
411.3
451.8
495.9

94.7
95.9
96.3
96.2
96.2

308.6
344.2
374.7
410.5
452.5

5.6
5.7
5.7
5.9
6.1

16.3
17.6
19.1
21.5
23.1

31.3
34.7
39.2
42.7
47.0

40.2
43.9
44.7
46.3
46.9

263.5
289.6
307.7
337.2
371.8

75.5
75.8
75.1
74.9
75.0

257.9
283.9
302.0
331.3
365.7

5.6
5.7
5.7
5.9
6.1

292.0
321.0
342.0
376.0
414.0

83.6
83.8
83.4
83.4
83.5

1970.......
1971.......
1972.......
1973.......
1974.......

614.9
650.3
712.0
796.5
854.5

548.7
580.9
635.2
702.7
765.7

528.0
560.2
613.5
680.5
742.9

528.3
555.3
615.6
682.2
744.9

96.3
95.6
96.9
97.1
97.3

480.0
505.2
559.1
619.8
678.1

6.3
6.6
7.2
7.9
8.4

26.3
27.8
29.8
31.7
34.3

53.1
57.4
66.1
74.0
81.0

47.9
50.6
54.5
62.8
65.6

389.0
417.8
499.5
558.8
621.5

73.7
74.6
81.5
82.2
83.7

382.7
411.2
492.3
550.9
613.1

6.3
6.6
7.2
7.9
8.4

441.0
469.0
512.0
578.0
637.0

83.6
83.8
83.5
85.0
85.8

1975....... 896.4
1976....... 984.0
1977....... 1,087.3
1978....... 1,222.3
1979....... 1,369.7

806.4
889.9
983.8
1,105.1
1,237.6

783.3
866.4
959.5
1,078.4
1,210.6

783.2
869.0
966.7
1,079.9
1,207.1

97.1
97.7
98.3
97.7
97.5

717.2
797.9
887.5
999.8
1,117.9

8.3
9.3
10.0
10.9
12.5

36.8
38.6
41.6
44.7
48.3

86.8
98.9
105.5
112.2
118.5

70.4
76.8
80.6
88.1
99.8

693.8
768.4
853.5
1,055.4
1,187.8

88.6
88.7
89.0
97.9
98.1

685.5
759.1
843.5
1,044.5
1,175.3

8.3
9.3
10.0
10.9
12.5

678.0
750.0
827.0
922.0
1,041.0

86.6
86.6
86.2
85.5
86.0

1980.......
1981.......
1982.......
1983.......
1984.......

1,552.7
1,697.2
1,716.6
1,867.1
2,073.3

1,372.0
1,510.4
1,586.1
1,676.2
1,838.8

1,342.3
1,475.3
1,546.3
1,633.9
1,793.8

1,318.1
1,444.7
1,529.3
1,613.6
1,774.8

96.0
95.6
96.4
96.3
96.5

1,229.2
1,347.6
1,423.3
1,502.1
1,665.0

13.1
13.4
12.7
12.5
13.2

52.3
56.3
59.1
62.2
64.8

122.9
135.2
142.6
153.5
162.3

97.7
98.9
98.6
109.3
117.2

1,308.8
1,432.6
1,500.1
1,583.2
1,739.2

97.1
97.1
97.0
96.9
97.0

1,290.0
1,419.5
1,487.4
1,570.7
1,726.0

13.1
13.4
12.7
12.5
13.2

1,136.0
1,247.0
1,301.0
1,382.0
1,516.0

84.3
84.5
84.1
84.6
84.5

1985.......
1986.......
1987.......
1988.......
1989.......

2,231.3
2,376.8
2,573.1
2,767.3
2,933.7

1,975.4
2,094.8
2,249.7
2,443.0
2,586.4

1,927.5
2,044.8
2,197.5
2,389.8
2,531.4

1,896.1
2,011.2
2,157.5
2,342.6
2,492.7

96.0
96.0
95.9
95.9
96.4

1,782.3
1,896.2
2,042.0
2,224.7
2,367.8

12.8
12.2
11.9
12.0
12.1

70.1
72.4
74.2
79.6
83.4

175.3
189.9
203.0
218.8
235.0

130.0
139.0
155.8
208.1
210.0

1,870.0
1,982.9
2,045.5
2,205.1
2,336.2

97.0
97.0
93.1
92.3
92.3

1,857.2
1,970.7
2,033.6
2,193.1
2,324.1

12.8
12.2
11.9
12.0
12.1

1,618.0
1,725.0
1,845.0
1,997.4
2,115.0

83.9
84.3
84.0
84.0
83.6

1990.......
1991.......
1992 5 ....
1993 5 ....
1994 5 ....

3,109.7
3,190.5
3,410.2
3,540.4
3,712.3

2,742.8
2,827.6
2,986.4
3,089.6
3,240.7

2,685.3
2,765.9
2,925.4
3,031.4
3,185.8

2,636.4
2,694.7
2,850.7
2,964.6
3,102.1

96.1
95.3
95.5
96.0
95.7

2,510.0
2,565.0
2,711.0
2,821.0
2,954.0

11.8
12.0
12.7
12.4
12.5

87.6
92.3
98.0
100.8
102.9

238.8
271.4
296.3
307.0
320.3

193.8
195.5
205.8
212.0
221.5

2,491.6
2,548.9
2,697.3
2,797.9
2,946.2

92.8
92.2
92.2
92.3
92.5

2,479.8
2,536.9
2,684.6
2,785.5
2,933.7

11.8
12.0
12.7
12.4
12.5

2,442.0
2,552.9
2,699.6
2,802.1
2,948.7

90.9
92.3
92.3
92.4
92.6

1995 5 .... 3,918.5
1996....... 4,152.8

3,429.5
3,632.5

3,373.3
3,576.0

3,294.0
3,489.4

96.0
96.1

3,140.0
3,328.0

12.6
12.8

104.3
107.2

341.4
364.5

234.9
254.2

3,129.2
3,327.4

92.8
93.0

3,116.6
3,314.6

12.6
12.8

3,122.6

92.6

6

(6)

(6)

1 Beginning

in 1953, total adjusted for duplication of payrolls covered by both OASDHI and state and local government retirement systems. Beginning in 1984, total
adjusted for duplication of payrolls covered by both OASDHI and the federal Civil Service Retirement System.
2 Taxable plus nontaxable wages and salaries in employment covered by the programs. (For taxable earnings under OASDHI, see table 4.B1.) Beginning in 1957,
OASDHI estimates include military wages. Beginning in 1975, OASDHI estimates include a small amount of taxable wages in Amercian business in U.S territories and
possessions.
3 Excludes railroad employees.
4 Taxable plus nontaxable wages.
5 Revised data.
6 Data not available.
Source: Annual data on total earnings and wages and salaries from the Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, reported in the Survey of Current
Business. Payrolls covered by state and local government retirement programs estimated by the Social Security Administration. Data for other programs based on
reports of administrative agencies.
CONTACT: Martynas Ycas (202) 358-6215 for further information.

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2000

121

3.B Employment and Earnings
Table 3.B3.—Federal minimum wage rates under the Fair Labor Standards Act and average hourly earnings and average
weekly hours for production workers in manufacturing, 1938–99
Average for production workers
in manufacturing 1

Minimum hourly wage for workers
in jobs first covered by—
1966 and subsequent
amendments 4
Nonfarm

Farm

Gross hourly
earnings

Weekly
hours

...
...
...

...
...
...

...
...
...

$0.62
.63
1.02

35.6
37.7
43.5

.75
1.00

...
...

...
...

...
...

1.44
1.95

40.5
40.4

September 3:
1961 .................................................................................................
1963 .................................................................................................
1964 .................................................................................................
1965 .................................................................................................

1.15
1.25
1.25
1.25

$1.00
1.00
1.15
1.25

...
...
...
...

...
...
...
...

2.32
2.46
2.53
2.61

39.8
40.5
40.7
41.2

February 1:
1967 .................................................................................................
1968 .................................................................................................
1969 .................................................................................................
1970 .................................................................................................
1971 .................................................................................................

1.40
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60

1.40
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.60

$1.00
1.15
1.30
1.45
1.60

$1.00
1.15
1.30
1.30
1.30

2.83
3.01
3.19
3.36
3.57

40.6
40.7
40.6
39.8
39.9

May 1, 1974 .........................................................................................

2.00

2.00

1.90

1.60

4.42

40.0

January 1:
1975 .................................................................................................
1976 .................................................................................................
1977 .................................................................................................
1978 .................................................................................................
1979 .................................................................................................

2.10
2.30
2.30
2.65
2.90

2.10
2.30
2.30
2.65
2.90

2.00
2.20
2.30
2.65
2.90

1.80
2.00
2.20
2.65
2.90

4.83
5.22
5.68
6.17
6.70

39.5
40.1
40.3
40.4
40.2

1980 .................................................................................................
1981 .................................................................................................
1982 .................................................................................................
1983 .................................................................................................
1984 .................................................................................................

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.10
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

7.27
7.99
8.49
8.83
9.19

39.7
39.8
38.9
40.1
40.7

1985 .................................................................................................
1986 .................................................................................................
1987 .................................................................................................
1988 .................................................................................................
1989 .................................................................................................

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35
3.35

9.54
9.73
9.91
10.19
10.48

40.5
40.7
41.0
41.1
41.0

April 1:
1990 5 ..............................................................................................
1991 5 ...............................................................................................
1992 5 ...............................................................................................
1993 5 ...............................................................................................
1994 .................................................................................................
1995 .................................................................................................

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

3.80
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25
4.25

10.83
11.18
11.46
11.74
12.07
12.37

40.8
40.7
41.0
41.4
42.0
41.6

October 1, 1996 5.................................................................................
September 1, 1997 5 ............................................................................
1998 5 ...............................................................................................
1999 5 ...............................................................................................

4.75
5.15
5.15
5.15

4.75
5.15
5.15
5.15

4.75
5.15
5.15
5.15

4.75
5.15
5.15
5.15

12.77
13.17
13.49
13.91

41.6
42.0
41.7
41.7

1938 Act 2

1961
amendments 3

October 24:
1938 .................................................................................................
1939 .................................................................................................
1945 .................................................................................................

$0.25
.30
.40

January 25, 1950 .................................................................................
March 1, 1956 ......................................................................................

Effective date

1 For year in which minimum wage rate changes were effective.
2 The 1938 Act was applicable generally to employees engaged in interstate commerce or in the production of goods for interstate commerce.
3 The 1961 amendments extended coverage primarily to employees in large retail and service trades as well as local transit, construction, and

gasoline service station
employees.
4 The 1966 amendments extended coverage to state and local government employees of hospitals, nursing homes, and schools, and to employees of laundries, dry
cleaners, large hotels and motels, restaurants, and farms. Subsequent amendments extended coverage to the remaining federal, state, and local employees not protected
in 1966, to certain workers in retail and service trades previously exempted, and to certain domestic workers in private household employment.
5 A training wage may be paid for a period of 90 days to an employee who has not attained age 20. The training wage was $3.35 per hour effective Apr. 1, 1990 and
$3.61 per hour effective Apr. 1, 1991, through Mar. 31, 1993. Effective Oct. 1, 1996, the training wage is $4.25 per hour.

CONTACT: Greg Diez (410) 965-0153 for further information.

122

Social Security Bulletin • Annual Statistical Supplement • 2000